Lists of Philosophers

The alphabetical list of philosophers 
 

A

  • Adi Shankara, circa. 7th Century
  • Nicola Abbagnano, (1901–1990)
  • Muhammad Abduh, (1849–1905)
  • Peter Abelard, (1079–1142)
  • Abhinavagupta, (fl. c. 975 – 1025)
  • Isaac ben Judah Abravanel, (1437–1508)
  • Judah ben Isaac Abravanel, (1460?-1535?)
  • Marilyn McCord Adams, (born 1943)
  • Robert Adams, (born 1937)
  • Joseph Addison, (1672–1719)
  • Adelard of Bath, (12th century)
  • Alfred Adler, (1870–1937)
  • Theodor Adorno, (1903–1969)
  • Aenesidemus, (1st century BC)
  • Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, (1839–1897)
  • Rodolphus Agricola, (1443–1485)
  • Agrippa the Sceptic, (1st/2nd century)
  • Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, (1436–1535)
  • Pierre d’Ailly, (1350–1420)
  • Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, (1890–1963)
  • Hans Albert, (born 1921)
  • Albert of Saxony, (c. 1316–1390)
  • Albertus Magnus (or Saint Albert the Great or Albert of Cologne), (1193?-1280)
  • Joseph Albo, (1380–1444)
  • Alcinous, (2nd century)
  • Alcmaeon of Croton, (5th century BC)
  • Virgil Aldrich, (1903–1998)
  • Yohanan ben Isaac Alemanno, (1433–1504)
  • Alexander of Aphrodisias, (2nd century)
  • Alexander of Hales, (d. 1245)
  • Samuel Alexander, (1859–1938)
  • Dante Alighieri, (1265–1321)
  • Antonio Aliotta, (1881–1964)
  • Archibald Alison, (1757–1839)
  • Abd al-Jabiri, (born 1935)
  • Abdullah al-Qasemi, (1907–1996)
  • William Alston, (1921–2009)
  • Johannes Althusius, (1557–1638)
  • Louis Althusser, (1918–1990)
  • Robert Alyngton, (d. 1398)
  • Bhimrao Ambedkar, (1891–1956)
  • Ambrose, (c. 340–397)
  • Abu’l Hasan Muhammad Ibn Yusuf al-‘Amiri, (d. 992)
  • Ammonius Hermiae, (5th century)
  • Ammonius Saccas, (3rd century)
  • André-Marie Ampère, (1775–1836)
  • Anton Wilhelm Amo, (1703 – c. 1759)
  • Anaxagoras, (died 462 BC)
  • Anaxarchus, (fl. 340 BC)
  • Anaximander, (c. 610 BC-c. 546 BC)
  • Anaximenes of Miletus
  • Alan Ross Anderson, (1925–1973)
  • John Anderson, (1893–1962)
  • Ando Shoeki, (1703–1762)
  • Andronicus of Rhodes, (c. 70 BC)
  • Peter Annet, (1693–1769)
  • Anniceris, (fl. 300 BC)
  • G. E. M. Anscombe, (1918–2001)
  • Anselm, (1034–1109)
  • Antiochus of Ascalon, (c. 130 – 68 BC)
  • Antiphon, (480–403 BC)
  • Antisthenes, (c. 444–365)
  • Karl-Otto Apel, (1922–2017)
  • Apuleius, (c. 123 – c. 180)
  • Thomas Aquinas, (1225–1274)
  • Isaac ben Moses Arama, (1420–1494)
  • Arcesilaus, (316–241 BC)
  • Archytas, (428–347 BC)
  • Roberto Ardigò, (1828–1920)
  • Hannah Arendt, (1906–1975)
  • Aristippus of Cyrene, (c. 435–366 BC)
  • Aristo of Chios, (fl. 250 BC)
  • Aristotle, (384 BC-322 BC)
  • Arius, (256–336)
  • Mohammed Arkoun, (born 1928)
  • Jacobus Arminius, (1560–1609)
  • David Malet Armstrong, (born 1926)
  • Antoine Arnauld, (1612–1694)
  • Matthew Arnold, (1822–1888)
  • Kenneth Arrow, (1921–2017)
  • Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, (1894–1975)
  • Mary Astell, (1666–1731)
  • Athanasius of Alexandria, (298–373)
  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale, (1920–2003)
  • Gwenaëlle Aubry, (born 1971)
  • Augustine of Hippo, (354–430)
  • Marcus Aurelius, (121–180)
  • Peter Aureol, (c. 1280–1322)
  • Sri Aurobindo, (1872–1950)
  • John Austin, (1790–1859)
  • John Langshaw Austin, (1911–1960)
  • Richard Avenarius, (1843–1896)
  • Averroes (or Ibn Rushd), (1126–1198)
  • Avicenna (or Ibn Sina), (980–1037)
  • Alfred Jules Ayer, (1910–1989)

B

  • Franz Xaver von Baader, (1765–1841)
  • Charles Babbage, (1791–1871)
  • Gaston Bachelard, (1884–1962)
  • Johann Jakob Bachofen, (1815–1887)
  • Francis Bacon, (1561–1626)
  • Roger Bacon, (1214–1294)
  • Alain Badiou, (born 1937) 
  • Hibat Allah Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi, (1080–1165)
  • Annette Baier, (born 1929)
  • Kurt Baier, (1917–2010)
  • Alexander Bain, (1818–1903)
  • Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, (1741–1792)
  • Lynne Rudder Baker, (born 1944)
  • Mikhail Bakhtin, (1895–1975)
  • Mikhail Bakunin, (1814–1876)
  • Arthur Balfour, (1848–1930)
  • John Balguy, (1686–1748)
  • Domingo Báñez, (1528–1604)
  • Antonio Banfi, (1886–1957)
  • Abraham bar Hiyya Ha-Nasi, (1070–1136)
  • Jonathan Barnes, (born 1942)
  • Brian Barry, (1936–2009)
  • Karl Barth, (1886–1968)
  • Roland Barthes, (1915–1980)
  • Bartolus de Saxoferrato, (1313–1357)
  • Johann Bernhard Basedow, (1724–1790)
  • Basilides, (c. 117–138)
  • Georges Bataille, (1897–1962)
  • Charles Batteux, (1713–1780)
  • Jean Baudrillard, (1929–2007) 
  • Bruno Bauer, (1809–1882)
  • David Baumgardt, (1890–1963)
  • Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, (1714–1762)
  • Pierre Bayle, (1647–1706)
  • Monroe Beardsley, (1915–1985)
  • James Beattie, (1735–1803)
  • Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria, (1738–1794)
  • Jakob Sigismund Beck, (1761–1840)
  • Vissarion Belinsky, (1811–1848)
  • Robert Bellarmine, (1542–1621)
  • Nuel Belnap, (born 1930)
  • Gustave Belot, (1859–1929)
  • Friedrich Eduard Beneke, (1798–1854)
  • Walter Benjamin, (1892–1940)
  • Gottfried Benn, (1886–1956)
  • Jonathan Bennett, (born 1930)
  • Jeremy Bentham, (1748–1832)
  • Richard Bentley, (1662–1742)
  • Nikolai Berdyaev, (1874–1948)
  • Gustav Bergmann, (1906–1987)
  • Henri Bergson, (1859–1941)
  • George Berkeley, (1685–1753)
  • Isaiah Berlin, (1909–1997)
  • Claude Bernard, (1813–1878)
  • Bernard of Chartres, (d. 1130)
  • Bernard of Clairvaux, (1090–1153)
  • Bernard Silvestris (or Bernard of Tours), (1147–1178)
  • François Bernier, (1620–1688)
  • Eduard Bernstein, (1850–1932)
  • Ludwig von Bertalanffy, (1901–1972)
  • Bhartrhari, (5th century)
  • Gabriel Biel, (1425–1495)
  • Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, (1693–1750)
  • Alfred Binet, (1857–1911)
  • Ludwig Binswanger, (1881–1966)
  • Max Black, (1909–1988)
  • Simon Blackburn, (born 1944)
  • William Blackstone, (1723–1780)
  • Hugh Blair, (1718–1800)
  • William Blake, (1757–1827)
  • Maurice Blanchot, (1907–2003)
  • Brand Blanshard, (1892–1987)
  • Blasius of Parma (or Biagio Pelacani da Parma), (1345–1416)
  • Ernst Bloch, (1885–1977)
  • Ned Block, (born 1942)
  • Maurice Blondel, (1861–1949)
  • Charles Blount, (1654–1693)
  • Norberto Bobbio, (1909–2004)
  • Jean Bodin, (1530–1596)
  • Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, (AD 480–524 or 525)
  • Boetius of Dacia, (c. 1240 – c. 1280)
  • Leonardo Boff, (born 1938)
  • Alexander Bogdanov, (1873–1928)
  • Jakob Böhme, (1575–1624)
  • David Bohm, (1917–1992)
  • Niels Bohr, (1885–1962)
  • Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, (1636–1711)
  • Samuel Bold, (1649–1737)
  • Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, (1678–1751)
  • Ludwig Boltzmann, (1844–1906)
  • Bernard Bolzano, (1781–1848)
  • Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald, (1754–1840)
  • Francesco Bonatelli, (1830–1911)
  • Bonaventure, (1221–1274)
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer, (1906–1945)
  • Charles Bonnet, (1720–1793)
  • George Boole, (1815–1864)
  • Bernard Bosanquet, (1848–1923)
  • Rudjer Boscovich, (1711–1787)
  • Pierre Bourdieu, (1930–2002)
  • Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, (1627–1704)
  • Christopher Jacob Boström, (1797–1866)
  • Henri de Boulainvilliers, (1658–1722)
  • Emile Boutroux, (1845–1921)
  • Oets Kolk Bouwsma, (1898–1978)
  • Borden Parker Bowne, (1847–1910)
  • Robert Boyle, (1627–1691)
  • F. H. Bradley, (1846–1924)
  • Thomas Bradwardine, (c. 1290–1349)
  • Richard-Bevan Braithwaite, (1900–1990)
  • Richard B. Brandt, (1910–1997)
  • Franz Brentano, (1838–1917)
  • Percy Williams Bridgman, (1882–1961)
  • Edgar S. Brightman, (1884–1953)
  • Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, (1755–1826)
  • Richard Brinkley, (fl. 1350–1373)
  • Radulphus Brito, (c. 1270 – c. 1320)
  • C. D. Broad, (1887–1971)
  • Thom Brooks, (born 1973)
  • Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, (1881–1966)
  • Thomas Brown, (1778–1820)
  • Peter Browne, (1666–1735)
  • Orestes Brownson, (1803–1876)
  • Emil Brunner, (1889–1966)
  • Giordano Bruno, (1548–1600)
  • Leon Brunschvicg, (1869–1944)
  • James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (1838–1922)
  • Martin Buber, (1878–1965)
  • Justus Buchler, (1914–1991)
  • Ludwig Büchner, (1824–1899)
  • Henry Thomas Buckle, (1821–1862)
  • Malcolm Budd, (born 1941)
  • Johann Franz Buddeus, (1667–1729)
  • Buddhaghosa, (5th century)
  • Claude Buffier, (1661–1737)
  • Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, (1707–1788)
  • Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov, (1871–1944)
  • Edward Bullough, (1880–1934)
  • Rudolf Bultmann, (1884–1976)
  • Jacob Burckhardt, (1818–1897)
  • Tyler Burge, (born 1946)
  • Jean Buridan, (1300–1358)
  • Edmund Burke, (1729–1797)
  • Walter Burley, (c. 1275 – c. 1345)
  • Myles Frederic Burnyeat, (born 1939)
  • Richard Burthogge, (1638–1704)
  • Joseph Butler, (1692–1752)
  • Samuel Butler, (1835–1902)

