Lists of Philosophers

The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large we only selected famous philosophers. To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of their last name.

We have collected some of the well-known philosophers so you can enjoy reading their life stories, thoughts, and contributions resolving existential questions about the human condition.

Art School Of Athens by Raphaël

Art School Of Athens by Raphaël

 

Lists of Philosophers

A

  • Adi Shankara, circa. 7th Century
  • Nicola Abbagnano, (1901–1990)
  • Muhammad Abduh, (1849–1905)
  • Peter Abelard, (1079–1142)
  • Abhinavagupta, (fl. c. 975 – 1025)
  • Isaac ben Judah Abravanel, (1437–1508)
  • Judah ben Isaac Abravanel, (1460?-1535?)
  • Marilyn McCord Adams, (born 1943)
  • Robert Adams, (born 1937)
  • Joseph Addison, (1672–1719)
  • Adelard of Bath, (12th century)
  • Alfred Adler, (1870–1937)
  • Theodor Adorno, (1903–1969)
  • Aenesidemus, (1st century BC)
  • Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, (1839–1897)
  • Rodolphus Agricola, (1443–1485)
  • Agrippa the Sceptic, (1st/2nd century)
  • Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, (1436–1535)
  • Pierre d’Ailly, (1350–1420)
  • Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, (1890–1963)
  • Hans Albert, (born 1921)
  • Albert of Saxony, (c. 1316–1390)
  • Albertus Magnus (or Saint Albert the Great or Albert of Cologne), (1193?-1280)
  • Joseph Albo, (1380–1444)
  • Alcinous, (2nd century)
  • Alcmaeon of Croton, (5th century BC)
  • Virgil Aldrich, (1903–1998)
  • Yohanan ben Isaac Alemanno, (1433–1504)
  • Alexander of Aphrodisias, (2nd century)
  • Alexander of Hales, (d. 1245)
  • Samuel Alexander, (1859–1938)
  • Dante Alighieri, (1265–1321)
  • Antonio Aliotta, (1881–1964)
  • Archibald Alison, (1757–1839)
  • Abd al-Jabiri, (born 1935)
  • Abdullah al-Qasemi, (1907–1996)
  • William Alston, (1921–2009)
  • Johannes Althusius, (1557–1638)
  • Louis Althusser, (1918–1990)
  • Robert Alyngton, (d. 1398)
  • Bhimrao Ambedkar, (1891–1956)
  • Ambrose, (c. 340–397)
  • Abu’l Hasan Muhammad Ibn Yusuf al-‘Amiri, (d. 992)
  • Ammonius Hermiae, (5th century)
  • Ammonius Saccas, (3rd century)
  • André-Marie Ampère, (1775–1836)
  • Anton Wilhelm Amo, (1703 – c. 1759)
  • Anaxagoras, (died 462 BC)
  • Anaxarchus, (fl. 340 BC)
  • Anaximander, (c. 610 BC-c. 546 BC)
  • Anaximenes of Miletus
  • Alan Ross Anderson, (1925–1973)
  • John Anderson, (1893–1962)
  • Ando Shoeki, (1703–1762)
  • Andronicus of Rhodes, (c. 70 BC)
  • Peter Annet, (1693–1769)
  • Anniceris, (fl. 300 BC)
  • G. E. M. Anscombe, (1918–2001)
  • Anselm, (1034–1109)
  • Antiochus of Ascalon, (c. 130 – 68 BC)
  • Antiphon, (480–403 BC)
  • Antisthenes, (c. 444–365)
  • Karl-Otto Apel, (1922–2017)
  • Apuleius, (c. 123 – c. 180)
  • Thomas Aquinas, (1225–1274)
  • Isaac ben Moses Arama, (1420–1494)
  • Arcesilaus, (316–241 BC)
  • Archytas, (428–347 BC)
  • Roberto Ardigò, (1828–1920)
  • Hannah Arendt, (1906–1975)
  • Aristippus of Cyrene, (c. 435–366 BC)
  • Aristo of Chios, (fl. 250 BC)
  • Aristotle, (384 BC-322 BC)
  • Arius, (256–336)
  • Mohammed Arkoun, (born 1928)
  • Jacobus Arminius, (1560–1609)
  • David Malet Armstrong, (born 1926)
  • Antoine Arnauld, (1612–1694)
  • Matthew Arnold, (1822–1888)
  • Kenneth Arrow, (1921–2017)
  • Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, (1894–1975)
  • Mary Astell, (1666–1731)
  • Athanasius of Alexandria, (298–373)
  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale, (1920–2003)
  • Gwenaëlle Aubry, (born 1971)
  • Augustine of Hippo, (354–430)
  • Marcus Aurelius, (121–180)
  • Peter Aureol, (c. 1280–1322)
  • Sri Aurobindo, (1872–1950)
  • John Austin, (1790–1859)
  • John Langshaw Austin, (1911–1960)
  • Richard Avenarius, (1843–1896)
  • Ibn Rushd (Averroes), (1126–1198)
  • Avicenna (or Ibn Sina), (980–1037)
  • Alfred Jules Ayer, (1910–1989)

B

  • Franz Xaver von Baader, (1765–1841)
  • Charles Babbage, (1791–1871)
  • Gaston Bachelard, (1884–1962)
  • Johann Jakob Bachofen, (1815–1887)
  • Francis Bacon, (1561–1626)
  • Roger Bacon, (1214–1294)
  • Alain Badiou, (born 1937)
  • Hibat Allah Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi, (1080–1165)
  • Annette Baier, (born 1929)
  • Kurt Baier, (1917–2010)
  • Alexander Bain, (1818–1903)
  • Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, (1741–1792)
  • Lynne Rudder Baker, (born 1944)
  • Mikhail Bakhtin, (1895–1975)
  • Mikhail Bakunin, (1814–1876)
  • Arthur Balfour, (1848–1930)
  • John Balguy, (1686–1748)
  • Domingo Báñez, (1528–1604)
  • Antonio Banfi, (1886–1957)
  • Abraham bar Hiyya Ha-Nasi, (1070–1136)
  • Jonathan Barnes, (born 1942)
  • Brian Barry, (1936–2009)
  • Karl Barth, (1886–1968)
  • Roland Barthes, (1915–1980)
  • Bartolus de Saxoferrato, (1313–1357)
  • Johann Bernhard Basedow, (1724–1790)
  • Basilides, (c. 117–138)
  • Georges Bataille, (1897–1962)
  • Charles Batteux, (1713–1780)
  • Jean Baudrillard, (1929–2007)
  • Bruno Bauer, (1809–1882)
  • David Baumgardt, (1890–1963)
  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, (1714–1762)
  • Pierre Bayle, (1647–1706)
  • Monroe Beardsley, (1915–1985)
  • James Beattie, (1735–1803)
  • Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria, (1738–1794)
  • Jakob Sigismund Beck, (1761–1840)
  • Vissarion Belinsky, (1811–1848)
  • Robert Bellarmine, (1542–1621)
  • Nuel Belnap, (born 1930)
  • Gustave Belot, (1859–1929)
  • Friedrich Eduard Beneke, (1798–1854)
  • Walter Benjamin, (1892–1940)
  • Gottfried Benn, (1886–1956)
  • Jonathan Bennett, (born 1930)
  • Jeremy Bentham, (1748–1832)
  • Richard Bentley, (1662–1742)
  • Nikolai Berdyaev, (1874–1948)
  • Gustav Bergmann, (1906–1987)
  • Henri Bergson, (1859–1941)
  • George Berkeley, (1685–1753)
  • Isaiah Berlin, (1909–1997)
  • Claude Bernard, (1813–1878)
  • Bernard of Chartres, (d. 1130)
  • Bernard of Clairvaux, (1090–1153)
  • Bernard Silvestris (or Bernard of Tours), (1147–1178)
  • François Bernier, (1620–1688)
  • Eduard Bernstein, (1850–1932)
  • Ludwig von Bertalanffy, (1901–1972)
  • Bhartrhari, (5th century)
  • Gabriel Biel, (1425–1495)
  • Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, (1693–1750)
  • Alfred Binet, (1857–1911)
  • Ludwig Binswanger, (1881–1966)
  • Max Black, (1909–1988)
  • Simon Blackburn, (born 1944)
  • William Blackstone, (1723–1780)
  • Hugh Blair, (1718–1800)
  • William Blake, (1757–1827)
  • Maurice Blanchot, (1907–2003)
  • Brand Blanshard, (1892–1987)
  • Blasius of Parma (or Biagio Pelacani da Parma), (1345–1416)
  • Ernst Bloch, (1885–1977)
  • Ned Block, (born 1942)
  • Maurice Blondel, (1861–1949)
  • Charles Blount, (1654–1693)
  • Norberto Bobbio, (1909–2004)
  • Jean Bodin, (1530–1596)
  • Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, (AD 480–524 or 525)
  • Boetius of Dacia, (c. 1240 – c. 1280)
  • Leonardo Boff, (born 1938)
  • Alexander Bogdanov, (1873–1928)
  • Jakob Böhme, (1575–1624)
  • David Bohm, (1917–1992)
  • Niels Bohr, (1885–1962)
  • Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, (1636–1711)
  • Samuel Bold, (1649–1737)
  • Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, (1678–1751)
  • Ludwig Boltzmann, (1844–1906)
  • Bernard Bolzano, (1781–1848)
  • Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald, (1754–1840)
  • Francesco Bonatelli, (1830–1911)
  • Bonaventure, (1221–1274)
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer, (1906–1945)
  • Charles Bonnet, (1720–1793)
  • George Boole, (1815–1864)
  • Bernard Bosanquet, (1848–1923)
  • Rudjer Boscovich, (1711–1787)
  • Pierre Bourdieu, (1930–2002)
  • Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, (1627–1704)
  • Christopher Jacob Boström, (1797–1866)
  • Henri de Boulainvilliers, (1658–1722)
  • Emile Boutroux, (1845–1921)
  • Oets Kolk Bouwsma, (1898–1978)
  • Borden Parker Bowne, (1847–1910)
  • Robert Boyle, (1627–1691)
  • F. H. Bradley, (1846–1924)
  • Thomas Bradwardine, (c. 1290–1349)
  • Richard-Bevan Braithwaite, (1900–1990)
  • Richard B. Brandt, (1910–1997)
  • Franz Brentano, (1838–1917)
  • Percy Williams Bridgman, (1882–1961)
  • Edgar S. Brightman, (1884–1953)
  • Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, (1755–1826)
  • Richard Brinkley, (fl. 1350–1373)
  • Radulphus Brito, (c. 1270 – c. 1320)
  • C. D. Broad, (1887–1971)
  • Thom Brooks, (born 1973)
  • Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, (1881–1966)
  • Thomas Brown, (1778–1820)
  • Peter Browne, (1666–1735)
  • Orestes Brownson, (1803–1876)
  • Emil Brunner, (1889–1966)
  • Giordano Bruno, (1548–1600)
  • Leon Brunschvicg, (1869–1944)
  • James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (1838–1922)
  • Martin Buber, (1878–1965)
  • Justus Buchler, (1914–1991)
  • Ludwig Büchner, (1824–1899)
  • Henry Thomas Buckle, (1821–1862)
  • Malcolm Budd, (born 1941)
  • Johann Franz Buddeus, (1667–1729)
  • Buddhaghosa, (5th century)
  • Claude Buffier, (1661–1737)
  • Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, (1707–1788)
  • Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov, (1871–1944)
  • Edward Bullough, (1880–1934)
  • Rudolf Bultmann, (1884–1976)
  • Jacob Burckhardt, (1818–1897)
  • Tyler Burge, (born 1946)
  • Jean Buridan, (1300–1358)
  • Edmund Burke, (1729–1797)
  • Walter Burley, (c. 1275 – c. 1345)
  • Myles Frederic Burnyeat, (born 1939)
  • Richard Burthogge, (1638–1704)
  • Joseph Butler, (1692–1752)
  • Samuel Butler, (1835–1902)

