What Is Gospel Harmony?
Harmonies are constructed for a variety of purposes: to provide a straightforward devotional text for parishioners, to create a readable and accessible piece of literature for the general public, to establish a scholarly chronology of events in the life of Jesus as depicted in the canonical gospels, or to better understand how the accounts relate to each other.
Among academics, the construction of harmonies has always been favoured by more conservative scholars. Students of higher criticism see the divergences between the gospel accounts as reflecting the construction of traditions by the early Christian communities. Among modern academics, attempts to construct a single story have largely been abandoned in favour of laying out the accounts in parallel columns for comparison, to allow critical study of the differences between them.
The earliest known harmony is the Diatessaron by Tatian in the 2nd century and variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages. The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of gospel harmonies and the parallel column structure became widespread. At this time visual representations also started appearing, depicting the life of Christ in terms of a “pictorial gospel harmony”, and the trend continued into the 19th–20th centuries.
A gospel harmony is an attempt to collate the Christian canonical gospels into a single account. Harmonies are constructed by some writers in order to make the gospel story available to a wider audience, both religious and secular. Harmonies can be studied by scholars to establish a coherent chronology of the events depicted in the four canonical gospels in the life of Jesus, to better understand how the accounts relate to each other, and to critically evaluate their differences.
The terms harmony and synopsis have been used to refer to several different approaches to consolidating the canonical gospels. Technically, a “harmony” weaves together sections of scripture into a single narrative, merging the four gospels. There are four main types of harmony: radical, synthetic, sequential and parallel. By contrast, a “synopsis”, much like a parallel harmony, justaposes similar texts or accounts in parallel format, synchronized by time, while preserving their individual identity, usually in columns. Harmonies may also take a visual form and be undertaken to create narratives for artistic purposes, as in the creation of picture compositions depicting the life of Christ.
The oldest approach to harmonizing consists of merging the stories into a single narrative, producing a text longer than any individual gospel. This creates the most straightforward and detailed account, and one that is likely to be most accessible to non-academic users, such as lay churchgoers or people who are reading the gospels as a work of literature or philosophy.
There are, however, difficulties in the creation of a consolidated narrative. As John Barton points out, it is impossible to construct a single account from the four gospels without changing at least some parts of the individual accounts.
One challenge with any form of harmonizing is that events are sometimes described in a different order in different accounts – the Synoptic Gospels, for instance, describe Jesus overturning tables in the Temple at Jerusalem in the last week of his life, whereas the Gospel of John records a counterpart event only towards the beginning of Jesus’s ministry. Harmonists must either choose which time they think is correct, or conclude that separate events are described. Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander, for instance, proposed in Harmonia evangelica (1537) that Jesus must have been crowned with thorns twice, and that there were three separate episodes of cleansing of the Temple. On the other hand, commentators have long noted that the individual gospels are not written in a rigorously chronological format. This means that an event can be described as falling at two different times and still be the same event, so that the substantive details can be properly brought together in a harmony, although the harmonist will still have the task of deciding which of the two times is more probable.
A less common but more serious difficulty arises if the gospels diverge in their substantive description of an event. An example is the incident involving the centurion whose servant is healed at a distance. In the Gospel of Matthew the centurion comes to Jesus in person; in the Luke version he sends Jewish elders. Since these accounts are clearly describing the same event, the harmonist must decide which is the more accurate description or else devise a composite account.
The modern academic view, based on the broadly accepted principle that Matthew and Luke were written using Mark as a source, seeks to explain the differences between the texts in terms of this process of composition. For example, Mark describes John the Baptist as preaching the forgiveness of sins, a detail which is dropped by Matthew, perhaps in the belief that the forgiveness of sins was exclusive to Jesus.
The modern popularizing view, on the other hand, while acknowledging these difficulties, deemphasizes their importance. This view suggests that the divergences in the gospels are a relatively small part of the whole, and that the accounts show a great deal of overall similarity. The divergences can therefore be sufficiently discussed in footnote in the course of a consolidated narrative, and need not stand in the way of conveying a better overall view of the life of Jesus or of making this material more accessible to a wider readership.