C

  • Pierre Jean George Cabanis, (1757–1808)
  • Amílcar Cabral, (1924–1973)
  • Edward Caird, (1835–1908)
  • Dorion Cairns, (1901–1973)
  • Thomas Cajetan, (1469–1534)
  • Calcidius, (4th century)
  • Mario Calderoni, (1879–1914)
  • Callicles, (late 5th century BC)
  • John Calvin, (1509–1564)
  • Tommaso Campanella, (1568–1639)
  • George Campbell, (1719–1796)
  • Norman Robert Campbell, (1880–1949)
  • Albert Camus, (1913–1960)
  • Georges Canguilhem, (1904–1995)
  • Georg Cantor, (1845–1918)
  • Johannes Capreolus, (1380–1444)
  • Claudia Card, (born 1940)
  • Gerolamo Cardano, (1501–1576)
  • Thomas Carlyle, (1795–1881)
  • Gershom Carmichael, (c. 1672–1729)
  • Rudolf Carnap, (1891–1970)
  • Carneades, (c. 214–129 BC)
  • Edward Carpenter, (1844–1929)
  • Lewis Carroll, (1832–1898)
  • Nancy Cartwright, (born 1943)
  • Carl Gustav Carus, (1789–1869)
  • Paul Carus, (1852–1919)
  • Antonio Caso, (1883–1946)
  • Ernst Cassirer, (1874–1945)
  • Hector-Neri Castañeda, (1924–1991)
  • Carlo Cattaneo, (1801–1869)
  • Stanley Cavell, (born 1926)
  • Margaret Cavendish, (1623–1673)
  • Celsus of Alexandria, (2nd century)
  • Michel de Certeau, (1925–1986)
  • Pyotr Chaadaev, (1794–1856)
  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain, (1855–1927)
  • Chanakya (or Kautilya), (321–296 BC)
  • Chang Hsueh-ch’eng (or Zhang Xuecheng), (1738–1801)
  • Chang Tsai (or Zhang Zai), (1020–1077)
  • William Ellery Channing, (1780–1842)
  • Walter Charleton, (1619–1707)
  • Pierre Charron, (1541–1603)
  • François-René de Chateaubriand, (1768–1848)
  • Walter Chatton, (1290–1343)
  • Ch’en Hsien-chang, (1428–1500)
  • Cheng Hao (or Ch’eng Ming-Tao), (1032–1085)
  • Cheng Hsuan (or Zheng Xuan), (127–200)
  • Cheng Yi (or Ch’eng Yi Chu’an), (1033–1107)
  • Nikolai Chernyshevsky, (1828–1889)
  • Chia Yi (or Jia Yi or Chia I), (201–169 BC)
  • Chiao Hung, (1540–1620)
  • Boris Chicherin, (1828–1904)
  • Ch’ien Mu, (1895–1990)
  • Chih Tun (or Zhi Dun), (314–366)
  • William Chillingworth, (1602–1644)
  • Roderick Chisholm, (1916–1999)
  • Noam Chomsky, (born 1928)
  • Tasan Chông Yagyong, (1762–1836)
  • Chou Tun-Yi (or Zhou Dunyi or Chou Lien-Hsi or Zhou Lianxi), (1017–1073)
  • Christine de Pizan, (c. 1365 – c. 1430)
  • Chrysippus, (279–207 BC)
  • Thomas Chubb, (1679–1747)
  • Alonzo Church, (1903–1995)
  • Patricia Churchland, (born 1943)
  • Paul Churchland, (born 1942)
  • Leon Chwistek, (1884–1944)
  • Cicero, (106 BC-43 BC)
  • August Cieszkowski, (1814–1894)
  • Emil Cioran, (1911–1995)
  • Hélène Cixous, (born 1937)
  • Clarembald of Arras, (1110–1187)
  • Samuel Clarke, (1675–1729)
  • Johannes Clauberg, (1622–1665)
  • Cleanthes, (301–232 BC)
  • Clement of Alexandria, (2nd-3rd century)
  • Catherine Clément, (born 1939)
  • Cleomedes, (2nd century)
  • William Kingdon Clifford, (1845–1879)
  • Catherine Trotter Cockburn, (1679–1749)
  • Lorraine Code, (born 1937)
  • G.A. Cohen, (1941–2009)
  • Hermann Cohen, (1842–1918)
  • L. Jonathan Cohen, (born 1923)
  • Morris Raphael Cohen, (1880–1947)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, (1772–1834)
  • John Colet, (1466–1519)
  • Lucio Colletti, (1924–2001)
  • Arthur Collier, (1680–1732)
  • R. G. Collingwood, (1889–1943)
  • Anthony Collins, (1676–1729)
  • John Comenius, (1592–1670)
  • Auguste Comte, (1798–1857)
  • Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, (1715–1780)
  • Marquis de Condorcet, (1743–1794)
  • Confucius, (551 BC – 479 BC)
  • Benjamin Constant, (1767–1830)
  • Lady Anne Finch Conway, (1631–1679)
  • Nicolaus Copernicus, (1473–1543)
  • Henry Corbin, (1903–1978)
  • Geraud de Cordemoy, (1626–1684)
  • Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, (1522–1570)
  • Uriel da Costa, (1585–1640)
  • Antoine Augustin Cournot, (1801–1877)
  • Victor Cousin, (1792–1867)
  • Louis Couturat, (1868–1914)
  • William Crathorn, (14th century)
  • Cratylus, (c. 400 BC)
  • James Edwin Creighton, (1861–1924)
  • Hasdai Crescas, (c. 1340–1410)
  • Benedetto Croce, (1866–1952)
  • Christian August Crusius, (1715–1775)
  • Ralph Cudworth, (1617–1688)
  • Nathaniel Culverwel, (1619–1651)
  • Richard Cumberland, (1631?-1718)
  • Cyrano de Bergerac, (1619–1655)
  • Heinrich Czolbe, (1819–1873)

D

  • Jean le Rond d’Alembert, (1717–1783)
  • Damascius, (c. 462–540)
  • Peter Damian, (c. 1007–1072)
  • Arthur Danto, (born 1924)
  • Charles Darwin, (1809–1882)
  • Erasmus Darwin, (1731–1802)
  • David of Dinant, (12th century)
  • David the Invincible, (late 6th century)
  • Donald Davidson, (1917–2003)
  • Jalal al-Din al-Dawani, (1426–1502)
  • Simone de Beauvoir, (1908–1986)
  • Bruno de Finetti, (1906–1985)
  • Joseph de Maistre, (1753–1821)
  • Paul de Man, (1919–1983)
  • Augustus De Morgan, (1806–1871)
  • Francesco de Sanctis, (1817–1883)
  • Richard Dedekind, (1831–1916)
  • Joseph Déjacque, (1821–1865)
  • Gilles Deleuze, (1925–1995)
  • Bernard Delfgaauw, (1912–1993)
  • Elijah Delmedigo, (1460–1497)
  • Giorgio Del Vecchio, (1878–1970)
  • Democritus, (460–370 BC)
  • Daniel Dennett, (born 1942)
  • Denys the Carthusian (or Denys de Leeuwis), (1402–1471)
  • Jacques Derrida, (1930–2004)
  • René Descartes, (1596–1650)
  • Robert Desgabets, (1610–1678)
  • Antoine Destutt de Tracy, (1754–1836)
  • Paul Deussen, (1845–1919)
  • Alejandro Deustua, (1849–1945)
  • John Dewey, (1859–1952)
  • Dharmakirti, (c. 7th century)
  • Albert Venn Dicey, (1835–1922)
  • Denis Diderot, (1713–1784)
  • Dietrich of Freiberg, (13th century)
  • Kenelm Digby, (1603–1665)
  • Dignaga, (c. 480–c. 540)
  • Wilhelm Dilthey, (1833–1911)
  • Hugo Dingler, (1881–1954)
  • Diodorus Cronus, (3rd century BC)
  • Diogenes Laërtius, (3rd century)
  • Diogenes of Apollonia, (c. 460 BC)
  • Diogenes of Babylon, (c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC)
  • Diogenes of Oenoanda, (2nd Century)
  • Diogenes the Cynic of Sinope, (412–323 BC)
  • Dogen Zenji (or Dōgen Kigen), (1200–1253)
  • Dong Zhongshu (or Tung Chung-shu), (c. 176–c. 104)
  • Herman Dooyeweerd, (1894–1977)
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky, (1821–1881)
  • Fred Dretske, (born 1932)
  • Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch, (1867–1941)
  • Emil du Bois-Reymond, (1818–1896)
  • Jean-Baptiste Dubos, (1670–1742)
  • Émilie du Châtelet, (1706–1749)
  • Guillaume du Vair, (1556–1621)
  • Curt Ducasse, (1881–1969)
  • Pierre Duhem, (1861–1916)
  • Eugen Dühring, (1833–1921)
  • Michael Dummett, (born 1925)
  • Duns Scotus, (c. 1266–1308)
  • Profiat Duran (or Efodi or Isaac ben Moses Levi), (c. 1349–c. 1414)
  • Simeon ben Zemah Duran (or Rashbaz), (1361–1444)
  • Durandus of St. Pourçain, (c. 1275–1334)
  • Will Durant, (1885–1981)
  • Émile Durkheim, (1858–1917)
  • Ronald Dworkin, (born 1931)

