Great Tribulation

Great Tribulation In Christian eschatology, the Great Tribulation (θλίψις μεγάλη, thlipsis megalē) is a period mentioned by Jesus in the Olivet Discourse as a sign that would occur in the time of the end.[1] At Revelation 7:14, “the Great Tribulation” (τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης, literally, “the tribulation, the great one”) is used to indicate the period spoken of by Jesus.[2] Matthew24: 21 and 29 uses tribulation (θλίβω)...

Development of the Old Testament Canon

Development of the Old Testament Canon The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament. The Old Testament includes the books of the Hebrew Bible(Tanakh) or protocanon, and in various Christian denominations also includes deuterocanonical books. Orthodox Christians, Catholics...

Vulgate

What Is Vulgate? The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church’s officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day. The translation was largely the work of...

Authorship of Luke–Acts

Authorship of Luke–Acts The authorship of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, collectively known as Luke–Acts, is an important issue for biblical exegetes who are attempting to produce critical scholarship on the origins of the New Testament. Traditionally, the text is believed to have been written by Luke the companion of Paul (named in Colossians 4:14). However,...

Fifty Bibles of Constantine

Fifty Bibles of Constantine The Fifty Bibles of Constantine were Bibles in the original Greek language commissioned in 331 by Constantine I and prepared by Eusebius of Caesarea. They were made for the use of the Bishop of Constantinople in the growing number of churches in that very new city. Eusebius quoted the letter of commission in his Life of Constantine,...

Protestant Bible

Protestant Bible A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants. Such Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament (according to the Jewish Hebrew Bible canon, known especially to non-Protestants as the protocanonical books) and 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books. Some Protestants use Bibles which also include 14...

Old Testament

Old Testament The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites[1] believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.[2] The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament. The books that comprise the...

Language of The New Testament

Language of The New Testament The New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek,[1][2] which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean[3][4][5][6] from the conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BC) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek (c. 600). The Hellenistic Jewish world The New Testament Gospels and Epistles were only part of a Hellenistic Jewish culture in the Roman...

New Testament

New Testament The New Testament (Ancient Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, transl. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Latin: Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture....

Apocrypha

What Is Apocrypha? Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.[1] Biblical apocrypha is a set of texts included in the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. While Catholic tradition considers some of these texts to be deuterocanonical, Protestants consider them apocryphal. Thus, Protestant bibles do not include the...

List of Major Textual Variants In The New Testament

List of Major Textual Variants In The New Testament This is an (incomplete) list of major textual variants in the New Testament, with a focus on differences between categories of New Testament manuscript. The Textus Receptus (Latin: “received text”) is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which was...

Gospel Harmony

What Is Gospel Harmony? A gospel harmony is an attempt to compile the canonical gospels of the Christian New Testament into a single account.[1] This may take the form either of a single, merged narrative, or a tabular format with one column for each gospel, technically known as a synopsis, although the word harmony is often used for both.[1] Harmonies...

The Holy Quran’s Invitation To Christians

The Holy Quran’s Invitation To Christians “Say: “People of the Book! Come now to a word common between us and you, that we serve none but Allah, and that we associate not aught with Him, and do not some of us take others as lords, say, “bear witness that we...

The History of the Gospel of Barnabas

The History of the Gospel of Barnabas The Gospel of Barnabas is the only known surviving Gospel written by a disciple of Jesus, that is by a man who spent most of his time in the actual company of Jesus during the three years in which he was delivering his...

The Gospel of Thomas

The Gospel of Thomas The Gospel of Thomas, a collection of Jesus’ sayings discovered in Egypt in 1945. Translated by Thomas O. Lambdin These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke and which Didymos Judas Thomas wrote down. (1) And he said, “Whoever finds the interpretation of these...

Summary of The Books of The Bible

Summary of The Books of The Bible THE OLD TESTAMENT There are 39 books in the Old Testament, generally separated into 4 divisions: The Pentateuch, traditionally designated as the 5 books of Moses. Historical Books, number 12, from Joshua to Esther. Poetical Books, number 4, from Job to Song of...

Radical Criticism

What Is Radical Criticism? Radical criticism is a movement around the late 19th century that, typically, denied authentic authorship of the Pauline epistles. This went beyond the higher criticism of the Tübingen school which (with the exception of Bruno Bauer) held that a core of at least four epistles had been written by Paul of Tarsus in the...

Redaction Criticism

What Is Redaction Criticism? Redaction criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte or Redaktionstheologie, is a critical method for the study of biblical texts. Redaction criticism regards the author of the text as editor (redactor) of the source materials. Unlike its parent discipline, form criticism, redaction criticism does not look at the various parts of...

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