To illustrate the concept of parallel harmony, a simple example of a “synopsis fragment” is shown here, consisting of just four episodes from the Passion. A more comprehensive parallel harmony appears in a section below.
|Crown of thorns||Matthew 27:29||Mark 15:17||John 19:2–5|
|Blood curse||Matthew 27:24–25|
|Carrying the cross||Matthew 27:27–33||Mark 15:20–22||Luke 23:26–32||John 19:16–17|
|Crucifixion of Jesus||Matthew 27:34–61||Mark 15:23–47||Luke 23:33–54||John 19:18–38|
Early Church and Middle Ages
Variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages, e.g. Codex Sangallensis (based on the 6th century Codex Fuldensis) dates to 830 and has a Latin column based on the Vulgate and an Old High German column that often resembles the Diatessaron, although errors frequently appear within it. The Liege harmony in the Limburg dialect (Liege University library item 437) is a key Westernsource of the Diatessaron and dates to 1280, although published much later. The two extant recensions of the Diatessaron in Medieval Italian are the single manuscript Venetian from the 13th or 14th century and the 26 manuscript Tuscan from the 14–15th century.
In the 3rd century Ammonius of Alexandria developed the forerunner of modern synopsis (perhaps based on the Diatessaron) as the Ammonian Sections in which he started with the text of Matthew and copied along parallel events. There are no extant copies of the harmony of Ammonius and it is only known from a single reference in the letter of Eusebius to Carpianus. In the letter Eusebius also discusses his own approach, i.e. the Eusebian Canons in which the texts of the gospels are shown in parallel to help comparison among the four gospels.
In the 5th century, Augustine of Hippo wrote extensively on the subject in his book Harmony of the Gospels. Augustine viewed the variations in the gospel accounts in terms of the different focuses of the authors on Jesus: Matthew on royalty, Mark on humanity, Luke on priesthood and John on divinity.
Clement of Llanthony’s Unum ex Quatuor (One from Four) was considered an improvement on previous canons at the time, although modern scholars sometimes opine that no major advances beyond Augustine emerged on the topic until the 15th century. Throughout the Middle Ages harmonies based on the principles of the Diatessaron continued to appear, e.g. the Liege harmony by Plooij in Middle Dutch, and the Pepysian harmony in Middle English. The Pepysian harmony (Magdalene college, Cambridge, item Pepys 2498) dates to about 1400 and its name derives from having been owned by Samuel Pepys.
By this time visual representations had also started appearing, for instance, the 15th-century artist Lieven de Witte produced a set of about 200 woodcut images that depicted the Life of Christ in terms of a “pictorial gospel harmony” which then appeared in Willem van Branteghem’s harmony published in Antwerp in 1537. The importance of imagery is reflected in the title of Branteghem’s well known work: The Life of Jesus Christ Skillfully Portrayed in Elegant Pictures Drawn from the Narratives of the Four Evangelists
The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of gospel harmonies. In this period the parallel column structure became widespread, partly in response to the rise of biblical criticism. This new format was used to emphasize the trustworthiness of the gospels. It is not clear who produced the very first parallel harmony, but Gerhard Mercator’s 1569 system is a well-known example. In terms of content and quality, Johann Jacob Griesbach’s 1776 synopsis was a notable case.
At the same time, the rise of modern biblical criticism was instrumental in the decline of the traditional apologetic gospel harmony. The Enlightenment writer, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, observed:
Oh that most excellent Harmony, which can only reconcile two contradictory reports, both stemming from the evangelists, by inventing a third report, not a syllable of which is to be found in any individual evangelist!
W. G. Rushbrooke’s 1880 Synopticon is at times considered a turning point in the history of the synopsis, as it was based on Markan priority, i.e. the assumption that the Gospel of Mark was the first to be written.Thirteen years later, John Broadus used historical accounts to assign priorities in his harmony, while previous approaches had used feasts as the major milestones for dividing the life of Christ.
Towards the end of the 19th century, after extensive travels and study in the Middle East, James Tissot produced a set of 350 watercolors which depicted the life of Christ as a visual gospel harmony. Tissot synthesized the four gospels into a singular narrative with five chapters: “the Holy Childhood, the Ministry, Holy Week, the Passion, and the Resurrection”. He also made portraits of each of the four evangelists to honor them.