E

  • Jonathan Earle, (born 1970)
  • John Earman, (born 1942)
  • Johann Augustus Eberhard, (1739–1809)
  • Meister Eckhart, (1260–1327/8)
  • Umberto Eco, (born 1932)
  • Arthur Stanley Eddington, (1882–1944)
  • Jonathan Edwards, (1703–1758)
  • Paul Edwards, (1923–2004)
  • Christian von Ehrenfels, (1856–1932)
  • Albert Einstein, (1879–1955)
  • Mircea Eliade, (1907–1986)
  • Elias, (6th century)
  • George Eliot, (1819–1880)
  • T. S. Eliot, (1888–1965)
  • Elisabeth of Bohemia, (1618–1680)
  • Jon Elster, (born 1940)
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson, (1803–1882)
  • Empedocles, (490 BC–430 BC)
  • Friedrich Engels, (1820–1895)
  • Epicharmus, (c. 540–450 BC)
  • Epictetus, (AD 55–circa 135)
  • Epicurus, (341 BC–270 BC)
  • Desiderius Erasmus, (1466–1536)
  • Johannes Scotus Eriugena, (c. 800–c. 880)
  • Rudolf Christoph Eucken, (1846–1926)
  • Eudoxus of Cnidus, (410 or 408 BC – 355 or 347 BC)
  • Eusebius of Caesarea, (264–339)
  • Gareth Evans, (1946–1980)

F

  • Emil Fackenheim, (1916–2003)
  • Thome H. Fang, (1899–1976)
  • Frantz Fanon, (1925–1961)
  • Al-Farabi, (870–950)
  • Michael Faraday, (1791–1867)
  • Michelangelo Fardella, (1646–1718)
  • Raimundo de Farias Brito, (1862–1917)
  • Austin Marsden Farrer, (1904–1968)
  • Fazang (or Fa-Tsang), (643–712)
  • Gustav Fechner, (1801–1887)
  • Andrew Feenberg, (born 1943)
  • Valentin Feldman, (1909–1942)
  • Joel Feinberg, (1926–2004)
  • José Pablo Feinmann, (born 1943)
  • François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, (1651–1715)
  • Feng Youlan, (1895–1990)
  • Adam Ferguson, (1723–1816)
  • Ann Ferguson, (born 1938)
  • Jose Ferrater-Mora, (1912–1991)
  • Luigi Ferri, (1826–1895)
  • James Frederick Ferrier, (1808–1864)
  • Ludwig Feuerbach, (1804–1872)
  • Paul Feyerabend, (1924–1994)
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte, (1762–1814)
  • Marsilio Ficino, (1433–1499)
  • Hartry Field, (born 1946)
  • Robert Filmer, (1588–1653)
  • Eugen Fink, (1905–1975)
  • John Finnis, (born 1940)
  • Kuno Fischer, (1824–1907)
  • Ronald Fisher, (1890–1962)
  • John Fiske, (1842–1901)
  • Pavel Aleksandrovich Florenskii, (1882–1937)
  • Georges Florovsky, (1893–1979)
  • Robert Fludd, (1574–1637)
  • Jerry Fodor, (born 1935)
  • Robert J. Fogelin, (born 1932)
  • Dagfinn Føllesdal, (born 1932)
  • Benjamin Fondane, (1898–1944)
  • Pedro da Fonseca, (1528–1599)
  • Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, (1657–1757)
  • Philippa Foot, (1920–2010)
  • David Fordyce, (1711–1751)
  • Michel Foucault, (1926–1984)
  • Simon Foucher, (1644–1696)
  • Alfred Fouillée, (1838–1922)
  • Charles Fourier, (1772–1837)
  • Francis of Marchia, (ca. 1290 – ca. 1344)
  • Francis of Meyronnes, (1285–1328)
  • Sebastian Franck, (1499–1542)
  • Jerome Frank, (1889–1957)
  • Erich Frank, (1883–1949)
  • Semën Liudvigovich Frank, (1877–1950)
  • William K. Frankena, (1908–1994)
  • Harry Gordon Frankfurt, (born 1929)
  • Benjamin Franklin, (1706–1790)
  • Michael Frede, (1940–2007)
  • Gottlob Frege, (1848–1925)
  • Hans Frei, (1922–1988)
  • Paulo Freire, (1921–1997)
  • Sigmund Freud, (1856–1939)
  • Jakob Friedrich Fries, (1773–1843)
  • Friedrich Fröbel, (1782–1852)
  • Erich Fromm, (1900–1980)
  • Marilyn Frye, (born 1941)
  • Fujiwara Seika, (1561–1619)
  • Lon L. Fuller, (1902–1978)
  • Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov, (1828–1906)

G

  • Gadadhara Bhattacharya, (1604–1709)
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer, (1900–2002)
  • Gaius, (110–180)
  • Galen, (131–201)
  • Galileo Galilei, (1564–1642)
  • Pasquale Galluppi, (1770–1846)
  • Rafael Gambra Ciudad, (1920–2004)
  • Mahatma Gandhi, (1869–1948)
  • Gangeśa, (fl. c. 1325)
  • Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, (1887–1964)
  • Christian Garve, (1742–1798)
  • Pierre Gassendi, (1592–1655)
  • Gaunilo, (11th century)
  • Aksapada Gautama, (c. 2nd century BC)
  • Siddhartha Gautama (or Buddha), (ca. 563–483 BC)
  • David Gauthier, (born 1932)
  • John Gay, (1685–1732)
  • Peter Geach, (1919–2013)
  • Arnold Gehlen, (1904–1976)
  • Antonio Genovesi, (1712–1769)
  • Giovanni Gentile, (1875–1944)
  • Gerhard Gentzen, (1909–1945)
  • George of Trebizond, (1395–1484)
  • Gerard of Cremona, (1114–1187)
  • Gerard of Odo (or Gerald Odonis), (1290–1349)
  • Alexander Gerard, (1728–1795)
  • Gerbert of Aurillac (or Pope Silvester II), (c. 950–1003)
  • Giacinto Sigismondo Gerdil, (1718–1802)
  • Jean Gerson, (1363–1429)
  • Gersonides (or Levi ben Gershon), (1288–1344)
  • Edmund Gettier, (born 1927)
  • Arnold Geulincx, (1624–1669)
  • Alan Gewirth, (1912–2004)
  • Joseph Geyser, (1869–1948)
  • Al-Ghazali, (1058–1111)
  • Allan Gibbard, (born 1942)
  • Edward Gibbon, (1737–1794)
  • Josiah Gibbs, (1839–1903)
  • Gilbert of Poitiers, (1070–1154)
  • Giles of Rome, (c. 1243–1316)
  • Étienne Gilson, (1884–1978)
  • Asher Ginsberg (or Ahad Ha’am), (1856–1927)
  • Vincenzo Gioberti, (1801–1852)
  • Joseph Glanvill, (1636–1680)
  • Jonathan Glover, (born 1941)
  • Arthur de Gobineau, (1816–1882)
  • Rudolph Goclenius, (1547–1628)
  • Kurt Gödel, (1906–1978)
  • Godfrey of Fontaines, (c. 1250–1309)
  • William Godwin, (1756–1836)
  • Johann Wolfgang Goethe, (1749–1832)
  • Friedrich Gogarten, (1887–1968)
  • Alvin Goldman, (born 1938)
  • Gongsun Longzi, (c. 300 BC)
  • Nelson Goodman, (1906–1998)
  • Gorgias, (c. 483–375 BC)
  • André Gorz, (1923–2007)
  • Johann Christoph Gottsched, (1700–1766)
  • Marie de Gournay, (1565–1645)
  • M. Fethullah Gulen (1941-present)
  • Baltasar Gracián y Morales, (1601–1658)
  • Antonio Gramsci, (1891–1937)
  • Asa Gray, (1810–1888)
  • John Gray, (born 1948)
  • Hilary Greaves, (born 1978)
  • Thomas Hill Green, (1836–1882)
  • Pope Gregory I, (540–604)
  • Gregory of Nazianzus, (329–389)
  • Gregory of Nyssa, (c. 335–398)
  • Gregory of Rimini, (d. 1358)
  • Herbert Paul Grice, (1913–1988)
  • James Griffin, (born 1933)
  • Germain Grisez, (born 1929)
  • Robert Grosseteste, (1175–1253)
  • Reinhardt Grossmann, (born 1931)
  • John Grote, (1813–1866)
  • Hugo Grotius, (1583–1645)
  • Adolf Grunbaum, (born 1923)
  • Guan Zhong (or Kuan Tzu or Kwan Chung or Guanzi), (740–645 BC)
  • Ernesto “Che” Guevara, (1928–1967)
  • Guo Xiang, (c. 252–312)
  • Edmund Gurney, (1847–1888)
  • Aron Gurwitsch, (1901–1973)