C

  • Pierre Jean George Cabanis, (1757–1808)
  • Amílcar Cabral, (1924–1973)
  • Edward Caird, (1835–1908)
  • Dorion Cairns, (1901–1973)
  • Thomas Cajetan, (1469–1534)
  • Calcidius, (4th century)
  • Mario Calderoni, (1879–1914)
  • Callicles, (late 5th century BC)
  • John Calvin, (1509–1564)
  • Tommaso Campanella, (1568–1639)
  • George Campbell, (1719–1796)
  • Norman Robert Campbell, (1880–1949)
  • Albert Camus, (1913–1960)
  • Georges Canguilhem, (1904–1995)
  • Georg Cantor, (1845–1918)
  • Johannes Capreolus, (1380–1444)
  • Claudia Card, (born 1940)
  • Gerolamo Cardano, (1501–1576)
  • Thomas Carlyle, (1795–1881)
  • Gershom Carmichael, (c. 1672–1729)
  • Rudolf Carnap, (1891–1970)
  • Carneades, (c. 214–129 BC)
  • Edward Carpenter, (1844–1929)
  • Lewis Carroll, (1832–1898)
  • Nancy Cartwright, (born 1943)
  • Carl Gustav Carus, (1789–1869)
  • Paul Carus, (1852–1919)
  • Antonio Caso, (1883–1946)
  • Ernst Cassirer, (1874–1945)
  • Hector-Neri Castañeda, (1924–1991)
  • Carlo Cattaneo, (1801–1869)
  • Stanley Cavell, (born 1926)
  • Margaret Cavendish, (1623–1673)
  • Celsus of Alexandria, (2nd century)
  • Michel de Certeau, (1925–1986)
  • Pyotr Chaadaev, (1794–1856)
  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain, (1855–1927)
  • Chanakya (or Kautilya), (321–296 BC)
  • Chang Hsueh-ch’eng (or Zhang Xuecheng), (1738–1801)
  • Chang Tsai (or Zhang Zai), (1020–1077)
  • William Ellery Channing, (1780–1842)
  • Walter Charleton, (1619–1707)
  • Pierre Charron, (1541–1603)
  • François-René de Chateaubriand, (1768–1848)
  • Walter Chatton, (1290–1343)
  • Ch’en Hsien-chang, (1428–1500)
  • Cheng Hao (or Ch’eng Ming-Tao), (1032–1085)
  • Cheng Hsuan (or Zheng Xuan), (127–200)
  • Cheng Yi (or Ch’eng Yi Chu’an), (1033–1107)
  • Nikolai Chernyshevsky, (1828–1889)
  • Chia Yi (or Jia Yi or Chia I), (201–169 BC)
  • Chiao Hung, (1540–1620)
  • Boris Chicherin, (1828–1904)
  • Ch’ien Mu, (1895–1990)
  • Chih Tun (or Zhi Dun), (314–366)
  • William Chillingworth, (1602–1644)
  • Roderick Chisholm, (1916–1999)
  • Noam Chomsky, (born 1928)
  • Tasan Chông Yagyong, (1762–1836)
  • Chou Tun-Yi (or Zhou Dunyi or Chou Lien-Hsi or Zhou Lianxi), (1017–1073)
  • Christine de Pizan, (c. 1365 – c. 1430)
  • Chrysippus, (279–207 BC)
  • Thomas Chubb, (1679–1747)
  • Alonzo Church, (1903–1995)
  • Patricia Churchland, (born 1943)
  • Paul Churchland, (born 1942)
  • Leon Chwistek, (1884–1944)
  • Cicero, (106 BC-43 BC)
  • August Cieszkowski, (1814–1894)
  • Emil Cioran, (1911–1995)
  • Hélène Cixous, (born 1937)
  • Clarembald of Arras, (1110–1187)
  • Samuel Clarke, (1675–1729)
  • Johannes Clauberg, (1622–1665)
  • Cleanthes, (301–232 BC)
  • Clement of Alexandria, (2nd-3rd century)
  • Catherine Clément, (born 1939)
  • Cleomedes, (2nd century)
  • William Kingdon Clifford, (1845–1879)
  • Catherine Trotter Cockburn, (1679–1749)
  • Lorraine Code, (born 1937)
  • G.A. Cohen, (1941–2009)
  • Hermann Cohen, (1842–1918)
  • L. Jonathan Cohen, (born 1923)
  • Morris Raphael Cohen, (1880–1947)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, (1772–1834)
  • John Colet, (1466–1519)
  • Lucio Colletti, (1924–2001)
  • Arthur Collier, (1680–1732)
  • R. G. Collingwood, (1889–1943)
  • Anthony Collins, (1676–1729)
  • John Comenius, (1592–1670)
  • Auguste Comte, (1798–1857)
  • Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, (1715–1780)
  • Marquis de Condorcet, (1743–1794)
  • Confucius, (551 BC – 479 BC)
  • Benjamin Constant, (1767–1830)
  • Lady Anne Finch Conway, (1631–1679)
  • Nicolaus Copernicus, (1473–1543)
  • Henry Corbin, (1903–1978)
  • Geraud de Cordemoy, (1626–1684)
  • Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, (1522–1570)
  • Uriel da Costa, (1585–1640)
  • Antoine Augustin Cournot, (1801–1877)
  • Victor Cousin, (1792–1867)
  • Louis Couturat, (1868–1914)
  • William Crathorn, (14th century)
  • Cratylus, (c. 400 BC)
  • James Edwin Creighton, (1861–1924)
  • Hasdai Crescas, (c. 1340–1410)
  • Benedetto Croce, (1866–1952)
  • Christian August Crusius, (1715–1775)
  • Ralph Cudworth, (1617–1688)
  • Nathaniel Culverwel, (1619–1651)
  • Richard Cumberland, (1631?-1718)
  • Cyrano de Bergerac, (1619–1655)
  • Heinrich Czolbe, (1819–1873)

D

  • Jean le Rond d’Alembert, (1717–1783)
  • Damascius, (c. 462–540)
  • Peter Damian, (c. 1007–1072)
  • Arthur Danto, (born 1924)
  • Charles Darwin, (1809–1882)
  • Erasmus Darwin, (1731–1802)
  • David of Dinant, (12th century)
  • David the Invincible, (late 6th century)
  • Donald Davidson, (1917–2003)
  • Jalal al-Din al-Dawani, (1426–1502)
  • Simone de Beauvoir, (1908–1986)
  • Bruno de Finetti, (1906–1985)
  • Joseph de Maistre, (1753–1821)
  • Paul de Man, (1919–1983)
  • Augustus De Morgan, (1806–1871)
  • Francesco de Sanctis, (1817–1883)
  • Richard Dedekind, (1831–1916)
  • Joseph Déjacque, (1821–1865)
  • Gilles Deleuze, (1925–1995)
  • Bernard Delfgaauw, (1912–1993)
  • Elijah Delmedigo, (1460–1497)
  • Giorgio Del Vecchio, (1878–1970)
  • Democritus, (460–370 BC)
  • Daniel Dennett, (born 1942)
  • Denys the Carthusian (or Denys de Leeuwis), (1402–1471)
  • Jacques Derrida, (1930–2004)
  • René Descartes, (1596–1650)
  • Robert Desgabets, (1610–1678)
  • Antoine Destutt de Tracy, (1754–1836)
  • Paul Deussen, (1845–1919)
  • Alejandro Deustua, (1849–1945)
  • John Dewey, (1859–1952)
  • Dharmakirti, (c. 7th century)
  • Albert Venn Dicey, (1835–1922)
  • Denis Diderot, (1713–1784)
  • Dietrich of Freiberg, (13th century)
  • Kenelm Digby, (1603–1665)
  • Dignaga, (c. 480–c. 540)
  • Wilhelm Dilthey, (1833–1911)
  • Hugo Dingler, (1881–1954)
  • Diodorus Cronus, (3rd century BC)
  • Diogenes Laërtius, (3rd century)
  • Diogenes of Apollonia, (c. 460 BC)
  • Diogenes of Babylon, (c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC)
  • Diogenes of Oenoanda, (2nd Century)
  • Diogenes the Cynic of Sinope, (412–323 BC)
  • Dogen Zenji (or Dōgen Kigen), (1200–1253)
  • Dong Zhongshu (or Tung Chung-shu), (c. 176–c. 104)
  • Herman Dooyeweerd, (1894–1977)
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky, (1821–1881)
  • Fred Dretske, (born 1932)
  • Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch, (1867–1941)
  • Emil du Bois-Reymond, (1818–1896)
  • Jean-Baptiste Dubos, (1670–1742)
  • Émilie du Châtelet, (1706–1749)
  • Guillaume du Vair, (1556–1621)
  • Curt Ducasse, (1881–1969)
  • Pierre Duhem, (1861–1916)
  • Eugen Dühring, (1833–1921)
  • Michael Dummett, (born 1925)
  • Duns Scotus, (c. 1266–1308)
  • Profiat Duran (or Efodi or Isaac ben Moses Levi), (c. 1349–c. 1414)
  • Simeon ben Zemah Duran (or Rashbaz), (1361–1444)
  • Durandus of St. Pourçain, (c. 1275–1334)
  • Will Durant, (1885–1981)
  • Émile Durkheim, (1858–1917)
  • Ronald Dworkin, (born 1931)

