Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to their religious tradition. Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts are divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired.

Kalpasutra

Jain Agam Literature

Jain Agam Literature Background Lord Mahavir‘s preaching was orally complied by his disciples into many texts. This knowledge was orally transferred from acharyas (gurus) to the disciples over the course of about one thousand years. In olden times, monks strictly followed the five great vows of Jainism. Even religious scriptures...

Jain Scriptures

Jain Scriptures

Jain Scriptures Jain scriptures are called Agamas. They are believed to have been verbally transmitted by the oral tradition from one generation to the next, much like the ancient Buddhist and Hindu texts. The Jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal, and the teachings of their first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha were their scriptures...

An early 19th-century Dasam Granth manuscript frontispiece (British Library MS Or.6298)

Dasam Granth

Dasam Granth The Dasam Granth (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ, lit. “the Book of the Tenth Guru”), also called the Dasven Pādśāh kā Graṅth, (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ), is a holy book in Sikhism with compositions attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is a controversial religious text considered to be the second scripture by some Sikhs, and of disputed authority by other Sikhs. The standard edition...

A folio from an early 19th-century manuscript copy of the Guru Granth Sahib (Schoyen Collection Norway)

Sikh Scriptures

Sikh Scriptures There are two primary sources of Sikh Scriptures: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth—literally, The First Volume—and the two terms are often used synonymously. Here, however, the Ādi Granth refers to the version of...

Page from a copy of the Nihon Shoki, early Heian period

Nihon Shoki

Nihon Shoki The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀), sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the Nihongi (日本紀, “Japanese Chronicles”). It is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, and has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most...

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics (四書五經; Sìshū Wǔjīng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC. Four Books The Four Books (四書; Sìshū) are Chinese classic texts illustrating the core value and belief systems in Confucianism. They were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as general introduction to Confucian thought,...

Tang dynasty Zhuangzi manuscript preserved in Japan (1930s replica)

Zhuangzi

Zhuangzi (book) The Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzŭ) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Taoist sage. Named for its traditional author, “Master Zhuang” (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Taoism, along with the Tao...

The Satanic Bible

The Satanic Bible

The Satanic Bible The Satanic Bible is a collection of essays, observations, and rituals published by Anton LaVey in 1969. It is the central religious text of LaVeyan Satanism, and is considered the foundation of its philosophy and dogma. It has been described as the most important document to influence contemporary Satanism. Though The Satanic...

Gurū Granth Sāhib – the primary scripture of Sikhism

Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib ‘Guru Granth Sahib ji’ (ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion. The Adi Granth, its first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru Arjan...

An illuminated Quran, Ottoman era, Turkey, 19th century

Qur’an

Qur’an The Qur’ān, (Quran, Koran, or Al-Qur’an; literally “the recitation”) is the central religious text or Scripture of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind and consider the text in its original Arabic to be verbatim the word of Allah, revealed to Muhammad...

Saul, the shade of Samuel and the witch of Endor;

Witchcraft and Divination in The Hebrew Bible

Witchcraft and Divination in The Hebrew Bible Various forms of witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible are mentioned in a generally disapproving tone. The Masoretic Text of the Torah forbids: nahash;[1][2] as a noun, nahash translates as snake, and as a verb it literally translates as hissing. The verb form can be extended to mean whispering. onan;[1][2] onan literally translates as clouds, possibly referring to nephomancy....

genesis

Allegorical Interpretations of Genesis

Allegorical Interpretations of Genesis Allegorical interpretations of Genesis are readings of the biblical Book of Genesis that treat elements of the narrative as symbols or types, rather than viewing them literally as recording historical events. Either way, Judaism and most sects of Christianity treat Genesis as canonical scripture, and believers generally regard it as having spiritual significance....

Biblical Literalist Chronology

Biblical Literalist Chronology Biblical literalist chronology is the attempt to correlate the theological dates used in the Bible with the real chronology of actual events. The Bible measures time from the date of Creation (years are measured as anno mundi, or AM, meaning Year of the World), but there is no agreement on when this...

Genesis Flood Narrative

Genesis Flood Narrative The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Tanakh (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis). The story tells of God’s decision to return the Earth to its pre-creation state of watery chaos and then remake it in a reversal of creation. The narrative...

The Quran and Scientific Discoveries

The Quran and Scientific Discoveries The formation and the developmental phases of an embryo in the uterus What the Quran reveals about the formation and the developmental phases of an embryo in the uterus is striking: O mankind! if you have a doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created...

Fantasy Dramatic Tsunami Water City Apocalypse

Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa’ah

Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa’ah The Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 41 : Chapter 1 : … Book 41, Number 6881: Zainab bint Jahsh reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) got up from sleep saying: There...

Trials and Fierce Battles (Kitab Al-Fitan Wa Al-Malahim)

Trials and Fierce Battles (Kitab Al-Fitan Wa Al-Malahim) Chapter 1579: Fitan and their predictions Book 30, Number 4228: Narrated Hudhaifah: The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) stood among us (to give an address) and he left out nothing that would happen up to the last hour without telling it. Some remembered...

Typography Catholic Christ Christian Muslim Islam

Great Commandment

Great Commandment The Great Commandment (or Greatest Commandment)[1] is a name used in the New Testament to describe the first of two commandments cited by Jesus in Matthew 22:35–40, Mark 12:28–34, and Luke 10:27a. In Mark, when asked “which is the great commandment in the law?”, the Greek New Testament reports that Jesus answered, “Hear, O Israel! The Lord Our...

Citadel Hill Amman Jordan Vacations Travel

Development of The Christian Biblical Canon

Development of The Christian Biblical Canon The Christian biblical canons are the books particular Christian denominations regard as divinely inspired and which constitute a The Bible. For mainstream Pauline Christianity (growing from proto-orthodox Christianity in pre-Nicene times) which books constituted the Christian biblical canons of both the Old and New Testament...

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