H

  • Jürgen Habermas, (born 1929)
  • Ian Hacking, (born 1936)
  • Ernst Haeckel, (1834–1919)
  • Axel Anders Theodor Hagerstrom, (1868–1939)
  • Yehuda Halevi, (c. 1085–1141)
  • Johann Georg Hamann, (1730–1788)
  • Octave Hamelin, (1856–1907)
  • Sir William Hamilton, (1788–1856)
  • David Walter Hamlyn, (born 1924–2012)
  • Stuart Hampshire, (1914–2004)
  • Hassan Hanafi, (born 1935)
  • Han Feizi, (d. 233 BC)
  • Han Wonjin, (1682–1751)
  • Han Yu, (768–824)
  • Alastair Hannay, (born 1932)
  • Eduard Hanslick, (1825–1904)
  • Norwood Russell Hanson, (1922–1967)
  • Sandra Harding, (born 1935)
  • R. M. Hare, (1919–2002)
  • Gilbert Harman, (born 1938)
  • Adolf von Harnack, (1851–1930)
  • James Harrington, (1611–1677)
  • William Torrey Harris, (1835–1909)
  • H. L. A. Hart, (1907–1992)
  • David Hartley, (1705–1757)
  • Eduard Von Hartmann, (1842–1906)
  • Nicolai Hartmann, (1882–1950)
  • Charles Hartshorne, (1897–2000)
  • William Harvey, (1578–1657)
  • Seiichi Hatano, (1877–1950)
  • Hayashi Razan, (1583–1657)
  • Friedrich Hayek, (1899–1992)
  • William Hazlitt, (1778–1830)
  • Christian Friedrich Hebbel, (1813–1863)
  • G.W.F. Hegel, (1770–1831)
  • Martin Heidegger, (1889–1976)
  • Carl Heim, (1874–1958)
  • Werner Heisenberg, (1901–1976)
  • Virginia Held, (born 1929)
  • Ágnes Heller, (1929–2019)
  • Hermann von Helmholtz, (1821–1894)
  • Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont, (1614–1698)
  • Claude Adrien Helvétius, (1715–1771)
  • Carl Gustav Hempel, (1905–1997)
  • Frans Hemsterhuis, (1721–1790)
  • Henricus Regius, (1598–1679)
  • Henry of Ghent, (c. 1217–1293)
  • Henry of Harclay, (1270–1317)
  • Ronald William Hepburn, (1927–2008)
  • Heraclides Ponticus, (387–312 BC)
  • Heraclitus of Ephesus, (ca. 535–475 BC)
  • Johann Friedrich Herbart, (1776–1841)
  • Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, (1583–1648)
  • Johann Gottfried Herder, (1744–1803)
  • Abraham Cohen de Herrera (or Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira), (1562–1635)
  • John Herschel, (1792–1871)
  • Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, (1857–1894)
  • Hervaeus Natalis, (1250–1323)
  • Alexander Herzen, (1812–1870)
  • Abraham Joshua Heschel, (1907–1972)
  • Hesiod, (c. 700 BC)
  • Moses Hess, (1812–1875)
  • Sergei Iosifovich Hessen, (1887–1950)
  • William of Heytesbury (or Hentisberus or Hentisberi or Tisberi), (1313–1373)
  • John Hick, (1922–2012)
  • Laurens Perseus Hickok, (1798–1888)
  • Hierocles the Stoic, (2nd century)
  • David Hilbert, (1862–1943)
  • Hildegard of Bingen, (1098–1179)
  • Hillel ben Samuel of Verona, (1220–1295)
  • Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Hinrichs, (1794–1861)
  • Jaakko Hintikka, (born 1929)
  • Hippias, (5th century BC)
  • Hippocrates, (460–380 BC)
  • Ho Yen, (190–249)
  • Thomas Hobbes, (1588–1679)
  • Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, (1864–1929)
  • William Ernest Hocking, (1873–1966)
  • Shadworth Hodgson, (1832–1912)
  • Harald Høffding, (1843–1931)
  • Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, (1879–1918)
  • Baron d’Holbach, (1723–1789)
  • Robert Holcot, (1290–1349)
  • Friedrich Hölderlin, (1770–1843)
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., (1841–1935)
  • Edwin Holt, (1873–1946)
  • Henry Home, Lord Kames, (1696–1782)
  • Homer, (c. 700 BC)
  • Richard Hönigswald, (1875–1947)
  • Sidney Hook, (1902–1989)
  • Richard Hooker, (1554–1600)
  • Max Horkheimer, (1895–1973)
  • Jennifer Hornsby, (born 1951)
  • Paul Horwich, (born 1947)
  • George Howison, (1834–1916)
  • Hsi K’ang, (223–262)
  • Hsiung Shih-li, (1885–1968)
  • Hsu Fu-kuan, (1903–1982)
  • Hsu Hsing, (c. 300 BC)
  • Hu Hung (or Wu-Feng), (1100–1155)
  • Hu Shih, (1891–1962)
  • Huai Nun Tzu (or Liu An), (179–122 BC)
  • Huang Zongxi (or Huang Tsung-hsi), (1610–1695)
  • Pierre Daniel Huet, (1630–1721)
  • Friedrich von Hügel, (1852–1925)
  • Hugh of St Victor, (c. 1078–1141)
  • Hui Shi, (4th century BC)
  • Wilhelm von Humboldt, (1767–1835)
  • David Hume, (1711–1776)
  • Jan Hus, (1369–1415)
  • Edmund Husserl, (1859–1938)
  • Francis Hutcheson, (1694–1746)
  • Thomas Henry Huxley, (1825–1895)
  • Christiaan Huygens, (1629–1695)
  • Hypatia of Alexandria, (370–415)
  • Jean Hyppolite, (1907–1968)

I

  • Iamblichus, (ca. 245 AD-ca. 325)
  • Yahya ibn Adi, (893–974)
  • Ibn Arabi, (1164–1240)
  • Ibn ar-Rawandi, (c. 910)
  • Ibn Bajjah (or Avempace), (died 1138)
  • Ibn Daud (or Rabad I or Avendauth, or John of Spain), (1110–1180)
  • Abraham ibn Ezra, (1092/3–1167)
  • Moses ibn Ezra, (1070–1138)
  • Ibn Falaquera, (1223–1290)
  • Solomon Ibn Gabirol, (1021–1058)
  • Ibn Hazm, (994–1069)
  • Ibn Kammuna, (1215–1284)
  • Ibn Khaldun, (1332–1406)
  • Ibn Masarra, (883–931)
  • Ibn Miskawayh, (940–1030)
  • Bahya ibn Paquda, (1040–1110)
  • Ibn Sabin, (1217–1268)
  • Ibn Taymiya, (1263–1328)
  • Samuel ibn Tibbon, (c. 1165 – 1232)
  • Ibn Tufail, (1110–1185)
  • Joseph ibn Tzaddik, (c. 1149)
  • Ivan Aleksandrovich Il’in, (1883–1954)
  • Evald Vassilievich Ilyenkov, (1924–1979)
  • Immanuel the Roman, (c. 1270 – c. 1330)
  • Roman Ingarden, (1893–1970)
  • William Ralph Inge, (1860–1954)
  • José Ingenieros, (1877–1925)
  • Nae Ionescu, (1890–1940)
  • Muhammad Iqbal, (1877–1938)
  • Luce Irigaray, (born 1930)
  • Terence Irwin, (born 1947)
  • Isocrates, (436–338 BC)
  • Isaac of Stella, (1105–1177)
  • Isaac Israeli, (c. 850–950)
  • Ito Jinsai, (1627–1705)
  • Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov, (1866–1949)

J

  • Frank Jackson, (born 1943)
  • Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, (1743–1819)
  • James of Viterbo, (1255–1308)
  • Henry James Sr., (1811–1882)
  • William James, (1842–1910)
  • Fredric Jameson, (1934)
  • Vladimir Jankélévitch, (1903–1985)
  • Karl Jaspers, (1883–1969)
  • James Hopwood Jeans, (1877–1946)
  • Thomas Jefferson, (1743–1826)
  • Richard C. Jeffrey, (1926–2002)
  • William Stanley Jevons, (1835–1882)
  • Rudolf von Jhering, (1818–1892)
  • Jinul (or Chinul), (1158–1210)
  • Joachim of Fiore, (1135–1201)
  • Friedrich Jodl, (1849–1914)
  • John of Damascus, (c. 676–749)
  • John of Jandun, (1280–1328)
  • John of La Rochelle, (1190–1245)
  • John of Mirecourt, (c. 1345)
  • John of Paris, (1260–1306)
  • John of Salisbury, (c. 1115 – 1180)
  • John of St. Thomas (or Jean Poinsot), (1589–1644)
  • John of the Cross, (1542–1591)
  • Alexander Bryan Johnson, (1786–1867)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1649–1703)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1696–1772)
  • Samuel Johnson, (1709–1784)
  • William Ernest Johnson, (1858–1931)
  • Jørgen Jørgensen, (1894–1969)
  • Théodore Simon Jouffroy, (1796–1842)
  • Judah ben Moses of Rome (orJudah Romano), (1292–1330)
  • Carl Jung, (1875–1961)
  • Ernst Jünger, (1895–1998)
  • Joachim Jungius, (1587–1657)
  • Justinian I, (483–565)
  • Al-Juwayni, (1028–1085)

K

  • Franz Kafka, (1883–1924)
  • Kaibara Ekiken, (1630–1740)
  • Kang Youwei, (1858–1927)
  • Immanuel Kant, (1724–1804)
  • Kao Tzu, (c. 420 BC)
  • David Kaplan, (born 1933)
  • Mordecai Kaplan, (1881–1983)
  • Nikolai Ivanovich Kareev, (1850–1931)
  • Lev Platonovich Karsavin, (1882–1952)
  • Joseph Kaspi, (1279–1340) 
  • Walter Kaufmann, (1921–1980)
  • Karl Kautsky, (1854–1938)
  • Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, (1385–1438)
  • Konstantin Kavelin, (1818–1885)
  • Bartholomew Keckermann, (1571–1609)
  • Hans Kelsen, (1881–1973)
  • Norman Kemp Smith, (1872–1958)
  • Anthony Kenny, (born 1931)
  • Johannes Kepler, (1571–1630)
  • John Maynard Keynes, (1883–1946)
  • Hermann Graf Keyserling, (1880–1946)
  • Aleksey Khomyakov, (1804–1860)
  • Søren Kierkegaard, (1813–1855)
  • Richard Kilvington, (1302–1361)
  • Robert Kilwardby, (1215–1279)
  • Jaegwon Kim, (born 1934)
  • Al-Kindi, (801–873)
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., (1929–1968)
  • Ivan Kireevsky, (1806–1856)
  • Patricia Kitcher, (born 1948)
  • Ludwig Klages, (1872–1956)
  • Heinrich von Kleist, (1777–1811)
  • William Calvert Kneale, (1906–1990)
  • Martin Knutzen, (1713–1751)
  • Ko Hung, (4th century)
  • Kurt Koffka, (1886–1941)
  • Wolfgang Köhler, (1887–1967)
  • Alexandre Kojève, (1902–1968)
  • Alejandro Korn, (1860–1936)
  • Tadeusz Kotarbiński, (1886–1981)
  • Alexandre Koyre, (1892–1964)
  • Aleksei Aleksandrovich Kozlov, (1831–1901)
  • Karl Kraus, (1874–1936)
  • Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, (1781–1832)
  • Georg Kreisel, (born 1923)
  • Saul Kripke, (born 1940)
  • Jiddu Krishnamurti, (1895–1986)
  • Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, (1918–2007)
  • Julia Kristeva, (born 1941)
  • Nachman Krochmal, (1785–1840)
  • Leopold Kronecker, (1823–1891)
  • Peter Kropotkin, (1842–1921)
  • Felix Krueger, (1874–1948)
  • Thomas Samuel Kuhn, (1922–1996)
  • Kūkai, (774–835)
  • Kuki Shūzō, (1888–1941)
  • Oswald Külpe, (1862–1915)
  • Kumazawa Banzan, (1619–1691)
  • Kuo Hsiang (or Guoxiang), (c. 312)

L

  • Ernst Laas, (1837–1885)
  • Lucien Laberthonnière, (1860–1932)
  • Antonio Labriola, (1843–1904)
  • Jean de La Bruyère, (1645–1696)
  • Jacques Lacan, (1901–1981)
  • Jules Lachelier, (1832–1918)
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, (born 1940)
  • Pierre Laffitte, (1823–1903)

L

  • Louis de La Forge, (1632–1666)
  • Imre Lakatos, (1922–1974)
  • André Lalande, (1867–1964)
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, (1744–1829)
  • Johann Heinrich Lambert, (1728–1777)
  • Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais, (1752–1854)
  • Julien Offray de La Mettrie, (1709–1751)
  • François de La Mothe Le Vayer, (1588–1672)
  • Ludwig Landgrebe, (1902–1992)
  • Friedrich Albert Lange, (1828–1875)
  • Susanne Langer, (1895–1985)
  • Lao Zi (or Lao Tzu), (4th century BC)
  • Isaac La Peyrère, (1596–1676)
  • Pierre-Simon Laplace, (1749–1827)
  • Ivan Ivanovich Lapshin, (1870–1952)
  • François de La Rochefoucauld, (1613–1680)
  • Pierre Laromiguière, (1756–1837)
  • Abdullah Laroui, (born 1935)
  • Ferdinand Lassalle, (1825–1864)
  • Johann Kaspar Lavater, (1741–1801)
  • Louis Lavelle, (1883–1951)
  • Antoine Lavoisier, (1743–1794)
  • Peter Lavrovitch Lavrov, (1823–1900)
  • William Law, (1686–1761)
  • Jean Le Clerc, (1657–1737)
  • Michèle Le Dœuff, (born 1948)
  • Henri Lefebvre, (1901–1991)
  • Antoine Le Grand, (1629–1699)
  • Keith Lehrer, (born 1936)
  • Gottfried Leibniz, (1646–1716)
  • Yeshayahu Leibowitz, (1903–1994)
  • Vladimir Lenin, (1870–1924)
  • Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519)
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Leont’ev, (1831–1891)
  • Giacomo Leopardi, (1798–1837)
  • Jules Lequier, (1814–1862)
  • Pierre Leroux, (1798–1871)
  • Edouard Louis Emmanuel Julien Le Roy, (1870–1954)
  • René Le Senne, (1882–1954)
  • Stanisław Leśniewski, (1886–1939)
  • Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, (1729–1781)
  • Leucippus, (5th century BC)
  • Emmanuel Levinas, (1906–1995)
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss, (1908–2009)
  • Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, (1857–1939)
  • Kurt Lewin, (1890–1947)
  • Clarence Irving Lewis, (1883–1964)
  • C. S. Lewis, (1898–1963)
  • David Kellogg Lewis, (1941–2001)
  • Li Ao, (722–841)
  • Liang Qichao (or Liang Ch’i-ch’ao), (1873–1929)
  • Liang Sou-ming, (1893–1988)
  • Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, (1742–1799)
  • Arthur Liebert, (1878–1946)
  • Otto Liebmann, (1840–1912)
  • Liezi (or Lieh Tzu), (c. 440 BC – c. 360 BC)
  • Linji Yixuan (or Lin Chi), (c. 810–867)
  • Carl Linnaeus, (1707–1778)
  • Theodor Lipps, (1851–1914)
  • Justus Lipsius, (1547–1606)
  • Émile Littré, (1801–1881)
  • Liu Shaoqi (orLiu Shao-ch’i), (1898–1969)
  • Liu Tsung-chou (or Ch’i-shan), (1578–1645)
  • Genevieve Lloyd, (born 1941)
  • Karl Nickerson Llywelyn, (1893–1962)
  • Ramon Llull, (1235–1315)
  • John Locke, (1632–1704)
  • Alfred Loisy, (1857–1940)
  • Peter Lombard, (c. 1100 – 1160)
  • Bernard Lonergan, (1904–1984)
  • Pseudo-Longinus, (1st century)
  • Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin, (1855–1920)
  • Paul Lorenzen, (1915–1995)
  • Aleksei Fedorovich Losev, (1893–1988)
  • Nicholas Onufrievich Lossky, (1870–1965)
  • Domenico Losurdo, (1941–2018)
  • Yuri Lotman, (1922–1993)
  • Hermann Lotze, (1817–1881)
  • Arthur O. Lovejoy, (1873–1962)
  • John R. Lucas, (born 1929)
  • Lucian, (c. 120-c. 180)
  • Lucretius, (c. 99–55 BC)
  • Lu Jiuyuan (or Lu Xiangshan, or Lu Chiu-yuan, or Tzu-ching, or Ts’un-chai), (1139–1193)
  • Georg Lukács, (1885–1971)
  • Jan Łukasiewicz, (1878–1956)
  • Anatoliy Lunacharskiy, (1875–1933)
  • Martin Luther, (1483–1546)
  • Rosa Luxemburg, (1871–1919)
  • William Lycan, (born 1945)
  • Jean-François Lyotard, (1924–1998)

M

  • Ernst Mach, (1838–1916)
  • Niccolò Machiavelli, (1469–1527)
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, (born 1929)
  • John Leslie Mackie, (1917–1981)
  • Madhava, (died 1386)
  • Shri Madhvacharya, (1238–1317)
  • Mahavira, (599–527 BC)
  • Benoît de Maillet, (1656–1738)
  • Salomon Maimon (or Salomon ben Joshua), (1753–1800)
  • Abraham ben Moses Maimonides (or Abraham ben Maimon), (1186–1237)
  • Maimonides (or Rambam), (1135–1204)
  • Maine de Biran, (1766–1824)
  • John Major (or John Mair), (1467–1550)
  • Errico Malatesta, (1853–1932)
  • Norman Malcolm, (1911–1990)
  • Nicolas Malebranche, (1638–1715)
  • Ernst Mally, (1879–1944)
  • André Malraux, (1901–1976)
  • Thomas Malthus, (1766–1834)
  • Merab Mamardashvili, (1930–1990)
  • Bernard de Mandeville, (1670–1733)
  • Mani, (3rd century)
  • Karl Mannheim, (1893–1947)
  • Henry Longueville Mansel, (1820–1871)
  • Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung), (1893–1976)
  • Gabriel Marcel, (1887–1973)
  • Marcion, (110–160)
  • Ruth Barcan Marcus, (1921–2012)
  • Herbert Marcuse, (1898–1979)
  • Joseph Maréchal, (1878–1944)
  • Juan de Mariana, (1536–1624)
  • Julián Marías, (1914–2005)
  • José Carlos Mariátegui, (1894–1930)
  • Jacques Maritain, (1882–1973)
  • Gaius Marius Victorinus, (4th century)
  • Mihailo Marković, (1923–2010)
  • Svetozar Marković, (1846–1875)
  • Odo Marquard, (born 1928)
  • Marsilius of Inghen, (1330–1396)
  • Marsilius of Padua (or Marsiglio or Marsilio dei Mainardine), (1270–1342)
  • Roger Marston, (1235–1303)
  • Charles B. Martin, (born 1924)
  • Harriet Martineau, (1802–1876)
  • James Martineau, (1805–1900)
  • Piero Martinetti, (1872–1943)
  • Anton Marty, (1847–1914)
  • Marko Marulić, (1450–1524)
  • Karl Marx, (1818–1883)
  • Tomáš Masaryk, (1850–1937)
  • Damaris Cudworth Masham, (1659–1708)
  • Cotton Mather, (1663–1728)
  • Matthew of Aquasparta, (1238–1302)
  • Pierre Louis Maupertuis, (1698–1759)
  • Fritz Mauthner, (1849–1923)
  • James Clerk Maxwell, (1831–1879)
  • James McCosh, (1811–1894)
  • William McDougall, (1871–1938)
  • John McDowell, (born 1942)
  • Evander Bradley McGilvary, (1864–1953)
  • Colin McGinn, (born 1950)
  • John Ellis McTaggart, (1866–1925)
  • George Herbert Mead, (1863–1931)
  • Bartolomé de Medina, (1527–1580)
  • Georg Friedrich Meier, (1718–1777)
  • Friedrich Meinecke, (1862–1954)
  • Alexius Meinong, (1853–1920)
  • Philipp Melanchthon, (1497–1560)
  • Melissus of Samos, (late 5th century BC)
  • D. Hugh Mellor, (born 1938)
  • Menasseh Ben Israel, (1604–1657)
  • Mencius (or Meng K’o or Meng-tzu or Mengzi), (372 – 289 BC)
  • Gregor Mendel, (1822–1884)
  • Moses Mendelssohn, (1729–1786)
  • Désiré-Joseph Mercier, (1851–1926)
  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty, (1908–1961)
  • Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648)
  • Jean Meslier, (1664–1729)
  • Judah Messer Leon, (c. 1425 – c. 1495)
  • István Mészáros, (1930–2017)
  • Emile Meyerson, (1859–1933)
  • Conyers Middleton, (1683–1750)
  • Nikolai Konstantinovich Mikhailovskii, (1842–1904)
  • Miki Kiyoshi, (1897–1945)
  • Mikyo Dorje (or Mi bskyod rdo rje), (1507–1554)
  • Gaston Milhaud, (1858–1918)
  • James Mill, (1773–1836)
  • John Stuart Mill, (1806–1873)
  • John Millar, (1735–1801)
  • Dickinson Miller, (1868–1963)
  • Ruth Millikan, (born 1933)
  • John Milton, (1608–1674)
  • Minagawa Kien, (1734–1807)
  • Mir Damad (or Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi), (died 1631)
  • Miura Baien, (1723–1789)
  • Jacob Moleschott, (1822–1893)
  • Luis de Molina, (1535–1600)
  • Enrique Molina Garmendia, (1871–1962)
  • Lord Monboddo (or James Burnett), (1714–1799)
  • Richard Montague, (1930–1971)
  • William Pepperell Montague, (1873–1953)
  • Michel de Montaigne, (1533–1592)
  • Baron de Montesquieu, (1689–1755)
  • Edmund Montgomery, (1835–1911)
  • G. E. Moore, (1873–1958)
  • Henry More, (1614–1687)
  • Thomas More, (1478–1535)
  • C. Lloyd Morgan, (1852–1936)
  • Lewis H. Morgan, (1818–1881)
  • Thomas Morgan, (Died 1743)
  • Karl Philipp Moritz, (1756–1793)
  • Gaetano Mosca, (1858–1941)
  • Motoori Norinaga, (1730–1801)
  • Emmanuel Mounier, (1905–1950)
  • Mou Tsung-san, (1909–1995)
  • Mozi (or Mo Tzu, or Mo Ti, or Micius), (c. 470 – c. 390 BC)
  • David Ibn Merwan Al-Mukammas (or Daud Ibn Marwan al-Muqammas or David ha-Bavli), (died 937)
  • Mulla Sadra, (1571–1640)
  • Iris Murdoch, (1919–1999)
  • Muro Kyuso, (1658–1734)
  • Arthur Edward Murphy, (1901–1962)
  • Musonius Rufus, (1st century)