In the 20th century, the Synopsis of the Four Gospels by Kurt Aland came to be seen by some as “perhaps the standard for an in-depth study of the Gospels.” A key feature of Aland’s work is the incorporation of the full text of the Gospel of John.John Bernard Orchard’s synopsis (which has the same title) was of note in that it took the unusual approach of abandoning Markan priority and assuming the synopics were written in this order: Matthew, Luke, Mark.
A parallel harmony presentation
The following table is an example of a parallel harmony, based on the list of key episodes in the Canonical Gospels. The order of events, especially during the ministry period, has been the subject of speculation and scholarly debate. While this harmony compares the work of several scholars, other harmonies may differ substantially on the placement of some events. The episode structure within the table is based on Edward Robinson’s A Harmony of the Gospels in Greek as well as Steven L. Cox and Kendell H Easley’s Harmony of the Gospels.
|1||Pre-existence of Christ||miscellaneous||John 01:01–18|
|2||Genealogy of Jesus||nativity||Matthew 01:01–17||Luke 03:23–38|
|3||Birth of John the Baptist||nativity||Luke 01:05–25|
|5||Visitation of Mary||nativity||Luke 01:39–56|
|6||Birth of Jesus||nativity||Matthew 01:18–25||Luke 02:01–07|
|7||Annunciation to the shepherds||nativity||Luke 02:08–15|
|8||Adoration of the shepherds||nativity||Luke 02:16–20|
|9||Circumcision of Jesus||nativity||Luke 02:21|
|10||Infant Jesus at the Temple||nativity||Luke 02:22–38|
|11||Star of Bethlehem||nativity||Matthew 02:01–02|
|12||Visit of the Magi||nativity||Matthew 02:01–12|
|13||Flight into Egypt||nativity||Matthew 02:13–15|
|14||Massacre of the Innocents||nativity||Matthew 02:16–18|
|15||Herod the Great’s death||miscellaneous||Matthew 02:19–20|
|16||Return of the family of Jesus to Nazareth||youth||Matthew 02:21–23||Luke 02:39–39|
|17||Finding Jesus in the Temple||youth||Luke 02:41–51|
|18||Ministry of John the Baptist||miscellaneous||Matthew 03:01–12||Mark 01:01–08||Luke 03:01–20||John 01:19–34|
|19||Baptism of Jesus||miscellaneous||Matthew 03:13–17||Mark 01:09–11||Luke 03:21–22||John 01:29–39|
|20||Temptation of Jesus||miscellaneous||Matthew 04:01–11||Mark 01:12–13||Luke 04:01–13|
|21||Marriage at Cana||miracle||John 02:01–11|
|22||First Temple Cleansing||ministry||John 02:13–25|
|23||Jesus & Nicodemus||ministry||John 03:01–21|
|24||Return of Jesus to Galilee||ministry||Matthew 04:12–12||Mark 01:14–14||John 04:01–03|
|25||Exorcism at the Synagogue in Capernaum||miracle||Mark 01:21–28||Luke 04:31–37|
|26||The Growing Seed||parable||Mark 04:26–29|
|27||Rejection of Jesus||ministry||Matthew 13:53–58||Mark 06:01–06||Luke 04:16–30|
|28||First disciples of Jesus||ministry||Matthew 04:18–22||Mark 01:16–20||Luke 05:1-11||John 01:35–51|
|29||Miraculous draught of fishes||miracle||Luke 05:01–11|
|30||Beatitudes||sermon||Matthew 05:02–12||Luke 06:20–23|
|31||Young Man from Nain||miracle||Luke 07:11–17|
|32||The Two Debtors||parable||Luke 07:41–43|
|33||The Lamp under a Bushel||parable||Matthew 05:14–15||Mark 04:21–25||Luke 08:16–18|
|34||Expounding of the Law||sermon||Matthew 05:17–48||Luke 06:29–42|
