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Ritual Purity in Islam

Ritual Purity in Islam Purity (طهارة‎, ṭaharah) is an essential aspect of Islam. It is the opposite of najāsa, the state of being ritually impure. It is achieved by first removing physical impurities (for example, urine) from the body, and then removing ritual impurity by means of wudu (usually) or ghusl. In the Quran The Quran says: “In...

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Wudu

Wudu Wudu (الوضوء‎ al-wuḍūʼ ) is the Islamic procedure for cleansing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification, or ablution. Wudu consists of washing the face, arms, then wiping the head and finally washing the feet with water. Wudu is an important part of ritual purity in Islam. It is governed by fiqh (Islamic...

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Jewish State

Jewish State Jewish state is a characterization of the nation state of Israel as a sovereign homeland of Jewish people. Modern Israel came into existence on 14 May 1948 as the homeland for the Jewish people. It was also defined in its declaration of independence as a “Jewish state,” a term that appeared in the...

Though not subject to the Inquisition, Jews who refused to convert or leave Spain were called heretics and could be burned to death on a stake

Apostasy in Judaism

Apostasy in Judaism In Judaism, apostasy refers to the rejection of Judaism and possible defection to another religion by a Jew. The term apostasy is derived from Ancient Greek: ἀποστάτης, meaning “rebellious” (מורד) Equivalent expressions for apostate in Hebrew that are used by rabbinical scholars include mumar (מומר, literally “the one that was changed”), poshea Yisrael (פושע ישראל, literally,...

Kaunas pogrom in German-occupied Lithuania, June 1941

Persecution of Jews

Persecution of Jews Persecution of Jews has been a major part of Jewish history, prompting shifting waves of refugees throughout the diaspora communities. Historically, what began as a conflict over religious beliefs evolved into a systematic policy of political, economic, and social isolation; exclusion, degradation and attempted annihilation. It did not begin in the Nazi...

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Trinity: Jewish Objections

Trinity: Jewish Objections TRINITY: The fundamental dogma of Christianity; the concept of the union in one God of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three infinite persons. It was the Nicene Council and even more especially the Athanasian Creed that first gave the dogma its definite formulation: “And the Catholick...

Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.

Jews

Jews Jews (יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-2 Yehudim) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic...

Martin Luther King, Jr. Model of an American Patriot

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Christian minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. King is best known for advancing...

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Greek Orthodox Church

Greek Orthodox Church The name Greek Orthodox Church (Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and the New Testament. Its history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and...

Acts 1:1–2a from the 14th century Minuscule 223

Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles (Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire. Acts and the Gospel...

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856)

Christianity in the 1st Century

Christianity in the 1st Century Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity, from the start of the ministry of Jesus (c. 27–29 AD) to the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles (c. 100) (and is thus also known as the Apostolic Age). Early Christianity developed out of the eschatological ministry of Jesus. Subsequent to Jesus’ death,...

Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa

Oriental Orthodox Churches

Oriental Orthodox Churches The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Christian churches adhering to Miaphysite Christology and theology, with a total of 60 million members worldwide. As some of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Oriental Orthodox Churches have played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan...

Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake. Luyken, Jan (1685), Dirk Willems (picture).

Anabaptism

Anabaptism Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- “re-” and βαπτισμός “baptism“,) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. The movement is generally seen as an offshoot of Protestantism, although this view has been challenged by some Anabaptists. Approximately 4 million Anabaptists live in the world today with adherents scattered...

An Eastern Roman mosaic showing a basilica with towers, mounted with Christian crosses, 5th century, Louvre.

History of Early Christianity

History of Early Christianity The history of early Christianity covers the Apostolic Age (1st century, CE) and the Ante-Nicene Period (c.100-325 CE), to the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE. The earliest followers of Jesus comprised an apocalyptic, Second Temple Jewish sect of Jewish Christians. Eventually, the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers led to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion,...

The Westminster Assembly, which saw disputes on Church polity in England (Victorian history painting by John Rogers Herbert).

Puritans

Puritans The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and needed to become more Protestant. Puritanism played a significant role in English history, especially during the Protectorate. Puritans were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English...

A mosaic of Blessed Paul VI is seen in the Trinity Dome at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington. He visited the shrine as an archbishop in 1960. (CNS photo/Tyler Orsburn)

Canonization

Canonization Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint, specifically, the official act of a Christian communion declaring a person worthy of public cult and entering his or her name in the canon, or authorized list, of that communion’s recognized saints. Catholic Church Canonization is a papal declaration that the Catholic faithful may venerate a...

Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow. View from southeast

Russian Orthodox Church

Russian Orthodox Church The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus’. The ROC, as well as its primate, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of...

Ruins of the monastery of Mar Eliya (Iraq) before 2014, when it was destroyed by ISIS

Church of The East

Church of the East The Church of the East, also called the Persian Church or Nestorian Church, was a Christian church of the East Syriac rite established c. 410. It was one of three major branches of Eastern Christianity that arose from the Christological controversies of the 5th and 6th centuries, alongside the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches....

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima is one of the largest Marian shrines in the world.

Marian Apparition

Marian Apparition A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is often named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same...

Al Azhar Mosque Cairo Egypt Africa North Africa

Ismailism

Ismailism Ismailism ( الإسماعيلية‎, al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah; اسماعیلیان‎, Esmâ’īliyân) is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Imam Ismaʻil ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (imām) to Ja’far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Ismaʻil, as the true Imām. Ismailism rose at one point to...

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