What Is Taoism?

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Taoism or Daoism is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (; Dào; literally: “the Way”, also romanized as Dao). The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern, and substance of everything that exists. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Still, it is similar in the sense that it is a teaching about the various disciplines for achieving “perfection” by becoming one with the unplanned rhythms of the universe called “the way” or “dao”. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (action without intention), “naturalness”, simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: 慈 “compassion“, 儉 “frugality“, and 不敢為天下先 “humility“.

The roots of Taoism go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists) and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the I Ching, which expounds on a philosophical system about keeping human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature. The “Legalist” Shen Buhai (c. 400 – c. 337 BCE) may also have been a significant influence, expounding a realpolitik of Wu Wei. The Tao Te Ching, a compact book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (老子Lǎozǐ; Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu), is widely considered the keystone work of the Taoist tradition, together with the later writings of Zhuangzi.

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Articles on Taoism

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History of Taoism

Taoist beliefs and the theories

Taoist practices

Taoist Texts

Influential Taoists