E

  • Jonathan Earle, (born 1970)
  • John Earman, (born 1942)
  • Johann Augustus Eberhard, (1739–1809)
  • Meister Eckhart, (1260–1327/8)
  • Umberto Eco, (born 1932)
  • Arthur Stanley Eddington, (1882–1944)
  • Jonathan Edwards, (1703–1758)
  • Paul Edwards, (1923–2004)
  • Christian von Ehrenfels, (1856–1932)
  • Albert Einstein, (1879–1955)
  • Mircea Eliade, (1907–1986)
  • Elias, (6th century)
  • George Eliot, (1819–1880)
  • T. S. Eliot, (1888–1965)
  • Elisabeth of Bohemia, (1618–1680)
  • Jon Elster, (born 1940)
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson, (1803–1882)
  • Empedocles, (490 BC–430 BC)
  • Friedrich Engels, (1820–1895)
  • Epicharmus, (c. 540–450 BC)
  • Epictetus, (AD 55–circa 135)
  • Epicurus, (341 BC–270 BC)
  • Epikoros,
  • Desiderius Erasmus, (1466–1536)
  • Johannes Scotus Eriugena, (c. 800–c. 880)
  • Rudolf Christoph Eucken, (1846–1926)
  • Eudoxus of Cnidus, (410 or 408 BC – 355 or 347 BC)
  • Eusebius of Caesarea, (264–339)
  • Gareth Evans, (1946–1980)

F

  • Emil Fackenheim, (1916–2003)
  • Thome H. Fang, (1899–1976)
  • Frantz Fanon, (1925–1961)
  • Al-Farabi, (870–950)
  • Michael Faraday, (1791–1867)
  • Michelangelo Fardella, (1646–1718)
  • Raimundo de Farias Brito, (1862–1917)
  • Austin Marsden Farrer, (1904–1968)
  • Fazang (or Fa-Tsang), (643–712)
  • Gustav Fechner, (1801–1887)
  • Andrew Feenberg, (born 1943)
  • Valentin Feldman, (1909–1942)
  • Joel Feinberg, (1926–2004)
  • José Pablo Feinmann, (born 1943)
  • François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, (1651–1715)
  • Feng Youlan, (1895–1990)
  • Adam Ferguson, (1723–1816)
  • Ann Ferguson, (born 1938)
  • Jose Ferrater-Mora, (1912–1991)
  • Luigi Ferri, (1826–1895)
  • James Frederick Ferrier, (1808–1864)
  • Ludwig Feuerbach, (1804–1872)
  • Paul Feyerabend, (1924–1994)
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte, (1762–1814)
  • Marsilio Ficino, (1433–1499)
  • Hartry Field, (born 1946)
  • Robert Filmer, (1588–1653)
  • Eugen Fink, (1905–1975)
  • John Finnis, (born 1940)
  • Kuno Fischer, (1824–1907)
  • Ronald Fisher, (1890–1962)
  • John Fiske, (1842–1901)
  • Pavel Aleksandrovich Florenskii, (1882–1937)
  • Georges Florovsky, (1893–1979)
  • Robert Fludd, (1574–1637)
  • Jerry Fodor, (born 1935)
  • Robert J. Fogelin, (born 1932)
  • Dagfinn Føllesdal, (born 1932)
  • Benjamin Fondane, (1898–1944)
  • Pedro da Fonseca, (1528–1599)
  • Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, (1657–1757)
  • Philippa Foot, (1920–2010)
  • David Fordyce, (1711–1751)
  • Michel Foucault, (1926–1984)
  • Simon Foucher, (1644–1696)
  • Alfred Fouillée, (1838–1922)
  • Charles Fourier, (1772–1837)
  • Francis of Marchia, (ca. 1290 – ca. 1344)
  • Francis of Meyronnes, (1285–1328)
  • Sebastian Franck, (1499–1542)
  • Jerome Frank, (1889–1957)
  • Erich Frank, (1883–1949)
  • Semën Liudvigovich Frank, (1877–1950)
  • William K. Frankena, (1908–1994)
  • Harry Gordon Frankfurt, (born 1929)
  • Benjamin Franklin, (1706–1790)
  • Michael Frede, (1940–2007)
  • Gottlob Frege, (1848–1925)
  • Hans Frei, (1922–1988)
  • Paulo Freire, (1921–1997)
  • Sigmund Freud, (1856–1939)
  • Jakob Friedrich Fries, (1773–1843)
  • Friedrich Fröbel, (1782–1852)
  • Erich Fromm, (1900–1980)
  • Marilyn Frye, (born 1941)
  • Fujiwara Seika, (1561–1619)
  • Lon L. Fuller, (1902–1978)
  • Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov, (1828–1906)

G

  • Gadadhara Bhattacharya, (1604–1709)
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer, (1900–2002)
  • Gaius, (110–180)
  • Galen, (131–201)
  • Galileo Galilei, (1564–1642)
  • Pasquale Galluppi, (1770–1846)
  • Rafael Gambra Ciudad, (1920–2004)
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, (1869–1948)
  • Gangeśa, (fl. c. 1325)
  • Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, (1887–1964)
  • Christian Garve, (1742–1798)
  • Pierre Gassendi, (1592–1655)
  • Gaunilo, (11th century)
  • Aksapada Gautama, (c. 2nd century BC)
  • Gautama Buddha (or Buddha), (ca. 563–483 BC)
  • David Gauthier, (born 1932)
  • John Gay, (1685–1732)
  • Peter Geach, (1919–2013)
  • Arnold Gehlen, (1904–1976)
  • Antonio Genovesi, (1712–1769)
  • Giovanni Gentile, (1875–1944)
  • Gerhard Gentzen, (1909–1945)
  • George of Trebizond, (1395–1484)
  • Gerard of Cremona, (1114–1187)
  • Gerard of Odo (or Gerald Odonis), (1290–1349)
  • Alexander Gerard, (1728–1795)
  • Gerbert of Aurillac (or Pope Silvester II), (c. 950–1003)
  • Giacinto Sigismondo Gerdil, (1718–1802)
  • Jean Gerson, (1363–1429)
  • Gersonides (or Levi ben Gershon), (1288–1344)
  • Edmund Gettier, (born 1927)
  • Arnold Geulincx, (1624–1669)
  • Alan Gewirth, (1912–2004)
  • Joseph Geyser, (1869–1948)
  • Al-Ghazali, (1058–1111)
  • Khalil Gibran
  • Allan Gibbard, (born 1942)
  • Edward Gibbon, (1737–1794)
  • Josiah Gibbs, (1839–1903)
  • Gilbert of Poitiers, (1070–1154)
  • Giles of Rome, (c. 1243–1316)
  • Étienne Gilson, (1884–1978)
  • Asher Ginsberg (or Ahad Ha’am), (1856–1927)
  • Vincenzo Gioberti, (1801–1852)
  • Joseph Glanvill, (1636–1680)
  • Jonathan Glover, (born 1941)
  • Arthur de Gobineau, (1816–1882)
  • Rudolph Goclenius, (1547–1628)
  • Kurt Gödel, (1906–1978)
  • Godfrey of Fontaines, (c. 1250–1309)
  • William Godwin, (1756–1836)
  • Johann Wolfgang Goethe, (1749–1832)
  • Friedrich Gogarten, (1887–1968)
  • Alvin Goldman, (born 1938)
  • Gongsun Longzi, (c. 300 BC)
  • Nelson Goodman, (1906–1998)
  • Gorgias, (c. 483–375 BC)
  • André Gorz, (1923–2007)
  • Johann Christoph Gottsched, (1700–1766)
  • Marie de Gournay, (1565–1645)
  • M. Fethullah Gulen (1941-present)
  • Baltasar Gracián y Morales, (1601–1658)
  • Antonio Gramsci, (1891–1937)
  • Asa Gray, (1810–1888)
  • John Gray, (born 1948)
  • Hilary Greaves, (born 1978)
  • Thomas Hill Green, (1836–1882)
  • Pope Gregory I, (540–604)
  • Gregory of Nazianzus, (329–389)
  • Gregory of Nyssa, (c. 335–398)
  • Gregory of Rimini, (d. 1358)
  • Herbert Paul Grice, (1913–1988)
  • James Griffin, (born 1933)
  • Germain Grisez, (born 1929)
  • Robert Grosseteste, (1175–1253)
  • Reinhardt Grossmann, (born 1931)
  • John Grote, (1813–1866)
  • Hugo Grotius, (1583–1645)
  • Adolf Grunbaum, (born 1923)
  • Guan Zhong (or Kuan Tzu or Kwan Chung or Guanzi), (740–645 BC)
  • Ernesto “Che” Guevara, (1928–1967)
  • M. Fethullah Gülen,
  • Guo Xiang, (c. 252–312)
  • Edmund Gurney, (1847–1888)
  • Aron Gurwitsch, (1901–1973)

