Forms of Belief

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Epistemological validity

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Satan And The Whispering Of Satan

Satan And The Whispering Of Satan This article covers Satan and the Whispering of Satan (Involuntary Thoughts Occurring to Man). What Satan Is and Why He Was Created? Satan was, like the jinn with whom he mostly kept company, was also created from ‘fire’. Before he was put to the test...

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Who Is Satan?

Who Is Satan? Satan (meaning “accuser”) represents the arch enemy of God in the Abrahamic religions, who personifies evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver that leads humanity astray. The term is often applied to an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into the ways of sin, and who now rules over the...

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Devil Explained

Devil Explained This article explains Devil (Greek diabolos; Latin diabolus) in detail. The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons (see DEMONOLOGY). With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, “the Devil and his angels“. It may be said of this name, as St. Gregory says of the word angel, “nomen est...

The Holy Spirit represented as a dove, Mitteleschenbach, Germany.

Holy Ghost

Holy Ghost Synopsis of the dogma The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St. Augustine (On the Holy Trinity I.3.5), speaking with diffidence, says: “In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit...

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Soul Explained

Soul Explained The question of the reality of the soul (psyche, anima, ame, Seele) and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life. Various theories as to the nature of the soul have claimed to...

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What Is The Soul?

What Is The Soul? This article covers the answer to the question: “What Is The Soul?“ In many religious and philosophical systems, the word “soul” denotes the inner essence of a being comprising its locus of sapience (self-awareness) and metaphysical identity. Souls are usually described as immortal (surviving death in an afterlife) and incorporeal (without...

Spiritual Happiness

Spirit Explained

Spirit Explained The English word spirit comes from the Latin “spiritus” (“breath”) and has several interrelated meanings: Metaphysically, a spirit is an incorporeal energy force that is present in all living things but distinct from the soul. (The distinction between soul and spirit became current in Judeo-Christian terminology.) A spirit may also be...

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The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ

The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ Toward The End of Time This article covers The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ. Some of the first converts to Islam were subjected to the severest persecutions in Makka. They bore them patiently and never thought of retaliation,...

Islamic drawing, a Madrasa


Luqman The Wise Luqman (لقمان, Luqmān; also known as Luqman the Wise or Luqman al-Hakeem) was a wise man after whom Surah Luqman, the 31st sura (chapter) of the Quran, was named. Luqman (c. 1100 BC) is believed to have been from Nubia or from Egypt. There are many stories about Luqman in Persian, Arabic and Turkish literature, with the primary historical sources for his life being Tafsir...

Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston

Elijah In Islam

Elijah In Islam This article covers the prophet of the Israelites, Elijah, in Islam. Ilyas (Ilyās, إلياس) was a prophet and messenger of God (Allah) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel. He was given the prophetic mission to prevent people from worshipping idols. Ilyas is the prophetic predecessor to Alyasa. Some Islamic scholars...

The shrine of Shuayb, as believed by the Druze and some Muslims, near Hittin in the Galilee

Prophet Shuaib

Prophet Shuaib Prophet Shuaib (Shoaib, Shuayb or Shuʿayb, شعيب, “who shows the right path”) is an ancient Midianite Nabi (Prophet) in Islam and the most revered prophet in the Druze faith. Shuayb is traditionally identified with the Biblical Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law. Prophet Shuaib has mentioned in the Quran a total of 11 times. He is believed to have lived after Ibrahim (Abraham),...

Elisha the prophet

Elisha In Islam

Elisha In Islam Alyasa (اليسع, Alyasā’: Elisha in Islam) is a prophet and messenger of God (Allah) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel. In the Quran, Alyasa is mentioned twice as a prophet and is mentioned both times alongside fellow prophets. He is honored by Muslims as the prophetic successor to Ilyas (Elijah). Islamic sources that...

A 14th-century shrine built on top of the supposed grave of Aaron on Jabal Hārūn in Petra, Jordan.

Aaron In Islam

Aaron In Islam This article covers the prophet Aaron in Islam, who is called Harun. In Islam, Hārūn ibn ʿImrān (هارون ابن عمران, lit. ‘Aaron, son of Amram’), is a prophet and messenger of God (Allah), and the older brother of the prophet Musa (Moses). He along with his brother preached to the Israelites during the Exodus. Quranic account The...

The four primary prophets of Manichaeism in the Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, from left to right: Mani, Zoroaster, Buddha and Jesus. — Stated in Zsuzsanna Gulácsi’s Mani’s Pictures: The Didactic Images of the Manichaeans from Sasanian Mesopotamia to Uygur Central Asia and Tang-Ming China, p. 368.


Mani (prophet) Mani (Māni, مانی: Māni, 摩尼: Móní, Mānī, Μάνης, Manes, Μανιχαῖος, Manichaeus, Mānī ḥayyā “Living Mani”, c. April AD 216–2 March AD 274 or 26 February AD 277) was an Iranian prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a religion of late antiquity strongly influenced by Gnosticism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism, which was once widespread but is no longer prevalent by name. Mani was...

Rembrandt van Rijn, Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630


Who Is Jeremiah? Prophet Jeremiah (c. 650 – c. 570 BC), also called the “weeping prophet“, was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings, and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. In addition...

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Prophethood What is it? What does it mean for people? Did all the prophets appear in the Arabian Peninsula? Were there any people among whom a prophet was not raised? If so, can those to whom prophets were not sent be held responsible for their beliefs and actions? Prophethood is...

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What Is A Prophet?

What Is A Prophet? A prophet (from the Greek word προφήτης, meaning one who “utters forth”) is a person who is believed to speak for God (or the gods), with the purpose of delivering a divinely inspired message. A prophet often operates through means of recitation, divination, or channeling, and the process of receiving a message from the...

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Prophecy, Prophet, And Prophetess

Prophecy, Prophet, And Prophetess This article covers prophecy, prophet, and prophetess in the Catholic Church. In the Old Testament Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in vogue among the pagans. If, for a time, he consented to reply by Urim and Thummim (apparently a species of sacred lots which the high-priest carried in the cincture of his ephod,...

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Second Migration To Abyssinia

Second Migration To Abyssinia Following the migration and return of the most Sahabas from the first migration to Abyssinia (Sa’d ibn abi Waqqas and some did not return but left Abyssinia by sea for preaching overseas to East Asia), the Muslims continued to suffer Persecution by the Meccans. This time, in 6 BH (615 CE) almost...

Masjid al Haram panorama Kabaa Mecca Hajj

Who Is Muhammad?

Who Is Muhammad? Muhammad (محمد, also Arabic transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and Mahomet), is the founder of Islam — the world’s second-largest religion. According to traditional Muslim biographers, Muhammad was born c. 570 C.E. in Mecca (Makkah) and died June 8, 632 in Medina (Madinah). Both Mecca and Medina are cities in the Hejaz region of...