Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world’s second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world’s population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632 CE).

 

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.

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Glossary of Islam

Glossary of Islam The following glossary of Islam consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in Arabic or Persian language. The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in...

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Dhimmi

What is Dhimmi? A dhimmi (ذمي‎ ḏimmī, collectively أهل الذمة ahl ul-ḏimmah/dhimmah “the people of the dhimma“) is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection. The word literally means “protected person”, referring to the state’s obligation under sharia to protect the individual’s life, property, and freedom of religion, in exchange for loyalty to the...

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Consultation and Submission

Consultation and submission Question: When a consultation committee makes a decision but the decision seems to contradict some of the participants’ minds and opinions, then what would be the best attitude for them to take moving forward? Submission – to use the dictionary definition – would be fulfilling the rulings, determinations,...

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Hadith of Gabriel

Hadith of Gabriel In Sunni Islam, the Hadith of Gabriel (ḥadīth Jibrīl) is the single most important hadith (report on the words and actions of the Prophet Muhammad), of the last prophet of Islam. Its narrative contains the best summary of the core of Islam: Islām (إسلام), which is described with the “Five Pillars of Islam,” Īmān (إيمان), which is described with the...

Lord Robert Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey.

Pakistan Movement

Pakistan Movement The Pakistan Movement or Tahrik-e-Pakistan (تحریکِ پاکستان‎ ; Taḥrīk-i-Pākistān) was a political movement in the first half of the 20th century that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of British India. It was connected to the need for self-determination for Muslims under British rule at the...

Saint Catherine's Monastery on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

People of The Book

People of The Book People of the Book or People of the Scripture (أهل الكتاب‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term which refers to Jews, Christians and Sabians and is sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians. It is also used in Judaism to refer to the Jewish people and by members...

The grave of Aminah; it was destroyed in 1998 by the Saudi Arabian government.

Wahhabism

Wahhabism Wahhabism (الوهابية‎, al-Wahhābiyah) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as “ultraconservative”, “far-right” “austere”, “fundamentalist”, or “puritan(ical)”; as an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship” (tawhid) by devotees; and as a “deviant sectarian movement”, “vile sect” and a distortion...

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Salafi Movement

Salafi Movement The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, Salafiya and Salafism, is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism. It had roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement that originated in the Najd region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The name derives from advocating a...

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Day of Resurrection

Day of Resurrection In Islamic eschatology, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة‎ “the Day of Resurrection“) or Yawm ad-Din (يوم الدين‎ “the Day of Judgement“) is believed to be God’s final assessment of humanity. It is called several names throughout the Qur’an, such as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, and the Hour (al-sā’ah). The sequence...

Iman

What is Iman? Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer’s faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān. The term iman has been delineated in both the Quran and hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and...

A modern view of the approximate area where the gathering at Saqifah occurred

Saqifah

Saqifah Saqifah Bani Sa’idah (سَقِيفَة بَنِي سَاعِدَة‎, Saqīfah Banī Sāʿdah), commonly known as simply Saqifah, (ٱلسَّقِيفَة‎ as-Saqīfah), was a roofed building in Medina used by the Banu Sa’idah clan of the Banu Khazraj tribe. Saqifah is significant as the site where, after Muhammad‘s death, some of his companions gathered and pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, electing him as the first Caliph. Gathering...

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Caliphate

Caliphate A caliphate (خِلَافَة‎ khilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَلِيفَة‎ khalīfah), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Ummah (Muslim community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three...

Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)

Ulama

Ulama In Islam, the ulama (علماء‎ ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, “scholar”, literally “the learned ones”, also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and uluma [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.  By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions (madrasas). The Quran and sunnah (hadith) are the scriptural sources of traditional Islamic law....

Muslims praying in 1865 Cairo by Jean-Léon Gérôme

Imam

Imam Imam (إمام‎ imām; plural: أئمة aʼimmah: “leader,” “model”) in a general sense, one who leads Muslim worshippers in prayer. In a global sense, imam is used to refer to the head of the Muslim community (ummah). The title is found in the Qurʾān several times to refer to leaders and to Abraham. The origin and basis...

the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad

Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt Ahl al-Bayt (أَهْلُ ٱلْبَيْتِ‎, اهلِ بیت‎) is a phrase meaning “People of the House” , “People of the Household” or “Family of the House“. Within the Islamic tradition, the term mainly refers to the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and to a lesser extent (according to Muslims), his...

Islamic Economics

Islamic Economics Islamic economics (الاقتصاد الإسلامي‎) is a term used to refer to Islamic commercial jurisprudence (فقه المعاملات‎, fiqh al-mu’āmalāt), and also to an ideology of economics based on the teachings of Islam that takes a middle ground between the systems of Marxism and capitalism. Islamic commercial jurisprudence entails the rules of transacting finance or other economic...

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Islamic Democracy

Islamic Democracy There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors. Some modern Islamic thinkers, whose ideas were particularly popular in the 1970s and 1980s, rejected the notion of democracy as a foreign idea incompatible with Islam....

Islamic states (dark green), states where Islam is the official religion (light green), secular states (blue) and other (orange), among countries with a Muslim majority

Islamic State

Islamic State An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law. As a term, it has been used to describe various historical polities and theories of governance in the Islamic world. As translation of the Arabic term dawlah islāmiyyah (دولة إسلامية‎) it refers to a modern notion associated with political Islam (Islamism). The concept of the modern...

Supporters of Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan wave Turkish flags during a pro-government protest in Germany (2016).

Political Aspects of Islam

Political Aspects of Islam Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur’an, the Sunnah (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad), Muslim history, and elements of political movements outside Islam. Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by elected or selected successors to the Prophet known as Caliphs, (Imamate for Shia); the importance of following Islamic law or Sharia; the...

Turkey Converts Istanbul's Iconic Hagia Sophia Back Into A Mosque

Islamic Revival

Islamic Revival Islamic revival (تجديد‎ tajdīd, “regeneration, renewal”; also الصحوة الإسلامية; aṣ-Ṣaḥwah l-ʾIslāmiyyah, “Islamic awakening“) refers to a revival of the Islamic religion. Within the Islamic tradition, tajdid has been an important religious concept, which has manifested itself throughout Islamic history in periodic calls for a renewed commitment to the fundamental principles of...

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