N

  • Arne Næss, (1912–2009)
  • Nagarjuna, (ca. 200 CE)
  • Ernest Nagel, (1901–1985)
  • Thomas Nagel, (born 1937)
  • Nahmanides, (1194–1270)
  • Jacques-André Naigeon, (1738–1810)
  • Toju Nakae, (1608–1648)
  • Jean-Luc Nancy, (born 1940)
  • Hossein Nasr, (born 1933)
  • Paul Gerhard Natorp, (1854–1924)
  • Alexander Neckham, (1157–1217)
  • Leonard Nelson, (1882–1927)
  • Nemesius of Emesa, (fl. c. 400)
  • John von Neumann, (1903–1957)
  • Otto Neurath, (1882–1945)
  • John Henry Newman, (1801–1890)
  • Isaac Newton, (1642–1727)
  • Nichiren, (1222–1282)
  • Nicholas of Autrecourt, (c. 1300 – 1369)
  • Nicholas of Cusa, (1401–1464)
  • Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, (1733–1811)
  • Pierre Nicole, (1625–1695)
  • H. Richard Niebuhr, (1894–1962)
  • Reinhold Niebuhr, (1892–1971)
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844–1900)
  • Agostino Nifo, (1470–1538)
  • Nishi Amane, (1829–1897)
  • Nishida Kitaro, (1870–1945)
  • Nishitani Keiji, (1900–1990)
  • Kwame Nkrumah, (1909–1972)
  • John Norris, (1657–1711)
  • Novalis, (1772–1801)
  • Robert Nozick, (1938–2001)
  • Numenius of Apamea, (2nd century)
  • Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1877-1960)
  • Martha Nussbaum, (born 1947)
  • Anders Nygren, (1890–1978)

O

  • Michael Oakeshott, (1901–1990)
  • William of Ockham, (c. 1285 – 1349)
  • Ogyū Sorai, (1666–1728)
  • Lorenz Oken, (1779–1851)
  • Karl Olivecrona, (1897–1980)
  • Peter Olivi, (1248–1298)
  • Olympiodorus the Younger, (495–570)
  • John Wood Oman, (1860–1939)
  • Michel Onfray, (1959)
  • Onora O’Neill, (born 1941)
  • Nicole Oresme, (1320–1382)
  • Origen of Alexandria, (c. 182-c. 251)
  • Isaac Orobio de Castro, (1617–1687)
  • Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851)
  • José Ortega y Gasset, (1883–1955)
  • Wilhelm Ostwald, (1853–1932)
  • James Oswald, (1703–1793)
  • Rudolf Otto, (1869–1937)
  • Richard Overton, (d. c. 1665)
  • Gwilyn Ellis Lane Owen, (1922–1982)

P

  • Thomas Paine, (1737–1809)
  • Menyhért Palágyi, (1859–1924)
  • William Paley, (1743–1805)
  • Elihu Palmer, (1764–1806)
  • Panaetius, (c. 185 – c. 110 BC)
  • Wolfhart Pannenberg, (born 1928)
  • David Papineau, (born 1947)
  • Giovanni Papini, (1881–1956)
  • Paracelsus, (1493–1541)
  • Vilfredo Pareto, (1848–1923)
  • Derek Parfit, (1942–2017)
  • Theodore Parker, (1810–1860)
  • Parmenides, (5th century BC)
  • Blaise Pascal, (1623–1662)
  • John Arthur Passmore, (1914–2004)
  • Valentino Annibale Pastore, (1868–1956)
  • Patañjali, (2nd century BC)
  • Walter Pater, (1839–1904)
  • Jan Patočka, (1907–1977)
  • Francesco Patrizi da Cherso (or Franciscus Patritius), (1529–1597)
  • Akos Pauler, (1876–1933)
  • Linus Pauling, (1901–1994)
  • Paul of Venice, (1369–1429)
  • Friedrich Paulsen, (1846–1908)
  • Ivan Pavlov, (1849–1936)
  • Christopher Peacocke, (born 1950)
  • Giuseppe Peano, (1858–1932)
  • David Pears, (1921–2009)
  • Karl Pearson, (1857–1936)
  • John Peckham, (died 1292)
  • Benjamin Peirce, (1809–1880)
  • Charles Sanders Peirce, (1839–1914)
  • Pelagius, (c. 360-c. 435)
  • William Penbygull, (died 1420)
  • Thomas Percival, (1740–1804)
  • Ralph Barton Perry, (1876–1957)
  • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, (1746–1827)
  • Peter of Auvergne, (13th century)
  • Peter of Spain, (identified with Pope John XXI)
  • Richard Stanley Peters, (1919–2011)
  • Petrarch, (1304–1374)
  • Leon Petrazycki, (1867–1931)
  • Joane Petrizi, (12th century)
  • Branislav Petronijević, (1875–1954)
  • Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, (1813–1851)
  • Joseph Petzoldt, (1862–1929)
  • Alexander Pfänder, (1870–1941)
  • Philip the Chancellor, (1160–1236)
  • Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, (20 BC – 40 AD)
  • Philo of Larissa, (1st century BC)
  • Philo the Dialectician, (c. 300 BC)
  • Philodemus of Gadara, (1st century BC)
  • Philolaus of Croton, (c. 480-c. 405 BC)
  • Philo of Larissa, (154 BC – 84 BC)
  • Philo of Megara, (300 BC c.)
  • John Philoponus, (early 6th century)
  • Jean Piaget, (1896–1980)
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, (1463–1494)
  • Dimitri Pisarev, (1840–1868)
  • Max Planck, (1858–1947)
  • Alvin Plantinga, (born 1932)
  • Plato, (c. 427 BC – c. 347 BC)
  • Georgi Plekhanov, (1856–1918)
  • Helmuth Plessner, (1892–1985)
  • Gemistus Pletho, (c. 1355 – c. 1452)
  • Plotinus, (died 270)
  • Gottfried Ploucquet [de], (1716–1790)
  • Mestrius Plutarch of Chaeronia, (c. 45-c. 120)
  • Henri Poincaré, (1854–1912)
  • Karl Polanyi, (1886–1964)
  • Michael Polanyi, (1891–1976)
  • Pietro Pomponazzi, (1462–1525)
  • Alexander Pope, (1688–1744)
  • Karl Popper, (1902–1994)
  • Josef Popper-Lynkeus, (1838–1921)
  • Porphyry, (c. 232-c. 304)
  • Noah Porter, (1811–1892)
  • Posidonius, (c. 135 – 51 BC)
  • Richard Posner, (born 1939)
  • Emil Leon Post, (1897–1954)
  • Robert Joseph Pothier, (1699–1772)
  • Roscoe Pound, (1870–1964)
  • Caio Prado Júnior, (1907–1990)
  • Costanzo Preve, (1943–2013)
  • Henry Habberley Price, (1899–1984)
  • Richard Price, (1723–1791)
  • Harold Arthur Prichard, (1871–1947)
  • Joseph Priestley, (1733–1804)
  • Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, (1856–1931)
  • Arthur Prior, (1914–1969)
  • Proclus, (412–487)
  • Prodicus, (c. 450 – 399 BC)
  • Protagoras, (c. 481 – 420 BC)
  • Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, (1809–1865)
  • Marcel Proust, (1871–1922)
  • Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, (5th century)
  • Pseudo-Grosseteste, (13th century)
  • Ptolemy, (c. 85-c. 165)
  • Samuel Pufendorf, (1632–1694)
  • Hilary Putnam, (born 1926)
  • Pyrrho, (c. 360-c. 270)
  • Pythagoras, (582 BC – 496 BC)

Q

  • Antero de Quental, (1842–1891)
  • Ismael Quiles [es] (1906–1993)
  • W. V. O. Quine, (1908–2000)
  • Anthony Quinton, (born 1925)