|35||Seventy Disciples||ministry||Luke 10:01–24|
|36||Discourse on ostentation||sermon||Matthew 06:01–18|
|37||Parable of the Good Samaritan||parable||Luke 10:30–37|
|38||Jesus at the home of Martha and Mary||ministry||Luke 10:38–42|
|39||The Lord’s Prayer||ministry||Matthew 06:09–13||Luke 11:02–04|
|40||The Friend at Night||parable||Luke 11:05–08|
|41||The Rich Fool||parable||Luke 12:16–21|
|42||Samaritan Woman at the Well||ministry||John 04:04–26|
|43||The Birds of Heaven||ministry||Matthew 06:25–34||Luke 12:22–34|
|44||Discourse on judging||sermon||Matthew 07:01–05||Luke 06:41–42|
|45||Discourse on holiness||sermon||Matthew 07:13–27|
|46||The Test of a Good Person||sermon||Matthew 07:15–20||Luke 06:43-45|
|47||The Wise and the Foolish Builders||parable||Matthew 07:24–27||Luke 06:46–49|
|48||Cleansing a leper||miracle||Matthew 08:01–04||Mark 01:40–45||Luke 05:12–16|
|49||The Centurion’s Servant||miracle||Matthew 08:05–13||Luke 07:01–10||John 04:46–54|
|50||Healing the mother of Peter’s wife||miracle||Matthew 08:14–17||Mark 01:29–34||Luke 04:38–41|
|51||Exorcising at sunset||miracle||Matthew 08:16–17||Mark 01:32–34||Luke 04:40–41|
|52||Calming the storm||miracle||Matthew 08:23–27||Mark 04:35–41||Luke 08:22–25|
|53||Gerasenes demonic||miracle||Matthew 08:28–34||Mark 05:01–20||Luke 08:26–39|
|54||Paralytic at Capernaum||miracle||Matthew 09:01–08||Mark 02:01–12||Luke 05:17–26|
|55||Calling of Matthew||ministry||Matthew 09:09||Mark 02:13–14||Luke 05:27–28|
|56||New Wine into Old Wineskins||parable||Matthew 09:17–17||Mark 02:22–22||Luke 05:37–39|
|57||Daughter of Jairus||miracle||Matthew 09:18–26||Mark 05:21–43||Luke 08:40–56|
|58||The Bleeding Woman||miracle||Matthew 09:20–22||Mark 05:24–34||Luke 08:43–48|
|59||Two Blind Men at Galilee||miracle||Matthew 09:27–31|
|60||Exorcising a mute||miracle||Matthew 09:32–34|
|61||Commissioning the twelve Apostles||ministry||Matthew 10:02–04||Mark 03:13–19||Luke 06:12–16|
|62||Not peace, but a sword||ministry||Matthew 10:34–36||Luke 12:49–53|
|63||Messengers from John the Baptist||ministry||Matthew 11:02–06||Luke 07:18–23|
|64||Paralytic at Bethesda||miracle||John 05:01–18|
|65||Lord of the Sabbath||ministry||Matthew 12:01–08||Mark 02:23–28||Luke 06:01–05|
|66||Man with withered Hand||miracle||Matthew 12:09–13||Mark 03:01–06||Luke 06:06–11|
|67||Exorcising the blind and mute man||miracle||Matthew 12:22–28||Mark 03:20–30||Luke 11:14–23|
|68||Parable of the strong man||parable||Matthew 12:29–29||Mark 03:27–27||Luke 11:21–22|
|69||Eternal sin||ministry||Matthew 12:30–32||Mark 03:28–29||Luke 12:08–10|
|70||Jesus’ True Relatives||ministry||Matthew 12:46–50||Mark 03:31–35||Luke 08:19–21|
|71||Parable of the Sower||parable||Matthew 13:03–09||Mark 04:03–09||Luke 08:05–08|
|72||The Tares||parable||Matthew 13:24–30|
|73||The Barren Fig Tree||parable||Luke 13:06–09|
|74||An Infirm Woman||miracle||Luke 13:10–17|
|75||Parable of the Mustard Seed||parable||Matthew 13:31–32||Mark 04:30–32||Luke 13:18–19|
|76||The Leaven||parable||Matthew 13:33–33||Luke 13:20–21|
|77||Parable of the Pearl||parable||Matthew 13:44–46|
|78||Drawing in the Net||parable||Matthew 13:47–50|
|79||The Hidden Treasure||parable||Matthew 13:52–52|
