Faith, is confidence or trust in a person, thing, or concept. In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief. Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on a perceived degree of warrant, while others who are more skeptical of religion tend to think of faith as simply belief without evidence.




Forms of Belief

Attitudes to other religions

Faith & Belief in religions











Epistemological validity

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What Is Predestination?

What Is Predestination? Predestination (Latin præ, destinare), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine decree by which God, owing to His infallible prescience of the future, has appointed and ordained from eternity all events occurring in time, especially those which directly proceed from, or at least are influenced by, man’s free will. It includes all historical facts, as for...

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Predestination In Catholicism

Predestination In Catholicism Predestination in Catholicism is the Catholic Church‘s teachings on predestination and Catholic saints‘ views on it. The church believes that predestination is not based on anything external to God – for example, the grace of baptism is not merited but given freely to those who receive baptism – since predestination was formulated before the foundation of the...

Te Deum Ecuménico 2009 in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago of Chile, featuring clergy of different Christian denominations

Catholic Church And Ecumenism

Catholic Church And Ecumenism This article covers the relationship between Catholic Church and Ecumenism. The Catholic Church has engaged in the modern ecumenical movement, especially since the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) and the issuing of the decree Unitatis redintegratio and the declaration Dignitatis humanae. It was at the Council that the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity was created. Those outside...

Mary outside St. Nikolai Catholic Church in Ystad 2021


Mediatrix In Catholic Mariology, the title Mediatrix refers to the intercessory role of the Blessed Virgin Mary as a mediator in the salvific redemption by her son Jesus Christ and that he bestows graces through her. Mediatrix is an ancient title that has been used by many saints since at least the 5th century. Its use grew...

Coronation of the Virgin by Filippo Lippi, 1441

Queen Of Heaven

Queen Of Heaven Queen of Heaven (Regina Caeli) is a title given to the Virgin Mary, by Christians mainly of the Catholic Church and, to a lesser extent, in Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. The Catholic teaching on this subject is expressed in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam, issued by Pope Pius XII in 1954. It states that Mary...

Allah is One

The Perfect Names And Attributes Of Allah

The Perfect Names And Attributes Of Allah This article covers an explanation of the perfect Names and Attributes of Allah. “He is Allah, the Creator, the Originator, The Fashioner, to Him belong the most beautiful names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, do declare His praises and glory....

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Jewish Literature

Jewish Literature Jewish literature includes works written by Jews on Jewish themes, literary works written in Jewish languages on various themes, and literary works in any language written by Jewish writers. Ancient Jewish literature includes Biblical literature and rabbinic literature. Medieval Jewish literature includes not only rabbinic literature but also ethical literature, philosophical literature, mystical literature, various...

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The Angel Lailah

The Angel Lailah The angel Lailah or Laylah ( לַיְלָה) is an angel in some interpretations in the Talmud and in some later Jewish mythology. Etymology The name Lailah is the same as the Hebrew word for “night” laylah לילה. The identification of the word “night” as the name of an angel originates with the interpretation of “Rabbi Yochanan” (possibly Yochanan ben Zakkai c. 30...

Japanese illustration depicting white lotuses in Chapter 25: "Universal Gateway" of the Lotus Sutra. Text inscribed by Sugawara Mitsushige, Kamakura period, c. 1257, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Lotus Sutra

Lotus Sutra The Lotus Sutra or Lotus Sūtra (सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्रम्, Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, ‘Sūtra on the White Lotus of the True Dharma’) is one of the most influential and venerated Buddhist Mahāyāna sūtras. It is the main scripture on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established. It is also influential for other East Asian...

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Man Between Fall and Ascension

Man Between Fall and Ascension This article covers the relationship of man between fall and ascension. Ibn Sina, called Avicenna in the West, summarizes man’s earthly life in his poem on the human soul as follows: It descended upon thee from out of the regions above, That exalted, ineffable, glorious,...

Susanoo subduing and making a pact with various spirits of disease (dated 1860, copy of original work by Katsushika Hokusai)


Susanoo or Susanoo-no-Mikoto Susanoo (スサノオ; スサノヲ, ‘Susanowo’) is a kami in Japanese mythology. The younger brother of Amaterasu, goddess of the sun and mythical ancestress of the Japanese imperial line, he is a multifaceted deity with contradictory characteristics (both good and bad), being portrayed in various stories either as a wild, impetuous god associated with the sea and storms, as...

Amaterasu emerges out of the Heavenly Rock Cave (Shunsai Toshimasa, 1887)


Amaterasu Amaterasu (天照), Amaterasu-ōmikami (天照大神 or 天照大御神, Japanese: “Great Divinity Illuminating Heaven”) or Ōhiru-menomuchi-no-kami (大日孁貴神) is in Japanese mythology a sun goddess and perhaps the most important Shinto deity (神 kami). Her name, Amaterasu, means literally “(that which) illuminates Heaven.” Her myths are the most important of the indigenous Japanese faith, Shinto, “the way of the gods,” a set of ancient beliefs...

Tang dynasty Zhuangzi manuscript preserved in Japan (1930s replica)

Zhuangzi (Book)

Zhuangzi (Book) The Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzŭ) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Taoist sage. Named for its traditional author, “Master Zhuang” (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Taoism, along with...

Winged Isis at the foot of the sarcophagus of Ramesses III, twelfth century BCE


Isis Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Old Kingdom (c. 2686 – c. 2181 BCE) as one of the main characters of the Osiris myth, in which she resurrects her slain brother and husband, the divine king Osiris, and produces and protects his heir, Horus. She was believed...


Satanism And Youth’s Quest For Identity

Satanism And Youth’s Quest For Identity Briefly defined as the worship of Satan as if he were God, Satanism is the name given to a reaction that basically started in the 1880s in such countries as France, England, Germany, and especially in the USA, against Christianity and religious understanding and...

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Belief And Certainty

Belief And Certainty This article covers the relationship between belief and certainty. Belief is the state of mind in which an individual is convinced of the truth or validity of a proposition or premise regardless of whether they have adequately proved or attempted to prove their main contention. Certainty is the state of mind in which...

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What Is Belief?

What Is Belief? This article covers the answer to the question: “What Is Belief?“ That state of the mind by which it assents to propositions, not by reason of their intrinsic evidence, but because of authority. Though the term belief (be and lyian, to hold dear), is commonly used in ordinary language, as well...

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The Nature Of The Closeness Of God

The Nature Of The Closeness Of God This article covers the spirituality of Man and understanding of the nature of the closeness of God. Is God close to human beings? If so, how close is He? Or is defining Him in terms of His distance from the creation impossible? Perhaps...

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Belief In God: A Matter Of Life And Death

Belief In God: A Matter Of Life And Death Marx claimed belief in God was the opium of the masses, which made people sedated, numb, pacified, and too content with the world. Odd as such a question might sound, do you think God is still alive in the twenty-first century?...

The God Delusion

Dawkins’ Delusion

Dawkins’ Delusion This article criticizes Richard Dawkins‘ book The God Delusion and its popularity as Dawkins’ Delusion. Richard Dawkins, the author of The Selfish Gene, has gained even more public prestige since his latest book, The God Delusion, became a best seller worldwide. This book has become the most popular...