R

  • François Rabelais, (1493–1553)
  • Gustav Radbruch, (1878–1949)
  • Janet Radcliffe Richards, (born 1944)
  • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, (1888–1975)
  • Assi Rahbani, (1923–1986)
  • Karl Rahner, (1904–1984)
  • Ramanuja, (1017–1137)
  • Frank P. Ramsey, (1903–1930)*
  • Ian Thomas Ramsey, (1915–1972)
  • Paul Ramsey, (1913–1988)
  • Petrus Ramus, (1515–1572)*
  • Jacques Rancière, (born 1940)
  • Ram Gopal Varma, (born 1989)
  • Ayn Rand, (1905–1982)
  • Hastings Rashdall, (1858–1924)
  • Felix Ravaisson-Mollien, (1813–1900)
  • John Rawls, (1921–2002)
  • John Ray, (1627–1705)
  • Daniel Raymond, (1786–1849)
  • Joseph Raz, (born 1939)
  • Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (or Rhazes), (865–925)
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, (1149–1209)
  • Paul Ree, (1849–1901)
  • Pierre-Sylvain Regis, (1632–1707)
  • August Wilhelm Rehberg *
  • Wilhelm Reich, (1897–1957)
  • Hans Reichenbach, (1891–1953)
  • Thomas Reid, (1710–1796)
  • Hermann Samuel Reimarus, (1694–1768)
  • Adolf Reinach, (1883–1917)
  • Karl Leonhard Reinhold, (1757–1823)
  • Karl Renner, (1870–1950)
  • Charles Bernard Renouvier, (1815–1903)
  • Nicholas Rescher, (born 1928)
  • Rgyal tshab dar ma rin chen (or Gyeltsap darma rinchen), (1364–1432)
  • David Ricardo, (1772–1823)
  • Richard of Middleton, (c. 1249 – 1306)
  • Richard of St. Victor, (died 1173)
  • Richard Rufus of Cornwall (or Richardus Sophista), (1231–1259)
  • I. A. Richards, (1893–1979)
  • Radovan Richta, (1924–1983)
  • Heinrich Rickert, (1863–1936)*
  • Paul Ricœur, (1913–2005)
  • Bernhard Riemann, (1826–1866)
  • R.R. Rockingham Gill
  • Jacques Rohault, (1617–1672)
  • Erwin Rohde, (1845–1898)
  • Francisco Romero, (1891–1962)
  • Avital Ronell, (born 1952)
  • Richard Rorty, (1931–2007)
  • Vasily Rozanov, (1856–1919)
  • Roscelin of Compiègne, (c. 1050 – c. 1120)
  • Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, (1805–1879)
  • Franz Rosenzweig, (1886–1929)
  • Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, (1797–1855)
  • Alf Niels Christian Ross, (1899–1979)
  • William David Ross, (1877–1971)
  • Carlo Rosselli, (1899–1937)
  • Gian-Carlo Rota, (1932–1999)
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau, (1712–1778)
  • Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, (1760–1825)
  • Joseph Rovan, (1918–2004)
  • Josiah Royce, (1865–1916)
  • Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, (1763–1845)
  • Vasily Rozanov, (1856–1919)
  • Ruan Ji, (210–263)
  • Arnold Ruge, (1802–1880)
  • Michael Ruse, (born 1940)
  • Bertrand Russell, (1872–1970)
  • Jan van Ruysbroek, (1293–1381)
  • Gilbert Ryle, (1900–1976)

S

  • Saadia Gaon, (892–942)
  • Mulla Hadi Sabzevari, (1797–1873)
  • William S. Sahakian, (1922–1986)
  • Mark Sainsbury, (born 1943)
  • Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, (1760–1825)
  • Émile Saisset, (1814–1863)
  • Syed Zafarul Hasan, (1885–1949)
  • Nathan Salmon, (born 1951)
  • Wesley Salmon, (1925–2001)
  • Francisco Sanches, (1551–1623)
  • Michael Sandel, (born 1953)
  • George Santayana, (1863–1952)
  • Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, (1921–1990)
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, (1905–1980)
  • Crispin Sartwell, (born 1958)
  • John Ralston Saul, (born 1947)
  • Ferdinand de Saussure, (1857–1913)
  • Fernando Savater, (born 1947)
  • Friedrich Karl von Savigny, (1779–1861)
  • Julius Caesar Scaliger, (1484–1558)
  • Thomas Scanlon, (born 1940)
  • Richard Schacht, (born 1941)
  • Max Scheler, (1874–1928)
  • Friedrich Schelling, (1775–1852)
  • F. C. S. Schiller, (1864–1937)
  • Friedrich Schiller, (1759–1805)
  • Friedrich Schlegel, (1772–1829)*
  • Hubert Schleichert, (born 1935)
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher, (1768–1834)
  • Moritz Schlick, (1882–1936)
  • Carl Schmitt, (1888–1985)
  • J.B. Schneewind, (born 1930)
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, (1788–1860)
  • Erwin Schrödinger, (1887–1961)
  • Gottlob Ernst Schulze, (1761–1833)
  • Joseph Schumpeter, (1883–1950)
  • Anna Maria van Schurman, (1607–1678)
  • Alfred Schütz, (1899–1959)
  • Albert Schweitzer, (1875–1965)
  • Roger Scruton, (born 1944)
  • John Searle, (born 1932)
  • Charles Secrétan, (1815–1895)
  • Michal Sedziwój, (1566–1636)
  • John Selden, (1584–1654)
  • Roy Wood Sellars, (1880–1973)
  • Wilfrid Sellars, (1912–1989)
  • Amartya Sen, (born 1933)
  • Seneca the Younger, (c. 4 BC – AD 65)
  • Sengzhao, (384–414)
  • Victor Serge, (1890-1947)
  • John Sergeant, (1623–1704)
  • Michel Serres, (born 1930)
  • Sextus Empiricus, (2nd/3rd century)
  • Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, (1671–1713)
  • Shah Wali Allah (or Qutb al-Din Ahmad al-Rahim or Waliullah), (1703–1762)
  • Shang Yang (or Gongsun Yang), (died 338 BC)
  • Adi Shankara, (788–820)
  • Shao Yung, (1011–1077)
  • Dariush Shayegan, (1935–2018)
  • Shen Buhai, (died 337 BC)
  • Shen Dao (or Shen Tzu), (c. 350 – 275 BC)
  • Lev Shestov, (1866–1938)
  • Shinran, (1173–1261)
  • Sydney Shoemaker, (born 1931)
  • Daryush Shokof, (born 1954)
  • Gustav Gustavovich Shpet, (1879–1937)
  • Henry Sidgwick, (1838–1900)
  • Sigerus of Brabant, (1240–1284)
  • Heinrich Christoph Wilhelm Sigwart, (1789–1844)
  • Abu Sulayman Muhammad al-Sijistani, (c. 932 – c. 1000)
  • Francesco Silvestri (or Francis Sylvester of Ferrara), (1474–1528)
  • Georg Simmel, (1858–1918)
  • Simon of Faversham, (c. 1260 – 1306)
  • Simplicius of Cilicia, (early 6th century)
  • Kurt Singer, (1886–1962)
  • Peter Singer, (born 1946)
  • B. F. Skinner, (1904–1990)
  • Thoralf Skolem, (1887–1963)
  • Hryhori Skovoroda, (1722–1794)
  • Peter Sloterdijk, (born 1947)
  • J. J. C. Smart, (born 1920)
  • Adam Smith, (1723–1790)
  • Barry Smith, (born 1952)
  • Huston Smith, (1919–2016)
  • Joseph Smith, (1805–1844)
  • Michael Smith, (born 1954)
  • Raymond Smullyan, (1919–2017)
  • Joseph D. Sneed, (born 1938)
  • Jan Sniadecki, (1756–1830)
  • Scott Soames, (born 1946)
  • Elliott Sober, (born 1948)
  • Socrates, (470–399 BC)
  • Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger, (1780–1890)
  • Joseph Soloveitchik, (1903–1993)
  • Vladimir Solovyov, (1853–1900)
  • Georges Sorel, (1847–1922)
  • William Ritchie Sorley, (1855–1935)
  • Abdolkarim Soroush, (born 1945)
  • Ernest Sosa, (born 1940)
  • Domingo de Soto, (1494–1560)
  • Othmar Spann, (1878–1950)
  • Herbert Spencer, (1820–1903)
  • Thomas Spencer Baynes, (1823–1887)
  • Oswald Spengler, (1880–1936)
  • Speusippus, (410–339 BC)
  • Herbert Spiegelberg, (1904–1990)
  • Baruch Spinoza, (1632–1677)
  • Afrikan Spir, (1837–1890)
  • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, (born 1942)
  • Lysander Spooner, (1808–1887)
  • Timothy L.S. Sprigge, (born 1932)
  • Walter Terence Stace, (1886–1967)
  • Edward Stachura, (1937–1979)
  • Anne Louise Germaine de Staël, (1766–1817)
  • James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount Stair, (1619–1695)
  • Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, (1878–1953)
  • Robert Stalnaker, (born 1940)
  • Henry Stanton, (1805–1887)
  • Olaf Stapledon, (1886–1950)
  • Stanislaw Staszic, (1755–1826)
  • L. Susan Stebbing, (1885–1943)
  • Edith Stein, (1891–1942)
  • George Steiner, (born 1929)
  • Rudolf Steiner, (1861–1925)
  • Leslie Stephen, (1832–1904)
  • Charles Leslie Stevenson, (1908–1979)
  • Dugald Stewart, (1753–1828)
  • Stephen Stich, (born 1944)
  • Stilpo, (c. 360 – c. 280 BC)
  • James Hutchison Stirling, (1820–1909)
  • Max Stirner, (1806–1856)
  • George Frederick Stout, (1860–1944)
  • David Stove, (1927–1994)
  • Strato of Lampsacus, (c. 340 – c. 268 BC)
  • David Friedrich Strauss, (1808–1874)
  • Leo Strauss, (1899–1973)
  • Galen Strawson, (born 1952)
  • P. F. Strawson, (1919–2006)
  • Barry Stroud, (born 1935)
  • Carl Stumpf, (1848–1936)
  • Francisco Suárez, (1548–1617)
  • Gabrielle Suchon, (1631–1703)
  • Sun Tzu, (c. 5th century BC)
  • Sun Yat-sen, (1866–1925)
  • Henry Suso, (1300–1366)
  • Karen Swassjan, (born 1948)
  • Emanuel Swedenborg, (1688–1772)
  • Richard Swinburne, (born 1934)
  • Syrianus, (5th century)
  • David Sztybel, (born 1967)