|80||Beheading of John the Baptist||ministry||Matthew 14:06–12||Mark 06:21–29||Luke 09:07–09|
|81||Feeding the 5000||miracle||Matthew 14:13–21||Mark 06:31–44||Luke 09:10–17||John 06:05–15|
|82||Jesus’ walk on water||miracle||Matthew 14:22–33||Mark 06:45–52||John 06:16–21|
|83||Healing in Gennesaret||miracle||Matthew 14:34–36||Mark 06:53–56|
|84||Discourse on Defilement||sermon||Matthew 15:01–11||Mark 07:01–23|
|85||Canaanite woman’s daughter||miracle||Matthew 15:21–28||Mark 07:24–30|
|86||Deaf mute of Decapolis||miracle||Mark 07:31–37|
|87||Feeding the 4000||miracle||Matthew 15:32–39||Mark 08:01–09|
|88||Blind Man of Bethsaida||miracle||Mark 08:22–26|
|89||Confession of Peter||ministry||Matthew 16:13–20||Mark 08:27–30||Luke 09:18–21|
|90||Transfiguration of Jesus||miracle||Matthew 17:01–13||Mark 09:02–13||Luke 09:28–36|
|91||Boy possessed by a demon||miracle||Matthew 17:14–21||Mark 09:14–29||Luke 09:37–49|
|92||Coin in the fish’s mouth||miracle||Matthew 17:24–27|
|93||Bread of Life Discourse||sermon||John 06:22–59|
|94||The Little Children||ministry||Matthew 18:01–06||Mark 09:33–37||Luke 09:46–48|
|95||Man with dropsy||miracle||Luke 14:01–06|
|96||Counting the Cost||parable||Luke 14:25–33|
|97||The Lost Sheep||parable||Matthew 18:10–14||Luke 15:04–06|
|98||The Unforgiving Servant||parable||Matthew 18:23–35|
|99||The Little Children||ministry||Matthew 18:01–06||Mark 09:33–37||Luke 09:46–48|
|100||The Lost Coin||parable||Luke 15:08–09|
|101||Parable of the Prodigal Son||parable||Luke 15:11–32|
|102||The Unjust Steward||parable||Luke 16:01–13|
|103||Rich man and Lazarus||parable||Luke 16:19–31|
|104||The Master and Servant||parable||Luke 17:07–10|
|105||Cleansing ten lepers||miracle||Luke 17:11–19|
|106||The Unjust Judge||parable||Luke 18:01–08|
|107||Pharisee and the Tax Collector||parable||Luke 18:09–14|
|108||Divorce and celibacy||ministry||Matthew 19:1-15|
|109||Jesus and the rich young man||ministry||Matthew 19:16–30||Mark 10:17–31||Luke 18:18–30|
|110||Jesus and the woman taken in adultery||ministry||John 08:02–11|
|111||The Workers in the Vineyard||parable||Matthew 20:01–16|
|112||Jesus predicts his death||ministry||Matthew 20:17–19||Mark 10:32–34 (Mark 08:31 Mark 09:31)||Luke 18:31–34|
|113||The Blind at Birth||miracle||John 09:01–12|
|114||Son of man came to serve||ministry||Matthew 20:20–28||Mark 10:35–45|
|115||The Good Shepherd||ministry||John 10:01–21|
|116||Blind near Jericho||miracle||Matthew 20:29–34||Mark 10:46–52||Luke 18:35–43|
|117||Raising of Lazarus||miracle||John 11:01–44|
|118||Jesus and Zacchaeus||ministry||Luke 19:02–28|
|119||Palm Sunday||ministry||Matthew 21:01–11||Mark 11:01–11||Luke 19:29–44||John 12:12–19|
|120||Second Temple Cleansing||ministry||Matthew 21:12–13||Mark 11:15–18||Luke 19:45–48|
|121||Cursing the fig tree||miracle||Matthew 21:18–22||Mark 11:12–14|
|122||Authority of Jesus Questioned||ministry||Matthew 21:23–27||Mark 11:27–33||Luke 20:01–08|
|123||The Two Sons||parable||Matthew 21:28–32|
|124||The Wicked Husbandmen||parable||Matthew 21:33–41||Mark 12:01–09||Luke 20:09–16|
|125||The Great Banquet||parable||Matthew 22:01–14||Luke 14:16–24|
