The Buddha, represented by the Bodhi tree, attended by animals, Sanchi vihara.

Animals in Buddhism

Animals in Buddhism The position and treatment of animals in Buddhism is important for the light it sheds on Buddhists’ perception of their own relation to the natural world, on Buddhist humanitarian concerns in general, and on the relationship between Buddhist theory and Buddhist practice. Etymology In the Pali language, the translation is Tira-acchanā. Tira means against and Acchanā means a being...

The common chimpanzee can use tools. This individual is using a stick to get food.

Animal Cognition

Animal Cognition Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities. The field developed from comparative psychology, including the study of animal conditioning and learning. It has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology, and hence the alternative name cognitive ethology is sometimes used. Many behaviors associated...

According to the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, "near human-like levels of consciousness" have been observed in the grey parrot.

Animal Consciousness

Animal Consciousness Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or of being aware of an external object or something within itself. It is a key subject in the discussion of animal rights. In humans, consciousness has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, qualia,...

Canine Sad Dog Stray Dog Race Abandoned Sick Dog

Pain in Animals

Pain in Animals Pain negatively affects the health and welfare of animals. “Pain” is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Only the person experiencing the pain can know the...

Bioethics

Bioethics The term bioethics was first coined by American biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter to describe a new philosophy that integrates biology, ecology, medicine, and human values. In the broader sense of the term, bioethics encompasses both biomedical ethics, dealing with questions of ethics related to medicine, and environmental ethics, dealing with ecological ethics, such as respect for...

A four-week-old puppy, found alongside a road after flooding in West Virginia, United States, is fed at an Emergency Animal Rescue Service shelter in the Twin Falls State Park.

Animal Welfare

Animal Welfare Animal welfare is the well-being of nonhuman animals. The standards of “good” animal welfare vary considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review and are debated, created and revised by animal welfare groups, legislators, and academics worldwide. Animal welfare science uses various measures, such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although...

Hunting is not sport

Animal Rights

Animal rights Animal rights is a philosophical concept in bioethics that considers animals other than the human species as bearers of rights. This means that animals should have their basic interests taken into consideration which would require humans to avoid animal exploitation in activities such as medical experimentation as well as food and clothing production. The fundamental...

Hawk eating a small bird

Wild Animal Suffering

Wild Animal Suffering Wild animal suffering is the suffering experienced by nonhuman animals in nature through causes such as disease, injury, parasitism, starvation, natural disasters, and killings by other animals. Wild animal suffering has historically been discussed in the context of the philosophy of religion as an instance of the...

Animal Worship Japanese scroll Shinto

Animal Worship

Animal Worship Animal worship (or zoolatry) is rituals involving animals, such as the glorification of animal deities or animal sacrifice. When a god is respected or worshipped by means of a representative animal, an animal cult is formed (Teeter et al., 2002, p. 355). Animal cults may be classified according to their outward form or according...

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