H

  • Jürgen Habermas, (born 1929)
  • Ian Hacking, (born 1936)
  • Ernst Haeckel, (1834–1919)
  • Axel Anders Theodor Hagerstrom, (1868–1939)
  • Yehuda Halevi, (c. 1085–1141)
  • Johann Georg Hamann, (1730–1788)
  • Octave Hamelin, (1856–1907)
  • Sir William Hamilton, (1788–1856)
  • David Walter Hamlyn, (born 1924–2012)
  • Stuart Hampshire, (1914–2004)
  • Hassan Hanafi, (born 1935)
  • Han Feizi, (d. 233 BC)
  • Han Wonjin, (1682–1751)
  • Han Yu, (768–824)
  • Alastair Hannay, (born 1932)
  • Eduard Hanslick, (1825–1904)
  • Norwood Russell Hanson, (1922–1967)
  • Sandra Harding, (born 1935)
  • R. M. Hare, (1919–2002)
  • Gilbert Harman, (born 1938)
  • Adolf von Harnack, (1851–1930)
  • James Harrington, (1611–1677)
  • William Torrey Harris, (1835–1909)
  • H. L. A. Hart, (1907–1992)
  • David Hartley, (1705–1757)
  • Eduard Von Hartmann, (1842–1906)
  • Nicolai Hartmann, (1882–1950)
  • Charles Hartshorne, (1897–2000)
  • William Harvey, (1578–1657)
  • Seiichi Hatano, (1877–1950)
  • Hayashi Razan, (1583–1657)
  • Friedrich Hayek, (1899–1992)
  • Stephen Hawking
  • William Hazlitt, (1778–1830)
  • Christian Friedrich Hebbel, (1813–1863)
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (1770–1831)
  • Martin Heidegger, (1889–1976)
  • Carl Heim, (1874–1958)
  • Werner Heisenberg, (1901–1976)
  • Virginia Held, (born 1929)
  • Ágnes Heller, (1929–2019)
  • Hermann von Helmholtz, (1821–1894)
  • Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont, (1614–1698)
  • Claude Adrien Helvétius, (1715–1771)
  • Carl Gustav Hempel, (1905–1997)
  • Frans Hemsterhuis, (1721–1790)
  • Henricus Regius, (1598–1679)
  • Henry of Ghent, (c. 1217–1293)
  • Henry of Harclay, (1270–1317)
  • Ronald William Hepburn, (1927–2008)
  • Heraclides Ponticus, (387–312 BC)
  • Heraclitus of Ephesus, (ca. 535–475 BC)
  • Johann Friedrich Herbart, (1776–1841)
  • Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, (1583–1648)
  • Johann Gottfried Herder, (1744–1803)
  • Abraham Cohen de Herrera (or Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira), (1562–1635)
  • John Herschel, (1792–1871)
  • Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, (1857–1894)
  • Hervaeus Natalis, (1250–1323)
  • Alexander Herzen, (1812–1870)
  • Abraham Joshua Heschel, (1907–1972)
  • Hesiod, (c. 700 BC)
  • Moses Hess, (1812–1875)
  • Sergei Iosifovich Hessen, (1887–1950)
  • William of Heytesbury (or Hentisberus or Hentisberi or Tisberi), (1313–1373)
  • John Hick, (1922–2012)
  • Laurens Perseus Hickok, (1798–1888)
  • Hierocles the Stoic, (2nd century)
  • David Hilbert, (1862–1943)
  • Hildegard of Bingen, (1098–1179)
  • Hillel ben Samuel of Verona, (1220–1295)
  • Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Hinrichs, (1794–1861)
  • Jaakko Hintikka, (born 1929)
  • Hippias, (5th century BC)
  • Hippocrates, (460–380 BC)
  • Ho Yen, (190–249)
  • Thomas Hobbes, (1588–1679)
  • Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, (1864–1929)
  • William Ernest Hocking, (1873–1966)
  • Shadworth Hodgson, (1832–1912)
  • Harald Høffding, (1843–1931)
  • Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, (1879–1918)
  • Baron d’Holbach, (1723–1789)
  • Robert Holcot, (1290–1349)
  • Friedrich Hölderlin, (1770–1843)
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., (1841–1935)
  • Edwin Holt, (1873–1946)
  • Henry Home, Lord Kames, (1696–1782)
  • Homer, (c. 700 BC)
  • Richard Hönigswald, (1875–1947)
  • Sidney Hook, (1902–1989)
  • Richard Hooker, (1554–1600)
  • Max Horkheimer, (1895–1973)
  • Jennifer Hornsby, (born 1951)
  • Paul Horwich, (born 1947)
  • George Howison, (1834–1916)
  • Hsi K’ang, (223–262)
  • Hsiung Shih-li, (1885–1968)
  • Hsu Fu-kuan, (1903–1982)
  • Hsu Hsing, (c. 300 BC)
  • Hu Hung (or Wu-Feng), (1100–1155)
  • Hu Shih, (1891–1962)
  • Huai Nun Tzu (or Liu An), (179–122 BC)
  • Huang Zongxi (or Huang Tsung-hsi), (1610–1695)
  • Pierre Daniel Huet, (1630–1721)
  • Friedrich von Hügel, (1852–1925)
  • Hugh of St Victor, (c. 1078–1141)
  • Hui Shi, (4th century BC)
  • Wilhelm von Humboldt, (1767–1835)
  • David Hume, (1711–1776)
  • Jan Hus, (1369–1415)
  • Edmund Husserl, (1859–1938)
  • Francis Hutcheson, (1694–1746)
  • Thomas Henry Huxley, (1825–1895)
  • Christiaan Huygens, (1629–1695)
  • Hypatia of Alexandria, (370–415)
  • Jean Hyppolite, (1907–1968)

I

  • Iamblichus, (ca. 245 AD-ca. 325)
  • Yahya ibn Adi, (893–974)
  • Ibn Arabi, (1164–1240)
  • Ibn ar-Rawandi, (c. 910)
  • Ibn Bajjah (or Avempace), (died 1138)
  • Ibn Daud (or Rabad I or Avendauth, or John of Spain), (1110–1180)
  • Abraham ibn Ezra, (1092/3–1167)
  • Moses ibn Ezra, (1070–1138)
  • Ibn Falaquera, (1223–1290)
  • Solomon Ibn Gabirol, (1021–1058)
  • Ibn Hazm, (994–1069)
  • Ibn Kammuna, (1215–1284)
  • Ibn Khaldun, (1332–1406)
  • Ibn Masarra, (883–931)
  • Ibn Miskawayh, (940–1030)
  • Bahya ibn Paquda, (1040–1110)
  • Ibn Sabin, (1217–1268)
  • Ibn Taymiya, (1263–1328)
  • Samuel ibn Tibbon, (c. 1165 – 1232)
  • Ibn Tufail, (1110–1185)
  • Joseph ibn Tzaddik, (c. 1149)
  • Ivan Aleksandrovich Il’in, (1883–1954)
  • Evald Vassilievich Ilyenkov, (1924–1979)
  • Immanuel the Roman, (c. 1270 – c. 1330)
  • Roman Ingarden, (1893–1970)
  • William Ralph Inge, (1860–1954)
  • José Ingenieros, (1877–1925)
  • Nae Ionescu, (1890–1940)
  • Muhammad Iqbal, (1877–1938)
  • Luce Irigaray, (born 1930)
  • Terence Irwin, (born 1947)
  • Isocrates, (436–338 BC)
  • Isaac of Stella, (1105–1177)
  • Isaac Israeli, (c. 850–950)
  • Ito Jinsai, (1627–1705)
  • Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov, (1866–1949)

J

  • Frank Jackson, (born 1943)
  • Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, (1743–1819)
  • James of Viterbo, (1255–1308)
  • Henry James Sr., (1811–1882)
  • William James, (1842–1910)
  • Fredric Jameson, (1934)
  • Vladimir Jankélévitch, (1903–1985)
  • Karl Jaspers, (1883–1969)
  • James Hopwood Jeans, (1877–1946)
  • Thomas Jefferson, (1743–1826)
  • Richard C. Jeffrey, (1926–2002)
  • William Stanley Jevons, (1835–1882)
  • Rudolf von Jhering, (1818–1892)
  • Jinul (or Chinul), (1158–1210)
  • Joachim of Fiore, (1135–1201)
  • Friedrich Jodl, (1849–1914)
  • John of Damascus, (c. 676–749)
  • John of Jandun, (1280–1328)
  • John of La Rochelle, (1190–1245)
  • John of Mirecourt, (c. 1345)
  • John of Paris, (1260–1306)
  • John of Salisbury, (c. 1115 – 1180)
  • John of St. Thomas (or Jean Poinsot), (1589–1644)
  • John of the Cross, (1542–1591)
  • Alexander Bryan Johnson, (1786–1867)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1649–1703)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1696–1772)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1709–1784)
  • William Ernest Johnson, (1858–1931)
  • Jørgen Jørgensen, (1894–1969)
  • Théodore Simon Jouffroy, (1796–1842)
  • Judah ben Moses of Rome (orJudah Romano), (1292–1330)
  • Carl Jung, (1875–1961)
  • Ernst Jünger, (1895–1998)
  • Joachim Jungius, (1587–1657)
  • Justinian I, (483–565)
  • Al-Juwayni, (1028–1085)

K

  • Franz Kafka, (1883–1924)
  • Kaibara Ekiken, (1630–1740)
  • Kang Youwei, (1858–1927)
  • Immanuel Kant, (1724–1804)
  • Kao Tzu, (c. 420 BC)
  • David Kaplan, (born 1933)
  • Mordecai Kaplan, (1881–1983)
  • Nikolai Ivanovich Kareev, (1850–1931)
  • Lev Platonovich Karsavin, (1882–1952)
  • Joseph Kaspi, (1279–1340)
  • Walter Kaufmann, (1921–1980)
  • Karl Kautsky, (1854–1938)
  • Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, (1385–1438)
  • Konstantin Kavelin, (1818–1885)
  • Bartholomew Keckermann, (1571–1609)
  • Hans Kelsen, (1881–1973)
  • Norman Kemp Smith, (1872–1958)
  • Anthony Kenny, (born 1931)
  • Johannes Kepler, (1571–1630)
  • John Maynard Keynes, (1883–1946)
  • Hermann Graf Keyserling, (1880–1946)
  • Omar Khayyam
  • Aleksey Khomyakov, (1804–1860)
  • Søren Kierkegaard, (1813–1855)
  • Richard Kilvington, (1302–1361)
  • Robert Kilwardby, (1215–1279)
  • Jaegwon Kim, (born 1934)
  • Al-Kindi, (801–873)
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., (1929–1968)
  • Ivan Kireevsky, (1806–1856)
  • Patricia Kitcher, (born 1948)
  • Ludwig Klages, (1872–1956)
  • Heinrich von Kleist, (1777–1811)
  • William Calvert Kneale, (1906–1990)
  • Martin Knutzen, (1713–1751)
  • Ko Hung, (4th century)
  • Kurt Koffka, (1886–1941)
  • Wolfgang Köhler, (1887–1967)
  • Alexandre Kojève, (1902–1968)
  • Alejandro Korn, (1860–1936)
  • Tadeusz Kotarbiński, (1886–1981)
  • Alexandre Koyre, (1892–1964)
  • Aleksei Aleksandrovich Kozlov, (1831–1901)
  • Karl Kraus, (1874–1936)

  • Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, (1781–1832)
  • Georg Kreisel, (born 1923)
  • Saul Kripke, (born 1940)
  • Jiddu Krishnamurti, (1895–1986)
  • Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, (1918–2007)
  • Julia Kristeva, (born 1941)
  • Nachman Krochmal, (1785–1840)
  • Leopold Kronecker, (1823–1891)
  • Peter Kropotkin, (1842–1921)
  • Felix Krueger, (1874–1948)
  • Thomas Samuel Kuhn, (1922–1996)
  • Kūkai, (774–835)
  • Kuki Shūzō, (1888–1941)
  • Oswald Külpe, (1862–1915)
  • Kumazawa Banzan, (1619–1691)
  • Kuo Hsiang (or Guoxiang), (c. 312)

L

  • Ernst Laas, (1837–1885)
  • Lucien Laberthonnière, (1860–1932)
  • Antonio Labriola, (1843–1904)
  • Jean de La Bruyère, (1645–1696)
  • Jacques Lacan, (1901–1981)
  • Jules Lachelier, (1832–1918)
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, (born 1940)
  • Pierre Laffitte, (1823–1903)
  • Louis de La Forge, (1632–1666)
  • Imre Lakatos, (1922–1974)
  • André Lalande, (1867–1964)
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, (1744–1829)
  • Johann Heinrich Lambert, (1728–1777)
  • Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais, (1752–1854)
  • Julien Offray de La Mettrie, (1709–1751)
  • François de La Mothe Le Vayer, (1588–1672)
  • Ludwig Landgrebe, (1902–1992)
  • Friedrich Albert Lange, (1828–1875)
  • Susanne Langer, (1895–1985)
  • Lao Zi (or Lao Tzu), (4th century BC)
  • Laozi
  • Isaac La Peyrère, (1596–1676)
  • Pierre-Simon Laplace, (1749–1827)
  • Ivan Ivanovich Lapshin, (1870–1952)
  • François de La Rochefoucauld, (1613–1680)
  • Pierre Laromiguière, (1756–1837)
  • Abdullah Laroui, (born 1935)
  • Ferdinand Lassalle, (1825–1864)
  • Johann Kaspar Lavater, (1741–1801)
  • Louis Lavelle, (1883–1951)
  • Antoine Lavoisier, (1743–1794)
  • Peter Lavrovitch Lavrov, (1823–1900)
  • William Law, (1686–1761)
  • Jean Le Clerc, (1657–1737)
  • Michèle Le Dœuff, (born 1948)
  • Henri Lefebvre, (1901–1991)
  • Antoine Le Grand, (1629–1699)
  • Keith Lehrer, (born 1936)
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, (1646–1716)
  • Yeshayahu Leibowitz, (1903–1994)
  • Vladimir Lenin, (1870–1924)
  • Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519)
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Leont’ev, (1831–1891)
  • Giacomo Leopardi, (1798–1837)
  • Jules Lequier, (1814–1862)
  • Pierre Leroux, (1798–1871)
  • Edouard Louis Emmanuel Julien Le Roy, (1870–1954)
  • René Le Senne, (1882–1954)
  • Stanisław Leśniewski, (1886–1939)
  • Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, (1729–1781)
  • Leucippus, (5th century BC)
  • Emmanuel Levinas, (1906–1995)
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss, (1908–2009)
  • Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, (1857–1939)
  • Kurt Lewin, (1890–1947)
  • Clarence Irving Lewis, (1883–1964)
  • C. S. Lewis, (1898–1963)
  • David Kellogg Lewis, (1941–2001)
  • Li Ao, (722–841)
  • Liang Qichao (or Liang Ch’i-ch’ao), (1873–1929)
  • Liang Sou-ming, (1893–1988)
  • Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, (1742–1799)
  • Arthur Liebert, (1878–1946)
  • Otto Liebmann, (1840–1912)
  • Liezi (or Lieh Tzu), (c. 440 BC – c. 360 BC)
  • Linji Yixuan (or Lin Chi), (c. 810–867)
  • Carl Linnaeus, (1707–1778)
  • Theodor Lipps, (1851–1914)
  • Justus Lipsius, (1547–1606)
  • Émile Littré, (1801–1881)
  • Liu Shaoqi (orLiu Shao-ch’i), (1898–1969)
  • Liu Tsung-chou (or Ch’i-shan), (1578–1645)
  • Genevieve Lloyd, (born 1941)
  • Karl Nickerson Llywelyn, (1893–1962)
  • Ramon Llull, (1235–1315)
  • John Locke, (1632–1704)
  • Alfred Loisy, (1857–1940)
  • Peter Lombard, (c. 1100 – 1160)
  • Bernard Lonergan, (1904–1984)
  • Pseudo-Longinus, (1st century)
  • Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin, (1855–1920)
  • Paul Lorenzen, (1915–1995)
  • Aleksei Fedorovich Losev, (1893–1988)
  • Nicholas Onufrievich Lossky, (1870–1965)
  • Domenico Losurdo, (1941–2018)
  • Yuri Lotman, (1922–1993)
  • Hermann Lotze, (1817–1881)
  • Arthur O. Lovejoy, (1873–1962)
  • John R. Lucas, (born 1929)
  • Lucian, (c. 120-c. 180)
  • Lucretius, (c. 99–55 BC)
  • Lu Jiuyuan (or Lu Xiangshan, or Lu Chiu-yuan, or Tzu-ching, or Ts’un-chai), (1139–1193)
  • Georg Lukács, (1885–1971)
  • Jan Łukasiewicz, (1878–1956)
  • Anatoliy Lunacharskiy, (1875–1933)
  • Martin Luther, (1483–1546)
  • Rosa Luxemburg, (1871–1919)
  • William Lycan, (born 1945)
  • Jean-François Lyotard, (1924–1998)

M

  • Ernst Mach, (1838–1916)
  • Niccolò Machiavelli, (1469–1527)
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, (born 1929)
  • John Leslie Mackie, (1917–1981)
  • Madhava, (died 1386)
  • Shri Madhvacharya, (1238–1317)
  • Mahavira, (599–527 BC)
  • Benoît de Maillet, (1656–1738)
  • Salomon Maimon (or Salomon ben Joshua), (1753–1800)
  • Abraham ben Moses Maimonides (or Abraham ben Maimon), (1186–1237)
  • Maimonides (or Rambam), (1135–1204)
  • Maine de Biran, (1766–1824)
  • John Major (or John Mair), (1467–1550)
  • Errico Malatesta, (1853–1932)
  • Norman Malcolm, (1911–1990)
  • Nicolas Malebranche, (1638–1715)
  • Ernst Mally, (1879–1944)
  • André Malraux, (1901–1976)
  • Thomas Malthus, (1766–1834)
  • Merab Mamardashvili, (1930–1990)
  • Bernard de Mandeville, (1670–1733)
  • Mani, (3rd century)
  • Karl Mannheim, (1893–1947)
  • Henry Longueville Mansel, (1820–1871)
  • Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung), (1893–1976)
  • Gabriel Marcel, (1887–1973)
  • Marcion, (110–160)
  • Ruth Barcan Marcus, (1921–2012)
  • Herbert Marcuse, (1898–1979)
  • Joseph Maréchal, (1878–1944)
  • Juan de Mariana, (1536–1624)
  • Julián Marías, (1914–2005)
  • José Carlos Mariátegui, (1894–1930)
  • Jacques Maritain, (1882–1973)
  • Gaius Marius Victorinus, (4th century)
  • Mihailo Marković, (1923–2010)
  • Svetozar Marković, (1846–1875)
  • Odo Marquard, (born 1928)
  • Marsilius of Inghen, (1330–1396)
  • Marsilius of Padua (or Marsiglio or Marsilio dei Mainardine), (1270–1342)
  • Roger Marston, (1235–1303)
  • Charles B. Martin, (born 1924)
  • Harriet Martineau, (1802–1876)
  • James Martineau, (1805–1900)
  • Piero Martinetti, (1872–1943)
  • Anton Marty, (1847–1914)
  • Marko Marulić, (1450–1524)
  • Karl Marx, (1818–1883)
  • Tomáš Masaryk, (1850–1937)
  • Damaris Cudworth Masham, (1659–1708)
  • Cotton Mather, (1663–1728)
  • Matthew of Aquasparta, (1238–1302)
  • Pierre Louis Maupertuis, (1698–1759)
  • Fritz Mauthner, (1849–1923)
  • James Clerk Maxwell, (1831–1879)
  • James McCosh, (1811–1894)
  • William McDougall, (1871–1938)
  • John McDowell, (born 1942)
  • Evander Bradley McGilvary, (1864–1953)
  • Colin McGinn, (born 1950)
  • John Ellis McTaggart, (1866–1925)
  • George Herbert Mead, (1863–1931)
  • Bartolomé de Medina, (1527–1580)
  • Georg Friedrich Meier, (1718–1777)
  • Friedrich Meinecke, (1862–1954)
  • Alexius Meinong, (1853–1920)
  • Philipp Melanchthon, (1497–1560)
  • Melissus of Samos, (late 5th century BC)
  • D. Hugh Mellor, (born 1938)
  • Menasseh Ben Israel, (1604–1657)
  • Mencius (or Meng K’o or Meng-tzu or Mengzi), (372 – 289 BC)
  • Gregor Mendel, (1822–1884)
  • Moses Mendelssohn, (1729–1786)
  • Désiré-Joseph Mercier, (1851–1926)
  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty, (1908–1961)
  • Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648)
  • Jean Meslier, (1664–1729)
  • Judah Messer Leon, (c. 1425 – c. 1495)
  • István Mészáros, (1930–2017)
  • Emile Meyerson, (1859–1933)
  • Conyers Middleton, (1683–1750)
  • Nikolai Konstantinovich Mikhailovskii, (1842–1904)
  • Miki Kiyoshi, (1897–1945)
  • Mikyo Dorje (or Mi bskyod rdo rje), (1507–1554)
  • Gaston Milhaud, (1858–1918)
  • James Mill, (1773–1836)
  • John Stuart Mill, (1806–1873)
  • John Millar, (1735–1801)
  • Dickinson Miller, (1868–1963)
  • Ruth Millikan, (born 1933)
  • John Milton, (1608–1674)
  • Minagawa Kien, (1734–1807)
  • Mir Damad (or Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi), (died 1631)
  • Miura Baien, (1723–1789)
  • Jacob Moleschott, (1822–1893)
  • Luis de Molina, (1535–1600)
  • Enrique Molina Garmendia, (1871–1962)
  • Lord Monboddo (or James Burnett), (1714–1799)
  • Richard Montague, (1930–1971)
  • William Pepperell Montague, (1873–1953)
  • Michel de Montaigne, (1533–1592)
  • Baron de Montesquieu, (1689–1755)
  • Edmund Montgomery, (1835–1911)
  • G. E. Moore, (1873–1958)
  • Henry More, (1614–1687)
  • Thomas More, (1478–1535)
  • C. Lloyd Morgan, (1852–1936)
  • Lewis H. Morgan, (1818–1881)
  • Thomas Morgan, (Died 1743)
  • Karl Philipp Moritz, (1756–1793)
  • Gaetano Mosca, (1858–1941)
  • Motoori Norinaga, (1730–1801)
  • Emmanuel Mounier, (1905–1950)
  • Mou Tsung-san, (1909–1995)
  • Mozi (or Mo Tzu, or Mo Ti, or Micius), (c. 470 – c. 390 BC)
  • David Ibn Merwan Al-Mukammas (or Daud Ibn Marwan al-Muqammas or David ha-Bavli), (died 937)
  • Mulla Sadra, (1571–1640)
  • Iris Murdoch, (1919–1999)
  • Muro Kyuso, (1658–1734)
  • Arthur Edward Murphy, (1901–1962)
  • Musonius Rufus, (1st century)