|126||Render unto Caesar…||ministry||Matthew 22:15–22||Mark 12:13–17||Luke 20:20–26|
|127||Woes of the Pharisees||ministry||Matthew 23:01–39||Mark 12:35–37||Luke 20:45–47|
|128||Widow’s mite||sermon||Mark 12:41–44||Luke 21:01-04|
|129||Second Coming Prophecy||ministry||Matthew 24:01–31||Mark 13:01–27||Luke 21:05–36|
|130||The Budding Fig Tree||parable||Matthew 24:32–35||Mark 13:28–31||Luke 21:29–33|
|131||The Faithful Servant||parable||Matthew 24:42–51||Mark 13:34–37||Luke 12:35–48|
|132||The Ten Virgins||parable||Matthew 25:01–13|
|133||The Talents or Minas||parable||Matthew 25:14–30||Luke 19:12–27|
|134||The Sheep and the Goats||parable||Matthew 25:31–46|
|135||Anointing of Jesus||ministry||Matthew 26:01–13||Mark 14:03-09||Luke 07:36–50||John 12:02-08|
|136||Bargain of Judas||miscellaneous||Matthew 26:14–16||Mark 14:10–11||Luke 22:01-06|
|137||The Grain of Wheat||ministry||John 12:24–26|
|138||Last Supper||ministry||Matthew 26:26–29||Mark 14:18–21||Luke 22:17–20||John 13:01–31|
|139||Promising a Paraclete||ministry||John 16:05–15|
|140||Gethsemane||miscellaneous||Matthew 26:36–46||Mark 14:32–42||Luke 22:39–46|
|141||The kiss of Judas||passion||Matthew 26:47–49||Mark 14:43–45||Luke 22:47–48||John 18:02-09|
|142||Healing the ear of a servant||miracle||Luke 22:49–51|
|143||Arrest of Jesus||passion||Matthew 26:50–56||Mark 14:46–49||Luke 22:52–54||John 18:10–12|
|144||Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus||passion||Matthew 26:57–68||Mark 14:53–65||Luke 22:63–71||John 18:12–24|
|145||Blood curse||passion||Matthew 27:24–25|
|146||Carrying the cross||passion||Matthew 27:27–33||Mark 15:20–22||Luke 23:26–32||John 19:16–17|
|147||Crucifixion of Jesus||passion||Matthew 27:34–61||Mark 15:23–47||Luke 23:33–54||John 19:18–38|
|148||Myrrhbearers||resurrection appearance||Matthew 28:01||Mark 16:01||Luke 24:01|
|149||Empty tomb||resurrection appearance||Matthew 28:02-08||Mark 16:02-08||Luke 24:02–12||John 20:01–13|
|150||Resurrection of Jesus||resurrection appearance||Matthew 28:09–10||Mark 16:09-13||Luke 24:01-08||John 20:14–16|
|151||Noli me tangere||resurrection appearance||John 20:17–17|
|152||Road to Emmaus appearance||resurrection appearance||Luke 24:13–32|
|153||Resurrected Jesus appears to Apostles||resurrection appearance||Luke 24:36–43||John 20:19–20|
|154||Great Commission||resurrection appearance||Matthew 28:16–20||Mark 16:14-18||Luke 24:44–49||John 20:21–23|
|155||Doubting Thomas||resurrection appearance||John 20:24–29|
|156||Catch of 153 fish||miracle||John 21:01–24|
|157||Ascension of Jesus||resurrection appearance||Mark 16:19||Luke 24:50–53|
|158||Dispersion of the Apostles||miscellaneous||Matthew 28:19-20||Mark 16:19-20|
- Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN0-8054-9444-8 pages 3–4
- Averitt, Neil (2015). The Single Gospel. Wipf and Stock. pp. xix–xx. ISBN978-1-4982-2158-0.
- Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN0-8054-9444-8 page 18
- Cox, Steven L (2007), Harmony of the Gospels, B&H, pp. 1–2, ISBN0-8054-9444-8.
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, 4, Eerdmans, 2005, p. 39.
- Aune, David Edward (Nov 30, 2003), The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature, p. 190, ISBN0-66421917-9.
