The missionary ship Duff arriving at Tahiti, c. 1797

Christian Mission

Christian Mission A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, to carry on evangelism or other activities, such as educational or hospital work. Sometimes individuals are sent and are called missionaries. When groups are sent, they are...

Germantown Mennonite Meetinghouse, built 1770

Mennonites

Mennonites The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland. Through his writings, Simons articulated and formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders. The early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the...

A map of the worldwide scope of the Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren (“Schwarzenau New Baptists”) that was organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany, as a melding of the Radical Pietist and Anabaptist movements. The denomination holds the New Testament as its only creed. Historically, the church has taken a strong stance for nonresistance or pacifism—it is one of the...

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Peace Churches

Peace Churches Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers specifically only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); and Mennonites, including the Amish, Old Order Mennonite, and Conservative Mennonites—and has been used since the first conference of the peace churches in...

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Progressive Christianity

Progressive Christianity Progressive Christianity is a “post-liberal movement” within Christianity “that seeks to reform the faith via the insights of post-modernism and a reclaiming of the truth beyond the verifiable historicity and factuality of the passages in the Bible by affirming the truths within the stories that may not have actually...

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Free Christians

Free Christians The term Free Christian refers specifically to individual members and whole congregations within the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches. Free Christians do not subscribe to any officially written doctrinal or creedal statement, as found in other churches. Because of their connections with British Unitarianism, they...

Fresco of Christ Pantocrator on the ceiling of Karanlık Kilise Churches of Göreme.

Cappadocian Fathers

Cappadocian Fathers The Cappadocian Fathers, also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are Basil the Great (330–379), who was bishop of Caesarea; Basil’s younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335 – c. 395), who was bishop of Nyssa; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329–389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople. The Cappadocia region, in modern-day Turkey, was an early site of Christian activity,...

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Glossary of Islam

Glossary of Islam The following glossary of Islam consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in Arabic or Persian language. The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in...

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Dhimmi

What is Dhimmi? A dhimmi (ذمي‎ ḏimmī, collectively أهل الذمة ahl ul-ḏimmah/dhimmah “the people of the dhimma“) is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection. The word literally means “protected person”, referring to the state’s obligation under sharia to protect the individual’s life, property, and freedom of religion, in exchange for loyalty to the...

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Consultation and Submission

Consultation and submission Question: When a consultation committee makes a decision but the decision seems to contradict some of the participants’ minds and opinions, then what would be the best attitude for them to take moving forward? Submission – to use the dictionary definition – would be fulfilling the rulings, determinations,...

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Hadith of Gabriel

Hadith of Gabriel In Sunni Islam, the Hadith of Gabriel (ḥadīth Jibrīl) is the single most important hadith (report on the words and actions of the Prophet Muhammad), of the last prophet of Islam. Its narrative contains the best summary of the core of Islam: Islām (إسلام), which is described with the “Five Pillars of Islam,” Īmān (إيمان), which is described with the...

Lord Robert Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey.

Pakistan Movement

Pakistan Movement The Pakistan Movement or Tahrik-e-Pakistan (تحریکِ پاکستان‎ ; Taḥrīk-i-Pākistān) was a political movement in the first half of the 20th century that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of British India. It was connected to the need for self-determination for Muslims under British rule at the...

Saint Catherine's Monastery on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

People of The Book

People of The Book People of the Book or People of the Scripture (أهل الكتاب‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term which refers to Jews, Christians and Sabians and is sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians. It is also used in Judaism to refer to the Jewish people and by members...

The grave of Aminah; it was destroyed in 1998 by the Saudi Arabian government.

Wahhabism

Wahhabism Wahhabism (الوهابية‎, al-Wahhābiyah) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as “ultraconservative”, “far-right” “austere”, “fundamentalist”, or “puritan(ical)”; as an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship” (tawhid) by devotees; and as a “deviant sectarian movement”, “vile sect” and a distortion...

Ittiba’u ila salafush shalih

Salafi Movement

Salafi Movement The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, Salafiya and Salafism, is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism. It had roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement that originated in the Najd region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The name derives from advocating a...

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Day of Resurrection

Day of Resurrection In Islamic eschatology, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة‎ “the Day of Resurrection“) or Yawm ad-Din (يوم الدين‎ “the Day of Judgement“) is believed to be God’s final assessment of humanity. It is called several names throughout the Qur’an, such as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, and the Hour (al-sā’ah). The sequence...

Iman

What is Iman? Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer’s faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān. The term iman has been delineated in both the Quran and hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and...

A modern view of the approximate area where the gathering at Saqifah occurred

Saqifah

Saqifah Saqifah Bani Sa’idah (سَقِيفَة بَنِي سَاعِدَة‎, Saqīfah Banī Sāʿdah), commonly known as simply Saqifah, (ٱلسَّقِيفَة‎ as-Saqīfah), was a roofed building in Medina used by the Banu Sa’idah clan of the Banu Khazraj tribe. Saqifah is significant as the site where, after Muhammad‘s death, some of his companions gathered and pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, electing him as the first Caliph. Gathering...

Courtyard of Mustansiriya Medical College

Caliphate

Caliphate A caliphate (خِلَافَة‎ khilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَلِيفَة‎ khalīfah), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Ummah (Muslim community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three...

Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)

Ulama

Ulama In Islam, the ulama (علماء‎ ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, “scholar”, literally “the learned ones”, also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and uluma [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.  By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions (madrasas). The Quran and sunnah (hadith) are the scriptural sources of traditional Islamic law....

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