N

  • Arne Næss, (1912–2009)
  • Nagarjuna, (ca. 200 CE)
  • Ernest Nagel, (1901–1985)
  • Thomas Nagel, (born 1937)
  • Nahmanides, (1194–1270)
  • Jacques-André Naigeon, (1738–1810)
  • Toju Nakae, (1608–1648)
  • Jean-Luc Nancy, (born 1940)
  • Hossein Nasr, (born 1933)
  • Paul Gerhard Natorp, (1854–1924)
  • Alexander Neckham, (1157–1217)
  • Leonard Nelson, (1882–1927)
  • Nemesius of Emesa, (fl. c. 400)
  • John von Neumann, (1903–1957)
  • Otto Neurath, (1882–1945)
  • John Henry Newman, (1801–1890)
  • Isaac Newton, (1642–1727)
  • Nichiren, (1222–1282)
  • Nicholas of Autrecourt, (c. 1300 – 1369)
  • Nicholas of Cusa, (1401–1464)
  • Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, (1733–1811)
  • Pierre Nicole, (1625–1695)
  • H. Richard Niebuhr, (1894–1962)
  • Reinhold Niebuhr, (1892–1971)
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844–1900)
  • Agostino Nifo, (1470–1538)
  • Nishi Amane, (1829–1897)
  • Nishida Kitaro, (1870–1945)
  • Nishitani Keiji, (1900–1990)
  • Kwame Nkrumah, (1909–1972)
  • John Norris, (1657–1711)
  • Novalis, (1772–1801)
  • Robert Nozick, (1938–2001)
  • Numenius of Apamea, (2nd century)
  • Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1877-1960)
  • Martha Nussbaum, (born 1947)
  • Anders Nygren, (1890–1978)

O

  • Michael Oakeshott, (1901–1990)
  • William of Ockham, (c. 1285 – 1349)
  • Ogyū Sorai, (1666–1728)
  • Lorenz Oken, (1779–1851)
  • Karl Olivecrona, (1897–1980)
  • Peter Olivi, (1248–1298)
  • Olympiodorus the Younger, (495–570)
  • John Wood Oman, (1860–1939)
  • Michel Onfray, (1959)
  • Onora O’Neill, (born 1941)
  • Nicole Oresme, (1320–1382)
  • Origen of Alexandria, (c. 182-c. 251)
  • Isaac Orobio de Castro, (1617–1687)
  • Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851)
  • José Ortega y Gasset, (1883–1955)
  • Wilhelm Ostwald, (1853–1932)
  • James Oswald, (1703–1793)
  • Rudolf Otto, (1869–1937)
  • Richard Overton, (d. c. 1665)
  • Gwilyn Ellis Lane Owen, (1922–1982)

P

  • Thomas Paine, (1737–1809)
  • Menyhért Palágyi, (1859–1924)
  • William Paley, (1743–1805)
  • Elihu Palmer, (1764–1806)
  • Panaetius, (c. 185 – c. 110 BC)
  • Wolfhart Pannenberg, (born 1928)
  • David Papineau, (born 1947)
  • Giovanni Papini, (1881–1956)
  • Paracelsus, (1493–1541)
  • Vilfredo Pareto, (1848–1923)
  • Derek Parfit, (1942–2017)
  • Theodore Parker, (1810–1860)
  • Parmenides, (5th century BC)
  • Blaise Pascal, (1623–1662)
  • John Arthur Passmore, (1914–2004)
  • Valentino Annibale Pastore, (1868–1956)
  • Patañjali, (2nd century BC)
  • Walter Pater, (1839–1904)
  • Jan Patočka, (1907–1977)
  • Francesco Patrizi da Cherso (or Franciscus Patritius), (1529–1597)
  • Akos Pauler, (1876–1933)
  • Linus Pauling, (1901–1994)
  • Paul of Venice, (1369–1429)
  • Friedrich Paulsen, (1846–1908)
  • Ivan Pavlov, (1849–1936)
  • Christopher Peacocke, (born 1950)
  • Giuseppe Peano, (1858–1932)
  • David Pears, (1921–2009)
  • Karl Pearson, (1857–1936)
  • John Peckham, (died 1292)
  • Benjamin Peirce, (1809–1880)
  • Charles Sanders Peirce, (1839–1914)
  • Pelagius, (c. 360-c. 435)
  • William Penbygull, (died 1420)
  • Thomas Percival, (1740–1804)
  • Ralph Barton Perry, (1876–1957)
  • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, (1746–1827)
  • Peter of Auvergne, (13th century)
  • Peter of Spain, (identified with Pope John XXI)
  • Richard Stanley Peters, (1919–2011)
  • Petrarch, (1304–1374)
  • Leon Petrazycki, (1867–1931)
  • Joane Petrizi, (12th century)
  • Branislav Petronijević, (1875–1954)
  • Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, (1813–1851)
  • Joseph Petzoldt, (1862–1929)
  • Alexander Pfänder, (1870–1941)
  • Philip the Chancellor, (1160–1236)
  • Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, (20 BC – 40 AD)
  • Philo of Larissa, (1st century BC)
  • Philo the Dialectician, (c. 300 BC)
  • Philodemus of Gadara, (1st century BC)
  • Philolaus of Croton, (c. 480-c. 405 BC)
  • Philo of Larissa, (154 BC – 84 BC)
  • Philo of Megara, (300 BC c.)
  • John Philoponus, (early 6th century)
  • Jean Piaget, (1896–1980)
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, (1463–1494)
  • Dimitri Pisarev, (1840–1868)
  • Max Planck, (1858–1947)
  • Alvin Plantinga, (born 1932)
  • Plato, (c. 427 BC – c. 347 BC)
  • Georgi Plekhanov, (1856–1918)
  • Helmuth Plessner, (1892–1985)
  • Gemistus Pletho, (c. 1355 – c. 1452)
  • Plotinus, (died 270)
  • Gottfried Ploucquet [de], (1716–1790)
  • Mestrius Plutarch of Chaeronia, (c. 45-c. 120)
  • Henri Poincaré, (1854–1912)
  • Karl Polanyi, (1886–1964)
  • Michael Polanyi, (1891–1976)
  • Pietro Pomponazzi, (1462–1525)
  • Alexander Pope, (1688–1744)
  • Karl Popper, (1902–1994)
  • Josef Popper-Lynkeus, (1838–1921)
  • Porphyry, (c. 232-c. 304)
  • Noah Porter, (1811–1892)
  • Posidonius, (c. 135 – 51 BC)
  • Richard Posner, (born 1939)
  • Emil Leon Post, (1897–1954)
  • Robert Joseph Pothier, (1699–1772)
  • Roscoe Pound, (1870–1964)
  • Caio Prado Júnior, (1907–1990)
  • Costanzo Preve, (1943–2013)
  • Henry Habberley Price, (1899–1984)
  • Richard Price, (1723–1791)
  • Harold Arthur Prichard, (1871–1947)
  • Joseph Priestley, (1733–1804)
  • Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, (1856–1931)
  • Arthur Prior, (1914–1969)
  • Proclus, (412–487)
  • Prodicus, (c. 450 – 399 BC)
  • Protagoras, (c. 481 – 420 BC)
  • Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, (1809–1865)
  • Marcel Proust, (1871–1922)
  • Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, (5th century)
  • Pseudo-Grosseteste, (13th century)
  • Ptolemy, (c. 85-c. 165)
  • Samuel Pufendorf, (1632–1694)
  • Hilary Putnam, (born 1926)
  • Pyrrho, (c. 360-c. 270)
  • Pythagoras, (582 BC – 496 BC)

Q

  • Antero de Quental, (1842–1891)
  • Ismael Quiles [es] (1906–1993)
  • W. V. O. Quine, (1908–2000)
  • Anthony Quinton, (born 1925)

