Apostles in Christianity
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles (‘one who is sent away’), particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus.
In modern usage, missionaries under Pentecostal movements often refer to themselves as apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio, the source of the English word missionary. For example, Saint Patrick (AD 373–463) was the “Apostle of Ireland”, Saint Boniface (680–755) was the “Apostle to the Germans”, Saint José de Anchieta (1534–1597) was the “Apostle of Brazil” and Saint Peter of Betancur (1626–1667) was the “Apostle of Guatemala”.
While Christian tradition often refers to the apostles as being twelve in number, different gospel writers give different names for the same individual, and apostles mentioned in one gospel are not mentioned in others. The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles during the ministry of Jesus is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels. After his resurrection, Jesus sent eleven of them (minus Judas Iscariot, who by then had died) by the Great Commission to spread his teachings to all nations. This event is commonly called the Dispersion of the Apostles. There is also an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of there having been as many as 70 apostles during the time of Jesus’ ministry. In early Christianity, Paul, is often referred to as an apostle, because he was directly taught and commissioned by a vision of Christ[Acts 9:4–5] during his journey to Damascus.
The period of early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age. During the 1st century AD, the apostles established churches throughout the territories of the Roman Empire and, according to tradition, through the Middle East, Africa, and India.
In the New Testament, the majority of the apostles have Hebrew names, although some have Greek names. Many Jews at the time had Latin or Greek names as well as Hebrew names.
Mark 6:7–13 states that Jesus initially sent out these twelve in pairs (cf. Mt 10:5–42, Lk 9:1–6) to towns in Galilee. The text states that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and drive out demons. They are also instructed to “take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse, but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics”, and that if any town rejects them they ought to shake the dust off their feet as they leave, a gesture which some scholars think was meant as a contemptuous threat (Miller 26). Their carrying of just a staff (Matthew and Luke say not even a staff) is sometimes given as the reason for the use by Christian bishops of a staff of office in those denominations that believe they maintain an apostolic succession.
Later in the Gospel narratives the twelve apostles are described as having been commissioned to preach the Gospel to “all the nations”, regardless of whether Jew or Gentile. Paul emphasized the important role of the apostles in the church of God when he said that the household of God is “built upon the foundation of apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone”.[Ephesians 2:19–20]
Although not one of the apostles commissioned during the life of Jesus, Paul, a Jew named Saul of Tarsus, claimed a special commission from the risen Jesus and is considered “the apostle of the Gentiles”,[Romans 11:13] for his missions to spread the gospel message after his conversion. In his writings, the epistles to Christian churches throughout the Levant, Paul did not restrict the term “apostle” to the Twelve, and often refers to his mentor Barnabas as an apostle. The restricted usage appears in the Revelation to John.
By the 2nd century AD, association with the apostles was esteemed as an evidence of authority. Churches which are believed to have been founded by one of the apostles are known as apostolic sees. Paul’s epistles were accepted as scripture, and two of the four canonical gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions, were attributed to the apostles. Bishopstraced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and established churches across great territories. Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, from the Twelve. Early Church Fathers who came to be associated with apostles, such as Pope Clement I with St. Peter, are referred to as the Apostolic Fathers. The Apostles’ Creed, popular in the West, was said to have been composed by the apostles themselves.
The Twelve Disciples
Calling by Jesus
The three Synoptic Gospels record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited, Matthew only describing the recruitment of Simon, Andrew, James, and John. All three Synoptic Gospels state that these four were recruited fairly soon after Jesus returned from being tempted by the devil.
Despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, they are all described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets to do so. Traditionally the immediacy of their consent was viewed as an example of divine power, although this statement is not made in the text itself. The alternative and much more ordinary solution is that Jesus was simply friends with the individuals beforehand, as implied by the Gospel of John, which states that Peter (Simon) and Andrew were disciples of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus as soon as Jesus had been baptized.
Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon’s and Andrew’s abandonment of their nets that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, although required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew’s abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions was taken as a model by later Christian ascetics.
This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the ship they abandon behind them), and Carter feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew’s view of Jesus is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair.
