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Protestantism is one of the major groupings within Christianity and has been defined as “any Western Christian who is not an adherent of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church,” though some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant as well.
Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with a total of 800 million to 1 billion adherents worldwide or about 37% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals sola scriptura). The “five solae” summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.
Protestantism began in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer the remission of the temporal punishment of sins to their purchasers.
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