Solomon in Islam
Narrative in the Quran
Judgment on the field
In the earliest narrative involving Solomon, the Qur’an says that Solomon was in the company of his father, when two men came to ask David to judge between them regarding a ḥarth (حَـرث, field). The first of the two men said that he owned a vineyard of which he took great care the whole year through. But one day, when he was absent, the other man’s sheep had strayed into the vineyard and devoured the grapes. He asked to be compensated for this damage. Upon hearing the man’s complaint, Solomon suggested that the owner of the sheep take the other man’s vineyard to repair and cultivate until the vines returned to their former state, whereupon he should return it to its owner. At the same time, the owner of the vineyard would care for the sheep and benefit from their wool and milk until his land was returned to him, at which point he would return the sheep to their owner. Solomon’s level of judgment, which the Qur’an says in this particular incident surpassed that of David, would characterize Solomon throughout his life. Ḥikmah (Wisdom), according to Muslim tradition, would always be associated with Solomon, who would later even be referred to as Sulaimān al-Ḥakīm (سُلَيْمَان ٱللْحَكِيْم, “Solomon the Wise”).
Solomon was even taught the languages of various animals, such as ants. The Quran recounts that, one day, Solomon and his army entered a wadin-naml (وَادِ ٱلْنَّمْل, valley of the ant) On seeing Solomon and his army, a namlah (نَمْلَة, female ant) warned all the others to “… get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it.” Immediately understanding what the ant said, Solomon, as always, prayed to God, thanking Him for bestowing upon him such gifts and further avoided trampling over the ant colonies. Solomon’s wisdom, however, was yet another of the gifts he received from God, and Muslims maintain that Solomon never forgot his daily prayer, which was more important to him than any of his gifts.
Conquest of Saba’
According to the Qur’an, the death of Solomon was a lesson to be learned:
Then, when We decreed (Solomon’s) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the Jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating Penalty (of their Task).— Qur’an, Surah 34 (Saba’), Ayah 14
Mahammaddim in the Song of Solomon
As inspired by Verses of the Qur’an, Muslims would imply that Muhammad ibn Abdullah is mentioned in the Song of Songs, Chapter 5, noting the consonantal similarity between Muhammad’s Arabic name (مُـحَـمَّـد, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d) and the Hebrew word in the 16th Verse which was translated as “Altogether lovely,” that is ‘Mahammaddim’ (מַחֲמַדִּים, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d-y-m).
References to Solomon in the Quran
- Appraisals for Solomon: 2:102, 6:84, 21:81–82, 27:15–16, 27:18–23, 27:36–39, 27:44, 34:12–13, 38:30–31, 38:35–40
- Solomon’s preaching: 4:163, 27:25, 27:31, 27:44
- Solomon judged: 21:78–79
- Fitnah to Solomon: 38:32–34
- Solomon and Queen Balqis (Sheba’): 27:28–31, 27:34–44
- The Kingdom of Sheba: 27:23, 34:15, 34:18
- Solomon’s death: 34:14
- Concise Encyclopedia of Islam – Page 374, Cyril Glasse – 1988
- Walker, J. and Fenton, P. (2012). “Sulaymān b. Dāwūd”. In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7158.
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 62, Suhail Academy
- Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN978-0-857-73063-3
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 63, Suhail Academy
- Deen, Mawil Y. Izzi (1990). “Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law, and Society”(PDF). In Engel JR; JG Engel (eds.). Ethics of Environment and Development. Bellhaven Press, London. Archived from the original(PDF)on 2011-07-14.
- “Qur’an, 27: 15 – 19”.
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 64, Suhail Academy
- “Qur’an, 27: 15 – 44”.
- Song of Songs, Chapter 5
- Richard S. Hess; Gordon J. Wenham (1998). Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN978-0-8028-4427-9. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- “Islamic Research Foundation”. Irf.net. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- “The Absolute Truth About Muhammad in the Bible With Arabic Titles”. Truth Will Prevail Productions. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
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