The Synoptic Gospels go on to describe that much later, after Jesus had later begun his ministry, he noticed, while teaching, a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, called Matthew in Matthew 9:9, Levi in Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27, is asked by Jesus to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees are described as asking Jesus why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus gives to this is now well known: “it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners”.
Replacement of Judas
After Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ and then in guilt committed suicide before Christ’s resurrection (in one Gospel account), the apostles numbered eleven. When Jesus had been taken up from them, in preparation for the coming of the Holy Spirit that he had promised them, Peter advised the brethren:
Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus… For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry… For it is written in the book of Psalms, “Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein”, and, “Let another take his office”… So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up from us, must become with us a witness to his resurrection— Acts 1:15–26
So, between the ascension of Christ and the day of Pentecost, the remaining apostles elected a twelfth apostle by casting lots, a traditional Israelite way to determine the will of God (see Proverbs 16:33). The lot fell upon Matthias.
Paul the Apostle in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, appears to give the first historical reference to the twelve apostles:
For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.— 1 Corinthians 15:3–8
Paul, Apostle of the Gentiles
In his writings, Paul the Apostle, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle, one “born out of due time” (e.g., Romans 1:1, 1 Corinthians 15:8 and other letters). He was called by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus vision and given the name “Paul”.[Acts 9:1–9] With Barnabas, he was allotted the role of apostle in the church.[Acts 13:2] He referred to himself as the apostle of the Gentiles.[Rom 11:13]
As the Catholic Encyclopedia states, “It is at once evident that in a Christian sense, everyone who had received a mission from God, or Christ, to man could be called ‘Apostle'”; thus extending the original sense beyond the twelve.
Since Paul claimed to have received the gospel through a revelation of Jesus Christ after the latter’s death and resurrection (rather than before like the twelve), he was often obliged to defend his apostolic authority (1 Cor. 9:1 “Am I not an apostle?”) and proclaim that he had seen and was anointed by Jesus while on the road to Damascus.
James, Peter and John in Jerusalem accepted his calling to the apostleship from the Lord to the Gentiles (specifically those not circumcised) as of equal authority as Peter’s to the Jews(specifically those circumcised) according to Paul.[Gal 2:7–9] “James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars … agreed that we [Paul and Barnabas] should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews.”[Gal 2:9]
Paul, despite his divine calling as an apostle, considered himself perhaps inferior to the other apostles because he had originally persecuted Christ’s followers.[1 Cor. 15:9] In addition, despite the Little Commission of Matthew 10, the twelve did not limit their mission to solely Jews as Cornelius the Centurion is widely considered the first Gentile convert and he was converted by Peter, and the Great Commission of the Resurrected Jesus is specifically to “all nations”.
Of the twelve Apostles to hold the title after Matthias’ selection, Christian tradition has generally passed down that all but one were martyred, with John surviving into old age. Only the death of James, son of Zebedee is described in the New Testament.
Matthew 27:5 says that Judas Iscariot threw the silver he received for betraying Jesus down in the Temple, then went and hanged himself. Acts 1:18 says that he purchased a field, then “falling headlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out”.
According to the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon, early Christians (second half of the second century and first half of the third century) believed that only Peter, Paul, and James, son of Zebedee, were martyred. The remainder or even all of the claims of martyred apostles do not rely upon historical or biblical evidence.
