Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to their religious tradition. Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts are divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired.

The Analects

The Analects The Analects (論語; Lúnyǔ; literally “Selected Sayings”[1], also known as the Analects of Confucius, is an ancient Chinese book composed of a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius’s followers. It is believed to have been written...

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Development of the Hebrew Bible canon

Development of the Hebrew Bible canon Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.[1] Modern scholarship suggests that the most recently written are the books of Jonah, Lamentations, and Daniel, all of which may have been composed as late as the second century BCE....

Luther’s Canon

Luther’s Canon Luther’s canon is the biblical canon attributed to Martin Luther, which has influenced Protestants since the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. While the Lutheran Confessions[1] specifically did not define a canon, it is widely regarded as the canon of the Lutheran Church. It differs from the 1546 Roman Catholic canon of the Council...

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Mosaic Authorship

Mosaic Authorship Mosaic authorship is the Jewish, Christian and Muslim tradition that Moses was the author of the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.[1] The books do not name any author, as authorship was not considered important by the society that produced them,[2][3] and it was only after Jews came into intense...

Biblical Manuscript

Biblical Manuscript A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. Biblical manuscripts vary in size from tiny scrolls containing individual verses of the Jewish scriptures to huge polyglot codices (multi-lingual books) containing both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the New Testament, as well as extracanonical works. The study of biblical manuscripts is important...

Biblical Archaeology

Biblical Archaeology Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of Judaism and...

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Biblical Inerrancy

Biblical Inerrancy Biblical inerrancy is the belief that the Bible “is without error or fault in all its teaching”;[1] or, at least, that “Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact”.[2] Some equate inerrancy with biblical infallibility; others do not.[3][4] The belief is of particular significance within parts of evangelicalism, where it is...

Development of the New Testament canon

Development of the New Testament canon The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books[1] that includes the Canonical Gospels, Acts, letters of the Apostles, and Revelation. The books...

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New Commandment

New Commandment The New Commandment is a term used in Christianity to describe Jesus’s commandment to “love one another” which, according to the Bible, was given as part of the final instructions to his disciples after the Last Supper had ended,[1] and after Judas Iscariot had departed in John 13:30.[2][3][4] Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me:...

The Bible And Violence

The Bible And Violence The Hebrew Bible and the New Testament contain narratives, poetry, and instruction describing, recording, encouraging, commanding, condemning, rewarding, punishing and regulating violent actions by God, individuals, groups, governments, and nation-states. Among the violent acts included are war, human sacrifice, animal sacrifice, murder, rape, and criminal punishment.[1] The...

Primary Texts Of Kabbalah

Primary Texts Of Kabbalah The primary texts of Kabbalah were allegedly once part of an ongoing oral tradition. The written texts are obscure and difficult for readers who are unfamiliar with Jewish spirituality which assumes extensive knowledge of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), Midrash (Jewish hermeneutic tradition) and Halakha (practical Jewish law). The Torah For kabbalists, ten utterances in Genesis with which...

Criticism Of The Bible

Criticism Of The Bible Criticism of the Bible is an interdisciplinary field of study concerning the factual accuracy of the claims and the moral tenability of the commandments made in the Bible, the holy book of Christianity. Long considered to be the perfect word of God by devout Christians (and...

Ethics In The Bible

Ethics In The Bible Ethics in the Bible refers to the system(s) or theory(ies) produced by the study, interpretation, and evaluation of biblical morals, (including the moral code, standards, principles, behaviors, conscience, values, rules of conduct, or beliefs concerned with good and evil and right and wrong), that are found...

Women In The Bible

Women In The Bible The women in the Bible are rarely mentioned by name, with named women representing only 5.5 to 8 percent of the total of all named characters, male and female. This suggests that women were not usually in the forefront of public life. Those women that are named,...

Women In The Quran

Women In The Quran Women in the Qur’an are important characters and subjects of discussion in the stories and morals taught in Islam. Some of the women in the Qur’an are portrayed in a positive light, while others are condemned for their actions. Mary (Maryam – مريم) is the only woman mentioned in...

Prophecy

What Is A Prophecy? A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god. Such messages typically involve inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of divine will concerning the prophet’s social world and events to come (compare divine knowledge). All known ancient...

Quranic Arguments About The Resurrection

Quranic Arguments About The Resurrection Although scientific findings like the second law of thermodynamics show that existence is gradually disappearing, and even a collision of two planets could destroy the universe. If existence began with a big bang, why should it not end with another big bang or collision? Existence...

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The Resurrection In Revealed Scriptures

The Resurrection In Revealed Scriptures The Qur’an, the last heavenly Scriptures, has four main themes: God’s Existence and Unity, the Resurrection and afterlife, Prophethood, and worship and justice. It emphasizes the Resurrection far more than all previous Scriptures. Despite the distortion it has suffered, the Torah still has vers­es concerning...

Your Creation And Your Resurrection Are As But A Single Soul

Your Creation And Your Resurrection Are As But A Single Soul What does the verse: Your creation and your resurrection are as but a single soul (31:28) mean?60 Answer: That the Divine Power can create and resurrect humanity as easily as it creates and resurrects one person. For example, by virtue...

Tree of Life (Biblical)

Tree of Life (Biblical) The tree of life (עֵץ הַחַיִּים, Etz haChayim)[1] is a term mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the Book of Genesis, the tree of life is first described in chapter 2, verse 9 as being “in the midst of the Garden of Eden” with the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (עֵץ...

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