T

  • Allama Tabatabai, (1903–1981)
  • Javad Tabatabai, (born 1945)
  • Debendranath Tagore, (1817–1905)
  • Rabindranath Tagore, (1861–1941)
  • Tai Chen (or Dai Zhen or Tai Tung-Yuan), (1724–1777)
  • Hippolyte Taine, (1828–1893)
  • Gáspár Miklós Tamás, (born 1948)
  • T’an Ssu-t’ung, (1864–1898)
  • Tanabe Hajime, (1885–1962)
  • T’ang Chun-i, (1909–1978)
  • Alfred Tarski, (1901–1983)
  • Wladyslaw Tatarkiewicz, (1886–1980)
  • Johannes Tauler, (c. 1300 – 1361)
  • Nicolaus Taurellus, (1547–1606)
  • Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi, (c. 930 – 1023)
  • Charles Taylor, (born 1931)
  • Harriet Taylor Mill, (1807–1858)
  • Richard Taylor, (1919–2003)
  • Gustav Teichmuller, (1837–1888)
  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, (1881–1955)
  • Bernardino Telesio, (1509–1588)
  • Placide Tempels, (1906–1977)
  • William Temple, (1881–1944)
  • Frederick Robert Tennant, (1866–1957)
  • Teresa of Avila, (1515–1582)
  • Tertullian, (c. 160 – c. 220)
  • Johannes Nikolaus Tetens, (1736–1807)
  • Thales, (c. 635 – 543 BC)
  • Themistius, (317–387)
  • Theodorus of Cyrene, (c. 465 – 398 BC)
  • Theophrastus, (372–287 BC)
  • Helmut Thielicke, (1908–1986)
  • Peter Thielst, (born 1951)
  • Thierry of Chartres, (fl. c. 1130 – 1150)
  • Thomas à Kempis, (1380–1471)
  • Thomas of Erfurt, (14th century)
  • Thomas of York, (13th century)
  • Christian Thomasius, (1655–1728)
  • William Thompson, (1775–1833)
  • Judith Jarvis Thomson, (born 1929)
  • Henry David Thoreau, (1817–1862)
  • Thrasymachus, (5th century BC)
  • Thucydides, (c. 460 – c. 400 BC)
  • Paul Tillich, (1886–1965)
  • Timaeus of Locri, (5th century BC)
  • Timon of Phlius, (c. 300 BC)
  • Matthew Tindal, (1657–1733)
  • Alexis de Tocqueville, (1805–1859)
  • Tzvetan Todorov, (born 1939)
  • John Toland, (1670–1722)
  • Francisco de Toledo, (1515–1584)
  • Leo Tolstoy, (1828–1910)
  • Tominaga Nakamoto, (1715–1746)
  • Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg
  • Ernst Troeltsch, (1865–1923)
  • Leon Trotsky, (1879–1940)
  • Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, (1651–1708)
  • Je Tsongkhapa (or Dzongkaba or Rinpoche), (1357–1419)
  • Abraham Tucker, (1705–1774)
  • Benjamin Tucker, (1854–1939)
  • Peter Tudvad, (born 1966)
  • Ernst Tugendhat, (born 1930)
  • Raimo Tuomela, (born 1940)
  • Alan Turing, (1912–1954)
  • George Turnball, (1698–1748)
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, (1201–1274)
  • Kazimierz Twardowski, (1866–1938)
  • Michael Tye, (born 1950)

U

  • Pietro Ubaldi, (1886–1972)
  • Udayana, (11th century)
  • Uddyotakara, (6th century)
  • Uisang, (625–702)
  • Ulrich of Strasbourg, (1220–1277)
  • Hermann Ulrici, (1806–1884)
  • Miguel de Unamuno, (1864–1936)
  • Peter Unger, (born 1942)
  • Dimitri Uznadze, (1886–1950)

V

  • Hans Vaihinger, (1852–1933)
  • György Mihály Vajda, (1935)
  • Valentinius (or Valentinus), (c. 100 – c. 153)
  • Paul Valéry, (1871–1945)
  • Lorenzo Valla, (1406–1457)
  • Vallabhacharya, (1479–1531)
  • Bas C. van Fraassen, (born 1941)
  • Peter van Inwagen, (born 1942)
  • Giulio Cesare Vanini, (1585–1619)
  • Francisco Varela, (1946–2001)
  • Vasubandhu, (4th century)
  • Vatsyayana, (5th century)
  • Emerich de Vattel, (1714–1767)
  • Gianni Vattimo, (born 1936)
  • Vauvenargues, (1715–1747)
  • Gabriel Vazquez, (1549–1604)
  • John Venn, (1834–1923)
  • Henry Babcock Veatch, (1911–1997)
  • Nicoletto Vernia, (1442–1499)
  • Giambattista Vico, (1668–1744)
  • Milan Vidmar, (1885–1962)
  • Álvaro Vieira Pinto, (1909–1987)
  • Michel Villey, (1914–1988)
  • Vital Du Four, (1260–1327)
  • Francisco de Vitoria, (1492–1546)
  • Juan Luís Vives, (1492–1540)
  • Gregory Vlastos, (1907–1991)
  • Eric Voegelin, (1901–1985)
  • Karl Vogt, (1817–1895)
  • Voltaire, (1694–1778)
  • Georg Henrik von Wright, (1916–2003)
  • Lev Vygotsky, (1896–1934)
  • Boris Petrovich Vysheslavtsev, (1877–1954)

W

  • Jean Wahl, (1888–1974)
  • Friedrich Waismann, (1896–1959)
  • Alfred Russel Wallace, (1823–1913)
  • Michael Walzer, (born 1935)
  • Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, (born 1942)
  • Wang Bi, (226–249)
  • Wang Ch’ung, (27–97)
  • Wang Fuzhi (or Wang Fu-Chih or Wang Chuanshan), (1619–1692)
  • Hao Wang, (1921–1995)
  • Wang Yangming, (1472–1529)
  • James Ward, (1843–1925)
  • Geoffrey J. Warnock, (1923–1996)
  • Mary Warnock, (born 1924)
  • John B. Watson, (1878–1958)
  • Watsuji Tetsuro, (1889–1960)
  • Alan Watts, (1915–1973)
  • Max Weber, (1864–1920)
  • Éric Weil, (1904–1977)
  • Simone Weil, (1909–1943)
  • Ota Weinberger, (1919–2009)
  • Otto Weininger, (1880–1903)
  • Christian Hermann Weisse
  • Victoria, Lady Welby, (1837–1912)
  • Felix Weltsch, (1884–1964)
  • Cornel West, (born 1953)
  • Edvard Westermarck, (1862–1939)
  • Hermann Weyl, (1885–1955)
  • Frantisek Weyr (or Franz Weyr), (1879–1951)
  • William Whewell, (1794–1866)
  • Benjamin Whichcote, (1609–1683)
  • Thomas White, (1593–1676)
  • Alfred North Whitehead, (1861–1947)
  • David Wiggins, (born 1933)
  • William of Alnwick, (1270–1333)
  • William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, (1180–1249)
  • William of Auxerre, (died 1231)
  • William of Champeaux, (c. 1070 – 1121)
  • William of Conches, (c. 1080 – 1154)
  • William of Moerbeke, (c. 1215 – 1286)
  • William of Shyreswood (or William of Sherwood), (1190–1249)
  • Bernard Williams, (1929–2003)
  • Timothy Williamson, (born 1955)
  • Colin Wilson, (1931–2013)
  • John Cook Wilson, (1849–1915)
  • Peter Winch, (1926–1997)
  • Wilhelm Windelband, (1848–1915)
  • Kwasi Wiredu, (born 1931)
  • John Wisdom, (1904–1993)
  • John Witherspoon, (1723–1794)
  • Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, (1885–1939)
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, (1889–1951)
  • Adam de Wodeham, (1298–1358)
  • Christian Wolff, (1679–1754)
  • William Wollaston, (1659–1724)
  • Richard Wollheim, (1923–2003)
  • Mary Wollstonecraft, (1759–1797)
  • Nicholas Wolterstorff, (born 1932)
  • Wonchuk, (613–696)
  • Timothy K. Wong, (625–644)
  • Wonhyo Daisa, (617–686)
  • Woo Tsin-hang (or Chih-hui), (1865–1953)
  • Chauncey Wright, (1830–1875)
  • Crispin Wright, (born 1942)
  • Dorothy Maud Wrinch, (1894–1976)
  • Jerzy Wróblewski, (1926–1990)
  • Wilhelm Wundt, (1832–1920)*
  • John Wyclif, (c. 1330 – 1384)

X

  • Xenocrates, (396–314 BC)
  • Xenophanes of Colophon, (570–480 BC)
  • Xenophon, (427–355 BC)
  • Xun Zi (or Hsun Tzu), (c. 310 – 237 BC)

Y

  • Yajnavalkya, (c. 1800 BC)
  • Yang Chu, (370–319 BC)
  • Yang Xiong (or Yang Hsiung), (53 BC – AD 18)
  • Yen Yuan, (1635–1704)
  • Yi Hwang (or Toegye), (1501–1570)
  • Yi I (or Yi Yulgok or Yi Yi), (1536–1584)
  • Yi Kan, (1677–1727)
  • Francis Parker Yockey, (1917–1960)
  • Arthur M. Young, (1905–1995)
  • Iris Marion Young, (1949–2006)

Z

  • Jacopo Zabarella, (1533–1589)
  • Edward N. Zalta, (born 1952)
  • Peter Wessel Zapffe, (1899–1990)
  • Zeami Motokiyo, (c. 1363 – c. 1443)
  • Mao Zedong, (1893–1976)
  • Eduard Zeller, (1814–1908)
  • Zeno of Citium, (333–264 BC)
  • Zeno of Elea, (c. 495 – c. 430 BC)
  • Zeno of Sidon, (1st century BC)
  • Zeno of Tarsus, (fl. 200 BC)
  • Ernst Zermelo, (1871–1953)
  • Philip Zhai, (born 1957)
  • Zhiyi, (538–597)
  • Zhou Guoping, (born 1945)
  • Zhu Xi (or Chu Hsi), (1130–1200)
  • Zhuang Zi (or Chuang Tzu or Chuang Chou), (circa 300 BC)
  • Slavoj Žižek, (born 1949)
  • Florian Znaniecki, (1882–1958)
  • Zongmi, (780–841)
  • Zou Yan, (3rd century BC)
  • Xavier Zubiri, (1889–1983)
  • .
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