R

  • François Rabelais, (1493–1553)
  • Gustav Radbruch, (1878–1949)
  • Janet Radcliffe Richards, (born 1944)
  • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, (1888–1975)
  • Assi Rahbani, (1923–1986)
  • Karl Rahner, (1904–1984)
  • Ramanuja, (1017–1137)
  • Frank P. Ramsey, (1903–1930)*
  • Ian Thomas Ramsey, (1915–1972)
  • Paul Ramsey, (1913–1988)
  • Petrus Ramus, (1515–1572)*
  • Jacques Rancière, (born 1940)
  • Ram Gopal Varma, (born 1989)
  • Ayn Rand, (1905–1982)
  • Hastings Rashdall, (1858–1924)
  • Felix Ravaisson-Mollien, (1813–1900)
  • John Rawls, (1921–2002)
  • John Ray, (1627–1705)
  • Daniel Raymond, (1786–1849)
  • Joseph Raz, (born 1939)
  • Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (or Rhazes), (865–925)
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, (1149–1209)
  • Paul Ree, (1849–1901)
  • Pierre-Sylvain Regis, (1632–1707)
  • August Wilhelm Rehberg *
  • Wilhelm Reich, (1897–1957)
  • Hans Reichenbach, (1891–1953)
  • Thomas Reid, (1710–1796)
  • Hermann Samuel Reimarus, (1694–1768)
  • Adolf Reinach, (1883–1917)
  • Karl Leonhard Reinhold, (1757–1823)
  • Karl Renner, (1870–1950)
  • Charles Bernard Renouvier, (1815–1903)
  • Nicholas Rescher, (born 1928)
  • Rgyal tshab dar ma rin chen (or Gyeltsap darma rinchen), (1364–1432)
  • David Ricardo, (1772–1823)
  • Richard of Middleton, (c. 1249 – 1306)
  • Richard of St. Victor, (died 1173)
  • Rumi,
  • Richard Rufus of Cornwall (or Richardus Sophista), (1231–1259)
  • I. A. Richards, (1893–1979)
  • Radovan Richta, (1924–1983)
  • Heinrich Rickert, (1863–1936)*
  • Paul Ricœur, (1913–2005)
  • Bernhard Riemann, (1826–1866)
  • R.R. Rockingham Gill
  • Jacques Rohault, (1617–1672)
  • Erwin Rohde, (1845–1898)
  • Francisco Romero, (1891–1962)
  • Avital Ronell, (born 1952)
  • Richard Rorty, (1931–2007)
  • Vasily Rozanov, (1856–1919)
  • Roscelin of Compiègne, (c. 1050 – c. 1120)
  • Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, (1805–1879)
  • Franz Rosenzweig, (1886–1929)
  • Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, (1797–1855)
  • Alf Niels Christian Ross, (1899–1979)
  • William David Ross, (1877–1971)
  • Carlo Rosselli, (1899–1937)
  • Gian-Carlo Rota, (1932–1999)
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau, (1712–1778)
  • Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, (1760–1825)
  • Joseph Rovan, (1918–2004)
  • Josiah Royce, (1865–1916)
  • Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, (1763–1845)
  • Vasily Rozanov, (1856–1919)
  • Ruan Ji, (210–263)
  • Arnold Ruge, (1802–1880)
  • Michael Ruse, (born 1940)
  • Bertrand Russell, (1872–1970)
  • Jan van Ruysbroek, (1293–1381)
  • Gilbert Ryle, (1900–1976)

S

  • Saadia Gaon, (892–942)
  • Mulla Hadi Sabzevari, (1797–1873)
  • William S. Sahakian, (1922–1986)
  • Mark Sainsbury, (born 1943)
  • Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, (1760–1825)
  • Émile Saisset, (1814–1863)
  • Syed Zafarul Hasan, (1885–1949)
  • Nathan Salmon, (born 1951)
  • Wesley Salmon, (1925–2001)
  • Francisco Sanches, (1551–1623)
  • Michael Sandel, (born 1953)
  • George Santayana, (1863–1952)
  • Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, (1921–1990)
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905–1980)
  • Crispin Sartwell, (born 1958)
  • John Ralston Saul, (born 1947)
  • Ferdinand de Saussure, (1857–1913)
  • Fernando Savater, (born 1947)
  • Friedrich Karl von Savigny, (1779–1861)
  • Julius Caesar Scaliger, (1484–1558)
  • Thomas Scanlon, (born 1940)
  • Richard Schacht, (born 1941)
  • Max Scheler, (1874–1928)
  • Friedrich Schelling, (1775–1852)
  • F. C. S. Schiller, (1864–1937)
  • Friedrich Schiller, (1759–1805)
  • Friedrich Schlegel, (1772–1829)*
  • Hubert Schleichert, (born 1935)
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher, (1768–1834)
  • Moritz Schlick, (1882–1936)
  • Carl Schmitt, (1888–1985)
  • J.B. Schneewind, (born 1930)
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, (1788–1860)
  • Erwin Schrödinger, (1887–1961)
  • Gottlob Ernst Schulze, (1761–1833)
  • Joseph Schumpeter, (1883–1950)
  • Anna Maria van Schurman, (1607–1678)
  • Alfred Schütz, (1899–1959)
  • Albert Schweitzer, (1875–1965)
  • Roger Scruton, (born 1944)
  • John Searle, (born 1932)
  • Charles Secrétan, (1815–1895)
  • Michal Sedziwój, (1566–1636)
  • John Selden, (1584–1654)
  • Roy Wood Sellars, (1880–1973)
  • Wilfrid Sellars, (1912–1989)
  • Amartya Sen, (born 1933)
  • Seneca the Younger, (c. 4 BC – AD 65)
  • Sengzhao, (384–414)
  • Victor Serge, (1890-1947)
  • John Sergeant, (1623–1704)
  • Michel Serres, (born 1930)
  • Sextus Empiricus, (2nd/3rd century)
  • Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, (1671–1713)
  • Shah Wali Allah (or Qutb al-Din Ahmad al-Rahim or Waliullah), (1703–1762)
  • Shang Yang (or Gongsun Yang), (died 338 BC)
  • Adi Shankara, (788–820)
  • Shao Yung, (1011–1077)
  • Dariush Shayegan, (1935–2018)
  • Shen Buhai, (died 337 BC)
  • Shen Dao (or Shen Tzu), (c. 350 – 275 BC)
  • Lev Shestov, (1866–1938)
  • Shinran, (1173–1261)
  • Sydney Shoemaker, (born 1931)
  • Daryush Shokof, (born 1954)
  • Gustav Gustavovich Shpet, (1879–1937)
  • Henry Sidgwick, (1838–1900)
  • Sigerus of Brabant, (1240–1284)
  • Heinrich Christoph Wilhelm Sigwart, (1789–1844)
  • Abu Sulayman Muhammad al-Sijistani, (c. 932 – c. 1000)
  • Francesco Silvestri (or Francis Sylvester of Ferrara), (1474–1528)
  • Georg Simmel, (1858–1918)
  • Simon of Faversham, (c. 1260 – 1306)
  • Simplicius of Cilicia, (early 6th century)
  • Kurt Singer, (1886–1962)
  • Peter Singer, (born 1946)
  • B. F. Skinner, (1904–1990)
  • Thoralf Skolem, (1887–1963)
  • Hryhori Skovoroda, (1722–1794)
  • Peter Sloterdijk, (born 1947)
  • J. J. C. Smart, (born 1920)
  • Adam Smith, (1723–1790)
  • Barry Smith, (born 1952)
  • Huston Smith, (1919–2016)
  • Joseph Smith, (1805–1844)
  • Michael Smith, (born 1954)
  • Raymond Smullyan, (1919–2017)
  • Joseph D. Sneed, (born 1938)
  • Jan Sniadecki, (1756–1830)
  • Scott Soames, (born 1946)
  • Elliott Sober, (born 1948)
  • Socrates, (470–399 BC)
  • Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger, (1780–1890)
  • Joseph Soloveitchik, (1903–1993)
  • Vladimir Solovyov, (1853–1900)
  • Georges Sorel, (1847–1922)
  • William Ritchie Sorley, (1855–1935)
  • Abdolkarim Soroush, (born 1945)
  • Ernest Sosa, (born 1940)
  • Domingo de Soto, (1494–1560)
  • Othmar Spann, (1878–1950)
  • Herbert Spencer, (1820–1903)
  • Thomas Spencer Baynes, (1823–1887)
  • Oswald Spengler, (1880–1936)
  • Speusippus, (410–339 BC)
  • Herbert Spiegelberg, (1904–1990)
  • Baruch Spinoza, (1632–1677)
  • Afrikan Spir, (1837–1890)
  • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, (born 1942)
  • Lysander Spooner, (1808–1887)
  • Timothy L.S. Sprigge, (born 1932)
  • Walter Terence Stace, (1886–1967)
  • Edward Stachura, (1937–1979)
  • Anne Louise Germaine de Staël, (1766–1817)
  • James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount Stair, (1619–1695)
  • Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, (1878–1953)
  • Robert Stalnaker, (born 1940)
  • Henry Stanton, (1805–1887)
  • Olaf Stapledon, (1886–1950)
  • Stanislaw Staszic, (1755–1826)
  • L. Susan Stebbing, (1885–1943)
  • Edith Stein, (1891–1942)
  • George Steiner, (born 1929)
  • Rudolf Steiner, (1861–1925)
  • Leslie Stephen, (1832–1904)
  • Charles Leslie Stevenson, (1908–1979)
  • Dugald Stewart, (1753–1828)
  • Stephen Stich, (born 1944)
  • Stilpo, (c. 360 – c. 280 BC)
  • James Hutchison Stirling, (1820–1909)
  • Max Stirner, (1806–1856)
  • George Frederick Stout, (1860–1944)
  • David Stove, (1927–1994)
  • Strato of Lampsacus, (c. 340 – c. 268 BC)
  • David Friedrich Strauss, (1808–1874)
  • Leo Strauss, (1899–1973)
  • Galen Strawson, (born 1952)
  • P. F. Strawson, (1919–2006)
  • Barry Stroud, (born 1935)
  • Carl Stumpf, (1848–1936)
  • Francisco Suárez, (1548–1617)
  • Gabrielle Suchon, (1631–1703)
  • Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi
  • Sun Tzu, (c. 5th century BC)
  • Sun Yat-sen, (1866–1925)
  • Henry Suso, (1300–1366)
  • Karen Swassjan, (born 1948)
  • Emanuel Swedenborg, (1688–1772)
  • Richard Swinburne, (born 1934)
  • Syrianus, (5th century)
  • David Sztybel, (born 1967)