Tombs of the Apostles
- Peter: buried in St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City, Rome, Italy
- Andrew: buried in St Andrew’s Cathedral, Patras, Greece
- James, son of Zebedee: buried in Santiago de Compostela Cathedral in Galicia (Spain)
- John: buried in the Basilica of St. John in Ephesus Turkey
- Philip: buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Rome or possibly Hierapolis, near Denizli, Turkey
- Bartholomew: buried in the Basilica of Benevento, Italy, or Basilica of St. Bartholomew on the Island, Rome, Italy
- Matthew: buried in the Salerno Cathedral, Salerno, Italy
- James, son of Alpheus: buried in the Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem or the Church of the Holy Apostles in Rome
- Thomas: buried in the Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Abruzzo, Italy or in the San Thome Basilica in Madras, India
- Simon: buried in St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome under the St. Joseph altar with St. Jude
- Jude Thaddeus: buried in St. Peter’s Basilica under the St. Joseph altar with St. Simon; two bones (relics) located at National Shrine of St Jude in Chicago, Illinois
- Matthias: buried in the Saint Matthias Benedictine Abbey in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
- Paul: relics located in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome
- Judas Iscariot: remains located in Akeldama, near the Valley of Hinnom, in Jerusalem, Israel
List of the Twelve Apostles as identified by the Bible
|Gospel of Matthew||Gospel of Mark||Gospel of Luke||Gospel of John||Acts of the Apostles|
|Simon (“who is called Peter”)||Simon||Simon||Simon Peter||Peter|
|Andrew (“his [Peter’s] brother”)||Andrew||Andrew||Andrew||Andrew|
|James (“son of Zebedee”)||James||James||one of the “sons of Zebedee”||James|
|John (“his [James’s] brother”)||John / one of the “Boanerges”||John||one of the “sons of Zebedee”||John|
|Thomas||Thomas||Thomas||Thomas (“also called Didymus”)||Thomas|
|Matthew (“the publican”)||Matthew||Matthew||not mentioned||Matthew|
|James (“son of Alphaeus”)||James||James||not mentioned||James|
|Thaddaeus (or “Lebbaeus”); called “Judas the Zealot” in some translations||Thaddaeus||Judas (“son of James, referred to as brother in some translations”)||Jude (“not Iscariot”)||Judas son of James (referred to as brother in some translations)|
|Simon (“the Canaanite”)||Simon (“the Cananaean”)||Simon (“who was called the Zealot”)||not mentioned||Simon the Zealot|
|Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot||Judas (“son of Simon Iscariot”)||(Judas replaced by Matthias)|
The Disciples of Jesus Christ
|Simon (Peter)||Andrew’s Brother||10:2;||3:16;||6:14;||1:35-42;|
|Andrew||Simon Peter’s Brother, Disciple of John the Baptist||10:2;||3:18;||1:35-42; 6:14;|
|James||John’s Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Boanerges, Son of Thunder, nephew of Joseph and Mary, cousin of Jesus||10:2; 20:20; 27:56;||3:17; 15:40; 16:1;||6:14;||19:25;|
|John||James’ Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Boanerges, Son of Thunder, nephew of Joseph and Mary, cousin of Jesus||10:2; 20:20; 27:56;||3:17; 15:40; 16:1;||6:14;||19:25;|
|Philip||from Bethsaida “of Galilee”||10:3;||3:18;||6:14;||1:44; 12:21;|
|Matthew Levi||Son of Alphaeus, Step-Brother of Jesus, James the Less, Jude, and Simon, Step-Son of Mary||10:3; 27:56;||2:14; 3:16,18; 6:3; 15:40,47;||5:27; 6:14-15; 24:18;||1:13; 4:36;|
|Thomas||Didymus or “the twin”||10:3;||3:18;||6:15;||11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; 21:2|
|James the Less||Jesus’ Half-Brother, Brother of Thaddaeus and Simon, Step-Brother of Matthew, Step-Son of Alphaeus||10:3; 27:56;||2:14; 3:16,18; 6:3; 15:40,47;||5:27; 6:14-15; 24:18;||1:13; 4:36;||1:1;|
|Thaddaeus Lebbaeus Judas Juda Jude||Jesus’ Half-Brother, Brother of James and Simon, Step-Brother of Matthew, Step-Son of Alphaeus||10:3; 13:55;||3:18; 6:3;||6:16;||1:1;|
|Simon Zelotes||Jesus’ Half-Brother, Brother of James and Thaddaeus, Step-Brother of Matthew, Step-Son of Alphaeus||10:4; 13:55;||3:18; 6:3;||6:15;|
|Judas Iscariot||the Traitor||10:4;||3:19;||6:16;||13:26; 18:3-5|
|Matthias||Disciple of John the Baptist, replacement for Judas Iscariot||1:35-42;||1:20-26;|
Other apostles mentioned in the New Testament
Men who followed Jesus
|Person called apostle||Where in Scripture||Notes|
|Andronicus and Junia||Rom 16:7||Paul states that Andronicus and Junia were “of note among the apostles.” This has been traditionally interpreted in one of two ways:
If the first view is correct then Paul may be referring to a female apostle – the Greek name (Iounian) is in the accusative and could be either Junia (a woman) or Junias (a man). Later manuscripts add accents to make it unambiguously Junias, however while “Junia” was a common name, “Junias” was not, and both options are favoured by different Bible translations.
In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the apostles.
Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view, in recent years, has been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer.
|Silas||1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6||Referred to as one along with Timothy and Paul, he also performs the functioning of an apostle as Paul’s companion in Paul’s second missionary journey in Acts 15:40ff.|
|Timothy||1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6||Timothy is referred to as an apostle along with Silas and Paul. However, in 2 Cor. 1:1 he is only called a “brother” when Paul refers to himself as “an apostle of Christ”. Timothy performs many of the functions of an apostle in the commissioning of Paul in 1st and 2nd Timothy, though in those epistles Paul refers to him as his “son” in the faith.|
|Apollos||1 Cor. 4:9||Included among “us apostles” along with Paul and Cephas (Peter). (see also: 4:6, 3:22, and 3:4–6)|
Women who followed Jesus
In Luke (10:38–42), Mary, sister of Lazarus, is contrasted with her sister Martha, who was “cumbered about many things” while Jesus was their guest, while Mary had chosen “the better part,” that of listening to the master’s discourse. John names her as the “one who had anointed the Lord with perfumed oil and dried his feet with her hair” (11:2). In Luke, an unidentified “sinner” in the house of a Pharisee anoints Jesus’ feet. In Medieval Catholic folklore, Mary, the sister of Lazarus, was seen as the same as Mary Magdalene.
Luke refers to a number of people accompanying Jesus and the twelve. From among them he names three women: “Mary, called Magdalene, … and Joanna the wife of Herod’s steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources” (Luke 8:2-3). Mary Magdalene and Joanna are among the women who went to prepare Jesus’ body in Luke’s account of the resurrection, and who later told the apostles and other disciples about the empty tomb and words of the “two men in dazzling clothes”. Mary Magdalene is the most well-known of the disciples outside of the Twelve. More is written in the gospels about her than the other female followers. There is also a large body of lore and literature covering her.
Other gospel writers differ as to which women witness the crucifixion and witness to the resurrection. Mark includes Mary, the mother of James and Salome (not to be confused with Salomé the daughter of Herodias) at the crucifixion and Salome at the tomb. John includes Mary the wife of Clopas at the crucifixion.
The Seventy disciples
The “seventy disciples” or “seventy-two disciples” (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the “Seventy Apostles”) were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1–24. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.
In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples, whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.
Authorship of the Gospels
The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription “according to Matthew” was added some time in the 2nd century. The tradition that the author was Matthew the Apostle begins with Papias of Hierapolis (c. AD 100–140), an early bishop and Apostolic Father, who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius (AD 260–340), as follows: “Matthew collected the oracles [logia: sayings of or about Jesus] in the Hebrew language [Hebraïdi dialektōi], and each one interpreted [hērmēneusen—perhaps ‘translated’] them as best he could.”
Although the Gospel of John is anonymous, Christian tradition historically has attributed it to John the Apostle, son of Zebedee and one of Jesus’ Twelve Apostles. The gospel is so closely related in style and content to the three surviving Johannine epistles that commentators treat the four books, along with the Book of Revelation, as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not necessarily written by the same author.
The Gospel of Mark was written anonymously. Early Christian tradition, first attested by Papias of Hierapolis, ascribes it to John Mark, a companion and interpreter of the apostle Peter. Hence its author is often called Mark, even though most modern scholars are doubtful of the Markan tradition and instead regard the author as unknown. It was probably written c. AD 66–70, during Nero’s persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution. The author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories (Mark 2:1–3:6), apocalyptic discourse (4:1–35), and collections of sayings (although not the Gospel of Thomas and probably not the Q source).
