The Sikh Gurus (ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ) are the spiritual masters of Sikhism, who established this religion over the course of about two and a half centuries, beginning in 1469. The year 1469 marks the birth of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. He was succeeded by nine other gurus until, in 1708, the Guruship was finally passed on by the tenth guru to the holy Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib, which is now considered the living Guru by the followers of the Sikh faith.
Etymology and definition
Main article: Guru
Guru (ɡʊruː, गुरु, ਗੁਰੂ) is a Sanskrit term for a “teacher, guide, expert, or master” of certain knowledge or field. Bhai Vir Singh, in his dictionary of Guru Granth Sahib describes the term Guru as a combination of two separate units: “Gu;(ਗੁ)” meaning darkness and “Rū;(ਰੂ)” which means light. Hence, Guru is who brings light into darkness or in other words, the one who enlightens.
Bhai Vir Singh’s definition provides further insight about Sikhi itself and explains why Guru Granth Sahib is considered the living Guru. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit term shishya (ਸਿੱਖ) which means a disciple or a student. Thus, Sikhs have a student–teacher relationship with their Gurus since their teachings, written in Guru Granth Sahib, serve as a guide for the sikhs.
|No.||Name||Birth Date||Guruship||Birth Place||Born as||Father||Mother||Date of death||Reason||Place of death|
|1||Guru Nanak Dev Ji||14 April 1469 [note 1]||Since birth||Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Delhi Sultanate||Hindu Khatri||Kalyan Das Bedi||Mata Tripta||22 September 1539||Natural causes||Kartarpur, Punjab, Mughal Empire|
|2||Guru Angad Dev Ji||31 March 1504||7 September 1539||Muktsar, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Hindu Khatri||Baba Pheru Mal||Mata Ramo||29 March 1552||Natural causes||Khadur Sahib, Punjab, Mughal Empire|
|3||Guru Amar Das Ji||5 May 1479||26 April 1552||Amritsar, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Hindu Khatri||Tej Bhan Bhalla||Mata Lachmi||1 September 1574||Natural causes||Goindval, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|4||Guru Ram Das Ji||24 September 1534||1 September 1574||Lahore, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Hindu Khatri||Baba Har Das||Mata Daya||1 September 1581||Natural causes||Goindval, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|5||Guru Arjan Dev Ji||15 April 1563||1 September 1581||Goindval, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Guru Ram Das Ji||Mata Bhani||30 May 1606||Execution by Mughal Emperor Jahangir||Lahore, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|6||Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji||19 June 1595||25 May 1606||Amritsar, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Guru Arjun Dev Ji||Mata Ganga||28 February 1644||Natural causes||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|7||Guru Har Rai Ji||16 January 1630||3 March 1644||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Baba Gurditta||Mata Nihal Kaur||6 October 1661||Natural causes||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|8||Guru Har Krishan Ji||7 July 1656||7 October 1661||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Guru Har Rai Ji||Mata Krishan Kaur||30 March 1664||Smallpox||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|9||Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji||1 April 1621||20 March 1664||Amritsar, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji||Mata Nanaki||11 November 1675||Execution by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|10||Guru Gobind Singh Ji||05 January 1666||11 November 1675||Patna Sahib, Bihar Subah, Mughal Empire||Sikh||Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji||Mata Gujri||7 October 1708||Assassinated by Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg on order of Wazir Khan||Hazur Sahib, Bidar Subah, Mughal Empire|
Timeline of Sikh Gurus
Pedigree of Sikh Gurus
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia