Persecution of Muslims by Meccans

In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution.
 

Overview

Sumayyah bint Khabbab, and her husband Yasir were tortured to death by Abu Jahl.[1][2]

Muhammad was protected somewhat by the influence of his family. Abu Lahab’s wife Umm Jamil would regularly dump filth outside his door.[3] An eyewitness mentioned that the worst thing he ever saw the Quraish doing to Muhammad was that a person from Quraish clutched his clothes.[4]

Migration age

Main article: First migration to Abyssinia7 BH (614–615 CE)

6 BH (615–616 CE)

In 6 BH (616 CE) almost one hundred Muslims made a second migration back to Abyssinia where they stayed protected.[citation needed] After the Muslims in Arabia had migrated to Medina in AH 7 (628/629) and attained security, the Muslims in Abyssinia migrated back to Arabia and reunited with them in Medina  after six years absence.

5 BH (616–617 CE)

The Meccan boycott of the Hashemites by the Quraish was proclaimed in 617.

3 BH (618–619 CE)

2 BH (619–620 CE)

Post Migration age and response

Invasion of Safwan

Muhammad ordered an attack to pursue Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri.

Invasion of Sawiq

Muhammad ordered Muslims to pursue Abu Sufyan for killing 2 Muslims and burning a corn field[3]

The tortured slaves by Quraysh in Mecca

Main article:Torture

Males:

  • Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habshi, tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf
  • Abu Fakiha, Aflah ibn Yasar, tortured by Abu Jahl
  • Abu Fuhayra/ Abu Amr, Amir ibn Fuhayra, tortured by Abu Jahl
  • Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, tortured by (Umm Anmaar) Harla bint Abd-al-Uzza and Siba’a ibn Abd-al-Uzza

Females

Tags: The females were tortured by Umar ibn al-Khattab (before he became muslim) and Abu Jahl

  • Lubaynah,
  • Al-Nahdiah
  • Hakima bint Habib ibn Kuwayb al-Nahdiyya al-Thaqifiyya
  • Umm Ubays
  • Umm Umays
  • Umm Unays
  • Harithah bint al-Mu’ammil
  • Zunayra al-Rumiya
  • Jariyya bint Amr ibn al-Mu’ammil
  • al-Mu’ammil

List of Specific Recorded Instances

Slaves who were Muslims

Male

  • Abu Fakih – tied and dragged on burning sand, had a very heavy stone put on his chest 
  • Ammar ibn Yasir – tortured.

Female

  • Al-Nahdiah – tortured 
  • Umm Ubays – tortured 
  • Lubaynah– extensively beaten 
  • Zinnira – beaten until she lost her eyesight temporarily.

Free Muslims

  • Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad – was divorced on orders of Abu Lahab
  • Ruqayyah bint Muhammad – was divorced on orders of Abu Lahab
  • Sa’d ibn Ubadah – tortured and almost killed.

References

  1.  Lings, MartinMuhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. pp. 79–80. ISBN978-0946621330.
  2.  Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 145. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3.  Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.150-151. (online)
  4.  Guillaume, A (2004). “How the apostle was treated by his own people”. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford. p. 131.