T

  • Tao,
  • Allama Tabatabai, (1903–1981)
  • Javad Tabatabai, (born 1945)
  • Debendranath Tagore, (1817–1905)
  • Rabindranath Tagore, (1861–1941)
  • Tai Chen (or Dai Zhen or Tai Tung-Yuan), (1724–1777)
  • Hippolyte Taine, (1828–1893)
  • Gáspár Miklós Tamás, (born 1948)
  • T’an Ssu-t’ung, (1864–1898)
  • Tanabe Hajime, (1885–1962)
  • T’ang Chun-i, (1909–1978)
  • Alfred Tarski, (1901–1983)
  • Wladyslaw Tatarkiewicz, (1886–1980)
  • Johannes Tauler, (c. 1300 – 1361)
  • Nicolaus Taurellus, (1547–1606)
  • Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi, (c. 930 – 1023)
  • Charles Taylor, (born 1931)
  • Harriet Taylor Mill, (1807–1858)
  • Richard Taylor, (1919–2003)
  • Gustav Teichmuller, (1837–1888)
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, (1881–1955)
  • Bernardino Telesio, (1509–1588)
  • Placide Tempels, (1906–1977)
  • William Temple, (1881–1944)
  • Frederick Robert Tennant, (1866–1957)
  • Teresa of Avila, (1515–1582)
  • Tertullian, (c. 160 – c. 220)
  • Johannes Nikolaus Tetens, (1736–1807)
  • Thales, (c. 635 – 543 BC)
  • Themistius, (317–387)
  • Theodorus of Cyrene, (c. 465 – 398 BC)
  • Theophrastus, (372–287 BC)
  • Helmut Thielicke, (1908–1986)
  • Peter Thielst, (born 1951)
  • Thierry of Chartres, (fl. c. 1130 – 1150)
  • Thomas à Kempis, (1380–1471)
  • Thomas of Erfurt, (14th century)
  • Thomas of York, (13th century)
  • Christian Thomasius, (1655–1728)
  • William Thompson, (1775–1833)
  • Judith Jarvis Thomson, (born 1929)
  • Henry David Thoreau, (1817–1862)
  • Thrasymachus, (5th century BC)
  • Thucydides, (c. 460 – c. 400 BC)
  • Paul Tillich, (1886–1965)
  • Timaeus of Locri, (5th century BC)
  • Timon of Phlius, (c. 300 BC)
  • Matthew Tindal, (1657–1733)
  • Alexis de Tocqueville, (1805–1859)
  • Tzvetan Todorov, (born 1939)
  • John Toland, (1670–1722)
  • Francisco de Toledo, (1515–1584)
  • Leo Tolstoy, (1828–1910)
  • Tominaga Nakamoto, (1715–1746)
  • Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg
  • Hermes Trismegistus
  • Ernst Troeltsch, (1865–1923)
  • Leon Trotsky, (1879–1940)
  • Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, (1651–1708)
  • Je Tsongkhapa (or Dzongkaba or Rinpoche), (1357–1419)
  • Abraham Tucker, (1705–1774)
  • Benjamin Tucker, (1854–1939)
  • Peter Tudvad, (born 1966)
  • Ernst Tugendhat, (born 1930)
  • Raimo Tuomela, (born 1940)
  • Alan Turing, (1912–1954)
  • George Turnball, (1698–1748)
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, (1201–1274)
  • Kazimierz Twardowski, (1866–1938)
  • Michael Tye, (born 1950)

U

  • Pietro Ubaldi, (1886–1972)
  • Udayana, (11th century)
  • Uddyotakara, (6th century)
  • Uisang, (625–702)
  • Ulrich of Strasbourg, (1220–1277)
  • Hermann Ulrici, (1806–1884)
  • Miguel de Unamuno, (1864–1936)
  • Peter Unger, (born 1942)
  • Dimitri Uznadze, (1886–1950)

V

  • Hans Vaihinger, (1852–1933)
  • György Mihály Vajda, (1935)
  • Valentinius (or Valentinus), (c. 100 – c. 153)
  • Paul Valéry, (1871–1945)
  • Lorenzo Valla, (1406–1457)
  • Vallabhacharya, (1479–1531)
  • Bas C. van Fraassen, (born 1941)
  • Peter van Inwagen, (born 1942)
  • Giulio Cesare Vanini, (1585–1619)
  • Francisco Varela, (1946–2001)
  • Vasubandhu, (4th century)
  • Vatsyayana, (5th century)
  • Emerich de Vattel, (1714–1767)
  • Gianni Vattimo, (born 1936)
  • Vauvenargues, (1715–1747)
  • Gabriel Vazquez, (1549–1604)
  • John Venn, (1834–1923)
  • Henry Babcock Veatch, (1911–1997)
  • Nicoletto Vernia, (1442–1499)
  • Giambattista Vico, (1668–1744)
  • Milan Vidmar, (1885–1962)
  • Álvaro Vieira Pinto, (1909–1987)
  • Michel Villey, (1914–1988)
  • Vital Du Four, (1260–1327)
  • Francisco de Vitoria, (1492–1546)
  • Juan Luís Vives, (1492–1540)
  • Gregory Vlastos, (1907–1991)
  • Eric Voegelin, (1901–1985)
  • Karl Vogt, (1817–1895)
  • Voltaire, (1694–1778)
  • Georg Henrik von Wright, (1916–2003)
  • Lev Vygotsky, (1896–1934)
  • Boris Petrovich Vysheslavtsev, (1877–1954)

W

  • Jean Wahl, (1888–1974)
  • Friedrich Waismann, (1896–1959)
  • Alfred Russel Wallace, (1823–1913)
  • Michael Walzer, (born 1935)
  • Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, (born 1942)
  • Wang Bi, (226–249)
  • Wang Ch’ung, (27–97)
  • Wang Fuzhi (or Wang Fu-Chih or Wang Chuanshan), (1619–1692)
  • Hao Wang, (1921–1995)
  • Wang Yangming, (1472–1529)
  • James Ward, (1843–1925)
  • Geoffrey J. Warnock, (1923–1996)
  • Mary Warnock, (born 1924)
  • John B. Watson, (1878–1958)
  • Watsuji Tetsuro, (1889–1960)
  • Alan Watts, (1915–1973)
  • Max Weber, (1864–1920)
  • Éric Weil, (1904–1977)
  • Simone Weil, (1909–1943)
  • Ota Weinberger, (1919–2009)
  • Otto Weininger, (1880–1903)
  • Christian Hermann Weisse
  • Victoria, Lady Welby, (1837–1912)
  • Felix Weltsch, (1884–1964)
  • John Wesley
  • Cornel West, (born 1953)
  • Edvard Westermarck, (1862–1939)
  • Hermann Weyl, (1885–1955)
  • Frantisek Weyr (or Franz Weyr), (1879–1951)
  • William Whewell, (1794–1866)
  • Benjamin Whichcote, (1609–1683)
  • Thomas White, (1593–1676)
  • Alfred North Whitehead, (1861–1947)
  • David Wiggins, (born 1933)
  • William of Alnwick, (1270–1333)
  • William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, (1180–1249)
  • William of Auxerre, (died 1231)
  • William of Champeaux, (c. 1070 – 1121)
  • William of Conches, (c. 1080 – 1154)
  • William of Moerbeke, (c. 1215 – 1286)
  • William of Shyreswood (or William of Sherwood), (1190–1249)
  • Bernard Williams, (1929–2003)
  • Timothy Williamson, (born 1955)
  • Colin Wilson, (1931–2013)
  • John Cook Wilson, (1849–1915)
  • Peter Winch, (1926–1997)
  • Wilhelm Windelband, (1848–1915)
  • Kwasi Wiredu, (born 1931)
  • John Wisdom, (1904–1993)
  • John Witherspoon, (1723–1794)
  • Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, (1885–1939)
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, (1889–1951)
  • Adam de Wodeham, (1298–1358)
  • Christian Wolff, (1679–1754)
  • William Wollaston, (1659–1724)
  • Richard Wollheim, (1923–2003)
  • Mary Wollstonecraft, (1759–1797)
  • Nicholas Wolterstorff, (born 1932)
  • Wonchuk, (613–696)
  • Timothy K. Wong, (625–644)
  • Wonhyo Daisa, (617–686)
  • Woo Tsin-hang (or Chih-hui), (1865–1953)
  • Chauncey Wright, (1830–1875)
  • Crispin Wright, (born 1942)
  • Dorothy Maud Wrinch, (1894–1976)
  • Jerzy Wróblewski, (1926–1990)
  • Wilhelm Wundt, (1832–1920)*
  • John Wyclif, (c. 1330 – 1384)

X

  • Xenocrates, (396–314 BC)
  • Xenophanes of Colophon, (570–480 BC)
  • Xenophon, (427–355 BC)
  • Xun Zi (or Hsun Tzu), (c. 310 – 237 BC)

Y

  • Yajnavalkya, (c. 1800 BC)
  • Yang Chu, (370–319 BC)
  • Yang Xiong (or Yang Hsiung), (53 BC – AD 18)
  • Yen Yuan, (1635–1704)
  • Yi Hwang (or Toegye), (1501–1570)
  • Yi I (or Yi Yulgok or Yi Yi), (1536–1584)
  • Yi Kan, (1677–1727)
  • Francis Parker Yockey, (1917–1960)
  • Arthur M. Young, (1905–1995)
  • Iris Marion Young, (1949–2006)

Z

  • Zoroaster
  • Jacopo Zabarella, (1533–1589)
  • Edward N. Zalta, (born 1952)
  • Peter Wessel Zapffe, (1899–1990)
  • Zeami Motokiyo, (c. 1363 – c. 1443)
  • Mao Zedong, (1893–1976)
  • Eduard Zeller, (1814–1908)
  • Zeno of Citium, (333–264 BC)
  • Zeno of Elea, (c. 495 – c. 430 BC)
  • Zeno of Sidon, (1st century BC)
  • Zeno of Tarsus, (fl. 200 BC)
  • Ernst Zermelo, (1871–1953)
  • Philip Zhai, (born 1957)
  • Zhiyi, (538–597)
  • Zhou Guoping, (born 1945)
  • Zhu Xi (or Chu Hsi), (1130–1200)
  • Zhuang Zi (or Chuang Tzu or Chuang Chou), (circa 300 BC)
  • Slavoj Žižek, (born 1949)
  • Florian Znaniecki, (1882–1958)
  • Zongmi, (780–841)
  • Zou Yan, (3rd century BC)
  • Xavier Zubiri, (1889–1983)

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