Religion and Science
Science and religion are complex social and cultural endeavors that vary across cultures and have changed over time. Most scientific and technical innovations prior to the scientific revolution were achieved by societies organized by religious traditions.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been cited by modern historians of science and religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures. Even though the ancient and medieval worlds did not have conceptions resembling the modern understandings of “science” and “religion“, certain elements of these modern ideas are found throughout history. It was in the 19th century when the phrases “religion and science” or “science and religion” first emerged in literature. This coincided with the refining of “science“, from the studies of “natural philosophy“, and “religion” as distinct concepts in the last few centuries partly due to professionalization of the sciences, the Protestant Reformation, colonization, and globalization. Since then, many have characterized the relationship as either conflict, harmony, complexity, or mutual independence.