Outline of Philosophers

A philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors. Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought. A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science. The term “philosopher” comes from the Ancient Greek philosophos meaning “lover of wisdom“. The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras (6th century BC).

In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, social theory, and political philosophy. A philosopher may also be one who worked in the humanities or other sciences which have since split from philosophy proper over the centuries, such as the arts, history, economics, sociology, psychology, linguistics, anthropology, theology, and politics.

The School of Athens by Rafael - closeup

The School of Athens by Rafael – detail

Philosophers related articles

We have collected some of the well-known philosophers so you can enjoy reading their life stories, thoughts, and contributions resolving existential questions about the human condition.


Lists of Philosophers

Al-FarabiAl-GhazaliAl-KindiAlan WattsAlbert CamusAlbert EinsteinAlfred North WhiteheadAristotleArthur SchopenhauerAuguste ComteAugustine of HippoAvicennaAyn RandBaruch SpinozaBertrand RussellBlaise PascalConfuciusDavid Hume – Desiderius Erasmus – Emanuel SwedenborgÉmile DurkheimEpicurusEpikorosFakhr al-Din al-RaziFrancis BaconFriedrich NietzscheGalileo GalileiGautama BuddhaGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich HegelGottfried Wilhelm LeibnizHermes TrismegistusHippocratesHossein NasrIbn ArabiIbn KhaldunIbn Rushd (Averroes)Ibn TufailImmanuel KantJean Jacques RousseauJean-Paul SartreJeremy BenthamJohn DeweyJohn LockeJohn SearleJohn Stuart MillJohn WesleyJoseph SmithKarl MarxKarl PopperKhalil GibranLao TzuLaoziLeo TolstoyM. Fethullah GülenMaimonidesMarcus AureliusMenciusMohandas Karamchand GandhiMuhammad IqbalNiccolò MachiavelliNoam ChomskyOmar KhayyamPlatoPythagorasRené DescartesRumiShahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash SuhrawardiSigmund FreudSocratesStephen HawkingSun TzuTaoThomas AquinasThomas CarlyleThomas Henry HuxleyThomas HobbesXenophanesZoroaster