List Of Gospels
Here is the list of Gospels.
A gospel (a contraction of Old English god spel meaning “good news/glad tidings (of the kingdom of God)”, comparable to Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion) is a written account of the career and teachings of Jesus. The term originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the second century, it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out.
Gospels are a genre of Early Christian literature claiming to recount the life of Jesus. The New Testament has four canonical gospels, which are accepted as the only authentic ones by the great majority of Christians, but many others exist, or used to exist, and are called either New Testament apocrypha or pseudepigrapha. Some of these have left considerable traces on Christian traditions, including iconography.
- Synoptic gospels
- Gospel of John
Hypothesized sources of the synoptic gospels
- Cross Gospel – John Dominic Crossan’s proposed source of the Passion narrative in Mark (and in the Gospel of Peter, see below)
- Q source – Q is material common to Matthew and Luke, but not found in Mark
- M Source – M is material unique to Matthew
- L source – L is material unique to Luke
Hypothesized sources of the Gospel of John
- Signs Gospel – narrative of the Seven Signs
- Discourses Gospel – source of the discourse material
Apocrypha and pseudepigrapha
Main article: Gnostic Gospels
- Gospel of Thomas – possibly proto-Gnostic; first to mid-seco2nd century; collection of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus, 31 of them with no parallel in the canonical gospels
- Gospel of Marcion – second century, potentially an edited version of the Gospel of Luke or a document that antedates Luke (see: Marcionism)
- Gospel of Basilides – composed in Egypt around 120 to 140 AD, thought to be a gnostic gospel harmony of the canonical gospels
- Gospel of Truth (Valentinian) – mid-second century, departed from earlier gnostic works by admitting and defending the physicality of Christ and his resurrection
- Gospel of the Four Heavenly Realms – mid-second century, thought to be a gnostic cosmology, most likely in the form of a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples
- Gospel of Mary – second century
- Gospel of Judas – second century
- Greek Gospel of the Egyptians – second quarter of the second century
- Gospel of Philip
- Pseudo-Gospel of the Twelve – a Syriac language gospel titled the Gospel of the Twelve, this work is shorter than the regular gospels and seems to be different from the lost Gospel of the Twelve.
- Gospel of Perfection – fourth century, an Ophite poem that is only mentioned once by a single patristic source, Epiphanius, and is referred to once in the sixth-century Syriac Infancy Gospel
- Coptic Gospel of the Egyptians – also called Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit
Main article: Jewish-Christian gospels
- Gospel of the Hebrews
- Gospel of the Nazarenes
- Gospel of the Ebionites
- Gospel of the Twelve
- Armenian Infancy Gospel
- Protoevangelium of James
- Libellus de Nativitate Sanctae Mariae (Gospel of the Nativity of Mary)
- Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
- History of Joseph the Carpenter
- Infancy Gospel of Thomas
- Latin Infancy Gospel (Arundel 404)
- Syriac Infancy Gospel
- Gospel of the Lots of Mary (Coptic collection of 37 oracles; around 500 AD)
Partially preserved gospels
- Gospel of Peter
Fragmentary preserved gospels[α]
- Gospel of Eve – mentioned only once by Epiphanius around 400, who preserves a single brief passage in quotation
- Gospel of Mani – third century – attributed to the Persian Mani, the founder of Manichaeism
- Gospel of the Saviour (also known as the Unknown Berlin gospel) – highly fragmentary 6th-century manuscript based on a late second- or early third-century original, a dialogue rather than a narrative, heavily Gnostic in character in that salvation is dependent upon possessing secret knowledge
- Coptic Gospel of the Twelve – late second-century Coptic language work – although often equated with the Gospel of the Ebionites, it appears to be an attempt to retell the Gospel of John in the pattern of the Synoptics; it quotes extensively from John’s Gospel.
- Secret Gospel of Mark – suspect: the single source mentioning it is considered by many to be a modern forgery, and it disappeared before it could be independently authenticated.
- Gospel of Matthias
- Gospel of Cerinthus – around 90–120 AD – according to Epiphanius, this is a Jewish gospel identical to the Gospel of the Ebionites, and apparently, a truncated version of Matthew’s Gospel according to the Hebrews.
- Gospel of Apelles – mid- to late second century, a further edited version of Marcion’s edited version of Luke
- Gospel of ValentinusCite error: The
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- Gospel of Andrew – mentioned by only two fifth-century sources (Augustine and Pope Innocent I) who list it as apocryphal
- Gospel of Barnabas – this work is mentioned only once, in the fifth-century Decree of Gelasius, which lists it as apocryphal – not to be confused with the 16th-century Gospel of Barnabas.
- Gospel of Bartholomew – mentioned by only two fifth-century sources, which list it as apocryphal,
- Gospel of Hesychius – mentioned only by Jerome and the Decree of Gelasius that list it as apocryphal.
- Gospel of Lucius – mentioned only by Jerome and the Decree of Gelasius that list it as apocryphal.
- Gospel of Merinthus – mentioned only by Epiphanius; probably the Gospel of Cerinthus, and the confusion due to a scribal error.
- An unknown number of other Gnostic gospels not cited by name.
- Gospel of the Adversary of the Law and the Prophets
- Memoirs of the Apostles – lost narrative of the life of Jesus, mentioned by Justin Martyr, the passages quoted by Justin may have originated from a gospel harmony of the Synoptic Gospels composed by Justin or his school.
Fragments of possibly unknown or lost (or existing) gospels[α]
- Papyrus Egerton 2 – late second-century manuscript of possibly earlier original; contents parallel John 5:39–47, 10:31–39; Matt 1:40–45, 8:1–4, 22:15–22; Mark 1:40–45, 12:13–17; and Luke 5:12–16, 17:11–14, 20:20–26, but differ textually; also contains incomplete miracle account with no equivalent in canonical Gospels
- Fayyum Fragment – a fragment of about 100 Greek letters in third-century script; the text seems to parallel Mark 14:26–31
- Oxyrhynchus Papyri – fragments #1, 654, and 655 appear to be fragments of Thomas; #210 is related to MT 7:17–19 and LK 6:43–44 but not identical to them; #840 contains a short vignette about Jesus and a Pharisee not found in any known gospel, the source text is probably mid 2nd century; #1224 consists of paraphrases of Mark 2:17 and Luke 9:50
- Gospel of Jesus’ Wife – modern hoax based on Gospel of Thomas
- Papyrus Berolinensis 11710 – sixth-century Greek fragment, possibly from an apocryphal gospel or amulet based on John.
- Papyrus Cairensis 10735 – sixth- or seventh-century Greek fragment, possibly from a lost gospel, may be a homily or commentary
- Papyrus Merton 51 – fragment from apocryphal gospel or a homily on Luke 6:7
- Strasbourg Fragment – fragment of a lost gospel, probably related to Acts of John
- Gospel of the Seventy – a lost eighth– or 9th-century Manichean work
- Gospel of Nicodemus – a post-10th-century Christian devotional work (or works) in many variants, the first section is highly dependent upon the fifth-century “Acts of Pilate”
- Gospel of Barnabas – a 16th-century harmony of the four canonical gospels, probably of Spanish (Morisco) origin, or possibly Italian
- Gospel of the Secret Supper – a 12th-century Cathar scripture
- α. Preserved from primary sources.
- β. Preserved from secondary sources and commentaries.
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia