In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to a definition of faith as being belief without evidence.

Faith is an examination. A test proposed by the Supreme Creator so that in the arena of competition elevated spirits and base spirits may be distinguished from one another. 

Kalpasutra

Jain Agam Literature

Jain Agam Literature Background Lord Mahavir‘s preaching was orally complied by his disciples into many texts. This knowledge was orally transferred from acharyas (gurus) to the disciples over the course of about one thousand years. In olden times, monks strictly followed the five great vows of Jainism. Even religious scriptures...

Jain Scriptures

Jain Scriptures

Jain Scriptures Jain scriptures are called Agamas. They are believed to have been verbally transmitted by the oral tradition from one generation to the next, much like the ancient Buddhist and Hindu texts. The Jain tradition believes that their religion is eternal, and the teachings of their first Tirthankara Rishabhanatha were their scriptures...

An early 19th-century Dasam Granth manuscript frontispiece (British Library MS Or.6298)

Dasam Granth

Dasam Granth The Dasam Granth (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ, lit. “the Book of the Tenth Guru”), also called the Dasven Pādśāh kā Graṅth, (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ), is a holy book in Sikhism with compositions attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is a controversial religious text considered to be the second scripture by some Sikhs, and of disputed authority by other Sikhs. The standard edition...

A folio from an early 19th-century manuscript copy of the Guru Granth Sahib (Schoyen Collection Norway)

Sikh Scriptures

Sikh Scriptures There are two primary sources of Sikh Scriptures: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth—literally, The First Volume—and the two terms are often used synonymously. Here, however, the Ādi Granth refers to the version of...

Page from a copy of the Nihon Shoki, early Heian period

Nihon Shoki

Nihon Shoki The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀), sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the Nihongi (日本紀, “Japanese Chronicles”). It is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, and has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most...

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics (四書五經; Sìshū Wǔjīng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC. Four Books The Four Books (四書; Sìshū) are Chinese classic texts illustrating the core value and belief systems in Confucianism. They were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as general introduction to Confucian thought,...

Tang dynasty Zhuangzi manuscript preserved in Japan (1930s replica)

Zhuangzi

Zhuangzi (book) The Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzŭ) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Taoist sage. Named for its traditional author, “Master Zhuang” (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Taoism, along with the Tao...

Petroforms in Whiteshell Provincial Park

Manitou

Manitou Manitou, akin to the Iroquois orenda, is the spiritual and fundamental life force among Algonquian groups in the Native American theology. It is omnipresent and manifests everywhere: organisms, the environment, events, etc. Aashaa monetoo means “good spirit“, while otshee monetoo means “bad spirit“. When the world was created, the Great Spirit, Aasha Monetoo, gave the land to the indigenous...

Mother Goddess sculpture from Madhya Pradesh or Rajasthan, India, 6th-7th century, in the National Museum of Korea, Seoul

Mother goddess

Mother goddess A mother goddess is a goddess who represents or is a personification of motherhood. When equated with the Earth or the natural world, such goddesses are sometimes referred to as Mother Earth or as the Earth Mother. The concept is complementary to a “Sky Father” or “Father Sky“. There is difference of opinion between...

Baphomet

Baphomet Baphomet is a deity that the Knights Templar were accused of worshipping, and that subsequently was incorporated into occult and mystical traditions. The name Baphomet appeared in trial transcripts for the Inquisition of the Knights Templar starting in 1307. It first came into popular English usage in the 19th...

The Satanic Bible

The Satanic Bible

The Satanic Bible The Satanic Bible is a collection of essays, observations, and rituals published by Anton LaVey in 1969. It is the central religious text of LaVeyan Satanism, and is considered the foundation of its philosophy and dogma. It has been described as the most important document to influence contemporary Satanism. Though The Satanic...

The painting Bolshevik by Boris Kustodiev depicts a Bolshevik revolutionary, bearing the red flag, glaring at an Eastern Orthodox church

Marxist–Leninist Atheism

Marxist–Leninist Atheism Marxist–Leninist atheism, also known as Marxist–Leninist scientific atheism, is the irreligious and anti-clerical element of Marxism–Leninism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union. Based upon a dialectical-materialist understanding of humanity’s place in nature, Marxist–Leninist atheism proposes that religion is the opium of the people, meant to promote a person’s passive acceptance of...

Jesus Religion Church Bible Christianity God

Redemption in Theology

Redemption in Theology Redemption is an essential concept in many religions, including Judaism and Christianity. The English word “redemption” means ‘repurchase’ or ‘buy back. See Theology Christianity Main articles: Atonement in Christianity and Salvation in Christianity See also: Redeemer (Christianity) In Christian theology, redemption (Greek: apolutrosis) refers to the deliverance of Christians from sin. It assumes an important position in salvation because the transgressions...

Complex of deities at an outdoors fountain-altar with incense burners at a pilgrimage area in Weihai, Shandong. At the centre stands Mazu surrounded by the four Dragon Gods (龍神) and various lesser deities. Distant behind Mazu stands the Sun Goddess (太陽神).

Chinese gods and immortals

Chinese gods and immortals Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshipped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world The gods are energies or principles revealing, imitating and propagating the way of Heaven (Tian 天), which is the supreme godhead manifesting in the northern culmen of the starry vault...

One of the five paintings of Extermination of Evil portrays Sendan Kendatsuba, one of the eight guardians of Buddhist law, banishing evil.

Evil

Evil Evil is a term used to describe something that brings about harmful, painful, and unpleasant effects. It is understood to be of three kinds: Moral evil,  natural evil, and metaphysical evil. Moral evil is evil human beings volitionally and intentionally originate, and its examples are their cruel, vicious, and unjust thoughts and...

An 1843 prophetic chart illustrating multiple interpretations of prophecy yielding the year 1843.

Great Disappointment

Great Disappointment The Great Disappointment in the Millerite movement was the reaction that followed Baptist preacher William Miller‘s proclamations that Jesus Christ would return to the Earth by 1844, what he called the Advent. His study of the Daniel 8 prophecy during the Second Great Awakening led him to the conclusion that Daniel’s “cleansing of the sanctuary”...

Trinity Symbol Design Traditional Religion Culture

The Trinity in World Religions

The Trinity in World Religions The Trinity is found in many different world religions. The study of comparative religion gives Man the opportunity to examine the commonalities, as well as differences, between diverse belief structures. The Trinity is definately a commonality, one of which is most commonly recognized in the...

The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860

Jesus of Nazareth

Jesus of Nazareth Jesus Christ, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or simply Jesus, is Christianity‘s central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. Muslims regard him as a major prophet and some regard him as the Messiah. Many Hindus also recognize him as a manifestation of the divine (as do Bahá’í believers), while some Buddhists identify him as a Bodhisattva....

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Cataphatic Theology

Cataphatic Theology Cataphatic theology or kataphatic theology is theology that uses “positive” terminology to describe or refer to the divine – specifically, God – i.e. terminology that describes or refers to what the divine is believed to be, in contrast to the “negative” terminology used in apophatic theology to indicate what it is believed the divine is not. Etymology “Cataphatic” comes...

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