According to Church tradition, Luke the Evangelist, the companion of Paul, is believed to have authored the Gospel of Luke, though anonymously written and lacking an author’s name; but while this view is still occasionally put forward the scholarly consensus emphasises the many contradictions between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters. The most probable date for its composition is around 80–110 AD, and there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century.
- “Apostle.” Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN0-19-280290-9
- “Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostles”.
- As was not uncommon for Jews at the time, some of them had two names, one Hebrew/Aramaic and the other Greek. Hence the lists of Jesus’ twelve apostles contains 14 names not 12; the 4 Greek names are Andrew, Philip, Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus. Reference: John P. Meier‘s A Marginal Jew.
- Mt 28:19, Mk 13:10, and 16:15
- Cf. also Acts 15:1–31, Galatians 2:7–9, Acts 1:4–8, and Acts 10:1–11:18.
- Revelation 21:14.
- “Who were the 12 disciples?”. Retrieved 2017-09-19.
- cf. Gal 1:12; Acts 9:3–19, 9:26–27, 22:6–21, 26:12–23
- “Who were the 12 disciples?”.
- Gibbon, Edward (1826). “Chapter XVI. The Conduct of the Roman Government toward the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to that of Constantine”. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. II. New York: J. & J. Harper for Collins & Hanney. p. 20.
27. In the time of Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria the glory of martyrdom was confined to St. Peter, St. Paul and St. James. It was gradually bestowed on the rest of the apostles by the more recent Greeks, who prudently selected for the theatre of their preaching and sufferings some remote country beyond the limits of the Roman empire. See Mosheim, p. 81. and Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, tom. i. part 3.
- Were the Disciples Martyred for Believing the Resurrection? A Blast From the Past, ehrmanblog.org (behind paywall).
- Wills, Garry (10 March 2015). The Future of the Catholic Church with Pope Francis. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN978-0-698-15765-1.
(Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that “we simply don’t know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred.”)6Citing Moss, Candida (5 March 2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN978-0-06-210454-0.
- Many of the alternate locations of relics are sourced from this page http://www.saintsinrome.com/?m=0
- As stated in St. Philips wiki article
- Matt 10:1–4
- Mark 3:13–19
- Luke 6:12–16
- Acts 1:13
- John 6:67-71
- John 11:16John 20:24John 21:2
- Bruce M. Metzger. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Revised edition, Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005 ISBN978-1598561647, p. 21.
- John 14:22
- John 6:67-71
- May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
- Crossan, J. D. and Reed, J. L., In Search of Paul, Harper San Francisco (2004), pp. 115–116. ISBN978-0-06-051457-0.
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN978-0-19-530013-0.
- CBMW “A Female Apostle?”, June 26, 2007
- See Daniel B. Wallace and Michael H. Burer, “Was Junia Really an Apostle?” NTS 47 (2001): 76–91.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Disciple: “The disciples, in this disciples, in this context, are not the crowds of believers who flocked around Christ, but a smaller body of His followers. They are commonly identified with the seventy-two (seventy, according to the received Greek text, although several Greek manuscripts mention seventy-two, as does the Vulgate) referred to (Luke 10:1) as having been chosen by Jesus. The names of these disciples are given in several lists (Chronicon Paschale, and Pseudo-Dorotheus in Migne, P.G., XCII, 521-524; 543-545; 1061–1065); but these lists are unfortunately worthless.”
- “Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles”. oca.org.
- Harrington 1991, p. 8.
- Nolland 2005, p. 16.
- Turner 2008, pp. 15–16.
- Burkett 2002, p. 215.
- Lindars 1990, p. 63.
- Sanders 1995, pp. 63–64.
- Burkett 2002, pp. 155–56.
- Reddish 2011, p. 36.
- Perkins 1998, p. 241.
- Boring 2006, pp. 13–14.
- Theissen & Merz 1998, p. 32.
- Ehrman 2005, pp. 172, 235.
- Perkins 2009, pp. 250–53.
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