- Tatian and the Jewish Scriptures by Robert F. Shedinger (Jan 1, 2002) ISBN9042910429 pages 28–32
- Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the GospelsISBN0-8054-9444-8 pages 6–8
- Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition by Paul Corby Finney 1999 ISBN080283860Xpage 398
- Tissot, James (2009), Dolkart, Judith F; Jacques, James, eds., The Life of Christ : the complete set of 350 watercolors, pp. 70–71, ISBN0-87273164-2
- Averitt, Neil (2015). The Single Gospel. Wipf and Stock. pp. xix–xx. ISBN978-1-4982-2158-0.
- John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon Literature and Theology Collected Essays of John Barton (Ashgate Publishing, 2013) page 59.
- Graham Stanton, Gospel Truth? New Light on Jesus and the Gospels (HarperCollins, 1995) page 8; John S. Kloppenborg Verbin, “Is There a New Paradigm?”, in Horrell, Tuckett (eds), Christology, Controversy, and Community: New Testament Essays in Honour of David R. Catchpole (BRILL, 2000), page 39.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (1991). A Christological Catechism (quoting Augustine). Paulist Press. p. 158.
- Carson, D,A. (1984). “Introduction to Matthew,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary vol. VIII. Zondervan. pp. 38–39.
- Matthew 8:8–9
- Luke 7:6–8
- Mark Allan Powell, Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), page 12–13.
- Zegarelli, Gregg (2006). ONE: The Unified Gospel of Jesus. OUG Press. ISBN978-0978990602.
- Francis Watson, “Must the Gospels Agree?” in Stuart G. Hall, Jesus Christ Today: Studies of Christology in Various Contexts (Walter de Gruyter, 2009) page 72–73.
- Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the GospelsISBN0-8054-9444-8 pages 207–211
- The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature by David Edward Aune (Nov 30, 2003) ISBN0664219179 pages 127 and 211
- Bart Ehrman, Zlatko Plese, The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (Oxford University Press, 2011) page 231.
- Ron Cameron, The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts (Westminster John Knox Press, 1982) page 103.
- Patristic and Text-Critical Studies by Jan Krans and Joseph Verheyden (Dec 31, 2011) ISBN9004192891 pages 188–190
- Encyclopedia Christianity: v. 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch (1 Jul 2004) ISBN0802824161 page 41
- Augustine through the ages: an encyclopedia by John C. Cavadini 1999 ISBN0-8028-3843-X page 132
- Christology, Controversy and Community by David G. Horell and Christopher M. Tuckett (8 Aug 2000) ISBN9004116796pages 37–40
- Smalley (1981), p. 250.
- The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700 by Celeste Brusati, Karl A. E. Enenkel and Walter S. Melion (Nov 2011) ISBN9004215158 pages 2–6
- François, W. (2012). Augustine and the Golden Age of Biblical Scholarship in Louvain (1550-1650). In: Gordon B., McLean M. (Eds.), bookseries: Library of the Written Word, vol: 20, Shaping the Bible in the Reformation: Books, Scholars and Their Readers in the Sixteenth Century. Leiden: Brill, 235-289, on 252.
- John Calvin And the Printed Book by Jean François Gilmont (Nov 30, 2005) ISBN1931112568 page 50
- A Harmony of the Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke by John Calvin, David W. Torrance,(Jul 17, 1995) ISBN0802808026
- What Have They Done to the Bible?: A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation by John Sandys-Wunsch (20 Aug 2005) ISBN0814650287 page 35
- Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Werke, 8.51-52, cited in Francis Watson, Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013), page 80.
- “James Tissot: Saint Luke (Saint Luc) (1886)”. Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- Kurt Aland, 1982 Synopsis of the Four Gospels United Bible Societies ISBN0-8267-0500-6
- John Bernard Orchard, 1983 Synopsis of the Four GospelsT&T Clark Publishers ISBN0-567-09331-X
- William Newcome (1834), Edward Robinson, ed., A harmony of the Gospels in Greek, in the general order of Le Clere & Newcome, with Newcome’s notes: Printed from the text and with the various readings of Knapp, Gould and Newman
- William Newcome (1809), An English harmony of the four evangelists: generally disposed after the manner of the Greek of William Newcome, Published by Kimber and Conrad, Brown & Merritt, printers, p. vii (full read at GoogleBooks)
- Steven L. Cox; Kendell H. Easley (2006), “Analytical Outline of the Harmony”, HCSB Harmony of the Gospels, B&H Publishing, p. xviii, ISBN978-0805494440
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