Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets

Muhammad’s Views on Christians

Muhammad’s Views on Christians Muhammad’s views on Christians were demonstrated through his interactions with them. He interacted with Christians while in Mecca, and sent a force to fight the Byzantines at the Battle of Mu’tah. Before the First Revelations At the age of nine, or according to some sources twelve, Muhammad went to...

List of Biographies of Muhammad

List of Biographies of Muhammad This is a chronological listing of biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ranging from the earliest traditional writers to modern times. Earliest biographers The following is a list of the earliest known Hadith collectors who specialized in collecting Sīra and Maghāzī reports. 7th and early 8th century (1st century of Hijra)...

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions. Arabian polytheism, the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, was based on veneration of deities and spirits. Worship was directed to various gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt, at local shrines and temples such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Deities were venerated and invoked through a...

Mawlid

Mawlid The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds.[5] The Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588,[6] known as Mevlid Kandil.[7] The term Mawlid is also used in some parts...

Muhammad’s First Revelation

Muhammad’s First Revelation Muhammad’s revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the archangel Jibrīl, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Quran. The event took place in a cave called Hira, located on the mountain Jabal an-Nour, near Mecca. According...

Migration to Abyssinia

Migration to Abyssinia The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة‎, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة‎ hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad’s first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca. They sought refuge in the Christian Kingdom of Aksum, present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia (formerly referred to as Abyssinia, an...

Buraq

Buraq Al-Burāq (البُراق‎ al-Burāq “lightning”) is a magical equid in Islamic mythology: a creature from the heavens that transported the prophets. Most notably hadith literature recounts that Buraq carried the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem and back during the Isra and Mi’raj or ‘Night Journey’.[1] Etymology The Encyclopaedia of Islam,...

Criticism of Muhammad

Criticism of Muhammad Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his unwarranted appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures,[6] vituperation of the Jewish faith,[6]and proclaiming himself as “the last prophet” without performing any miracle nor showing any personal requirement demanded in the Hebrew Bible to distinguish a true...

Judaism’s Views on Muhammad

Judaism’s Views on Muhammad Very few texts in Judaism refer to or take note of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Those that do, generally reject Muhammad’s proclamation of receiving divine revelations from God and label him instead as a false prophet. Background In Judaism, prophets were seen as having attained the...

Jesus Christ

Medieval Christian Views on Muhammad

Medieval Christian Views on Muhammad During the Early Middle Ages, Christendom largely viewed Islam as a Christological heresy and Muhammad as a false prophet. By the Late Middle Ages, Islam was more typically grouped with heathenism, and Muhammad was viewed as inspired by the devil. A more relaxed or benign...

Depictions of Muhammad

Depictions of Muhammad The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad in Islam has been a contentious issue. Oral and written descriptions of Muhammad are readily accepted by all traditions of Islam, but there is disagreement about visual depictions.[1][2] The Quran does not explicitly forbid images of Muhammad, but there are a few hadith (supplemental teachings) which have explicitly prohibited Muslims from...

Possessions of Muhammad

Possessions of Muhammad Possessions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad are known with unique names. Weapons Swords Muhammad had nine swords. He got 2 through inheritance, 3 as booty and some from being given as gifts. Eight of the nine swords of Muhammed are in the Topkapi Palace, Turkey. The 9th one is in...

Muhammad’s Wives

Muhammad’s Wives Muhammad’s wives, or the wives of Muhammad, were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muslims use the term prominently before or after referring to them as a sign of respect. The term “Mothers of the Believers” is applied to them which is derived from Quran 33:6: “The Prophet is closer to the...

Early Social Changes Under Islam

Early Social Changes Under Islam Many social changes took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammad’s mission and the rule of his four immediate successors who established the Rashidun Caliphate. A number of historians stated that changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women improved on what was present in existing Arab society.[1][2][3][4][5][6] For example, according to Bernard...

Early Muslim Conquests

Early Muslim Conquests The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية‎, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests[4] and early Islamic conquests[5] began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of...

Rashidun

Rashidun The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, “the Rashidun“, is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammadﷺ, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of “Rightly Guided...

Succession to Muhammad

Succession to Muhammad The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history. A few months before his death, Muhammad delivered a sermon at Ghadir Khumm where he announced that Ali ibn Abi Talib would be his successor.[1] After the sermon, Muhammad ordered the Muslims to pledge allegiance to...

Farewell Pilgrimage

Farewell Pilgrimage The Farewell Pilgrimage (حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH). The Muslims observed every move, act, and gesture of Muhammad on this occasion, and everything that he did became a precedent to be followed by Muslims all over the world. Beginning...

The Event of Ghadir Khumm

The Event of Ghadir Khumm The event of Ghadir Khumm (واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632. While returning from the Hajj pilgrimage, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and gave a long sermon. In the sermon, Muhammad announced...

Expedition to Tabuk

Expedition to Tabuk The Expedition to Tabuk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, AH 8. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000[1] north to Tabuk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia. A well-known town about 800 kilometers north of Madinah to which...

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