Outline of Protestantism

Protestantism is one of the major groupings within Christianity, and has been defined as “any Western Christian who is not an adherent of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church,” though some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant as well.

Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with a total of 800 million to 1 billion adherents worldwide or about 37% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals sola scriptura). The “five solae” summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.

Religion, Jesus, Baptism, Faith, Fish, Wave, CrossReligion Jesus Baptism Faith Fish Wave Cross

Religious symbols: Fish Wave , and Cross

Theology

History

Protestant denominational families

Major branches and movements within Protestantism

Major branches and movements within Protestantism.

  • Adventism – Christian movement which began in the 19th century, in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States. Most Adventists today are Seventh-day Adventists
      • Branch Davidians
      • Seventh-Day Adventists – Christian movement devoted to propagating the Second Coming (Advent) of Jesus Christ. Established in the 1840s, this church views the Bible as its source of inspiration revealed through the Prophecies of Ellen Gould White (1827-1915).
  • Anabaptism – Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, although some consider Anabaptism to be a distinct movement from Protestantism. Anabaptists practice adult baptism as well as a belief in pacifism. (Anabaptist)
    • Amish – Amish, sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches.
    • Hutterites – communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
    • Mennonites – an ethno-religious group based around the church communities of the Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons (1496–1561), who, through his writings, articulated and thereby formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders.
    • River Brethren
    • Schwarzenau Brethren – originated in Germany, the outcome of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th century.
    • Shakers – The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, are a millenarian nontrinitarian restorationist Christian sect founded circa 1747 in England and then organized in the United States in the 1780s.
  • Continuing Anglican movement – number of Christian churches in various countries that profess Anglicanism while remaining outside the Anglican Communion.

Protestant culture

Catholic responses

Ecumenism

Spread and demographics

Main article: Protestants by country
See also: Christianity by country