Names of God in Judaism
There are numerous names of God in Judaism have been a source of debate among biblical scholars. YHWH is the only proper name of God in the Tanakh in the sense of a personal name. Words such as Elohim (god, or authority), El (mighty one), El Shaddai (almighty), Adonai (master), Elyon (most high), Avinu (our father), are not names but titles, highlighting different aspects of YHWH and the various roles of God.
Rabbinic Judaism considers seven names of God in Judaism so holy that, once written, they should not be erased: YHWH, El (“God”), Eloah (“God”), Elohim (“God”), El Shaddai (“Almighty”), Ehyeh (“I Am”), and Tzevaot (“[of] Hosts”). Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but Khumra sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of “G-d” instead of “God” in English or saying Ṭēt-Vav (טו, lit. “9-6”) instead of Yōd-Hē (יה, lit. “10-5” but also “Jah”) for the number fifteen in Hebrew.
In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.
The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God (Yahweh and Elohim respectively).
Seven names of God
The seven names of God that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot. In addition, the name Jah—because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly protected. Rabbi Jose considered “Tzevaot” a common name and Rabbi Ishmael that “Elohim” was. All other names, such as “Merciful”, “Gracious” and “Faithful”, merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings.
YHWH, The Tetragrammaton
The most important name of God in Judaism, used most often in the Hebrew Bible is the four-letter name of God יהוה (YHWH), also known as the Tetragrammaton. The Tetragrammaton appears 6,828 times in the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia edition of the Hebrew Masoretic Text. It is first mentioned in the Genesis 2:4 and is traditionally translated as The LORD in English language bibles.
The Hebrew letters are (right to left) Yodh, He, Waw and He (יהוה). It is written as YHWH, YHVH, or JHVH in English, depending on the transliteration convention that is used. YHWH is an archaic third person singular imperfect of the verb “to be” (meaning, therefore, “He is”). This explanation agrees with the meaning of the name given in Exodus 3:14, where God is represented as speaking, and hence as using the first person (“I am”). It stems from the Jewish conception of monotheism that God exists by himself for himself, and is the uncreated Creator who is independent of any concept, force, or entity (“I am that I am”).
The Tetragrammaton was written in contrasting Paleo-Hebrew characters in some of the oldest surviving square Aramaic Hebrew texts, and were not read as Adonai (“My Lord”) until after the Rabbinic teachings after Israel went into Babylonian captivity. Because Judaism forbids pronouncing the name outside the Temple in Jerusalem, the correct pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton may have been lost, as the original Hebrew texts only included consonants. The prohibition of blasphemy, for which capital punishment is prescribed in Jewish law, refers only to the Tetragrammaton (Soferim iv., end; comp. Sanh. 66a).
Rabbinical Judaism teaches the four-letter name of God, YHWH, is forbidden to be uttered except by the High Priest in the Holy Temple on Yom Kippur. Throughout the service, the High Priest pronounced the name YHWH “just as it is written” in each blessing he made. When the people standing in the Temple courtyard heard the name they prostrated flat on the Temple floor. The name ceased to be pronounced in Second Temple Judaism, by the 3rd century BCE.
Passages such as: “And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, YHWH [be] with you. And they answered him, YHWH bless thee.” (Ruth 2:4), indicates the name was still being pronounced at the time of the redaction of the Hebrew Bible in the 6th or 5th century BCE. The prohibition against verbalizing the name never applied to the forms of the name within theophoric names (the prefixes yeho-, yo-, and the suffixes -yahu, -yah) and their pronunciation remains in use. The historical pronunciation of YHWH is suggested by Christian scholars to be Yahweh. This pronunciation is allegedly based on historical and linguistic evidence. Orthodox and some Conservative Jews never pronounce YHWH, and especially not “Yahweh”, as it is connotated with Christendom. Some religious non-Orthodox Jews are willing to pronounce it, for educational purposes only, never in casual conversation or in prayer. Instead, Jews say Adonai.
See also: El (deity) § Hebrew Bible
El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium BCE texts both as generic “god” and as the head of the divine pantheon. In the Hebrew bible El (אל) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, “El the god of Israel”, and Genesis 46:3, ha’el elohe abika, “El the god of your father”), but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, “Most High El”, El Shaddai, “El of Shaddai“, El `Olam “Everlasting El”, El Hai, “Living El”, El Ro’i “El my Shepherd”, and El Gibbor “El of Strength”), in which cases it can be understood as the generic “god”. In theophoric names such as Gabriel (“Strength of God”), Michael (“Who is like God?”), Raphael (“God’s medicine”), Ariel (“God’s lion”), Daniel (“God’s Judgement”), Israel (“one who has struggled with God”), Immanuel (“God is with us”), and Ishmael (“God Hears”/”God Listens”) it usually interpreted and translated as “God”, but it is not clear whether these “el”s refer to deity in general or to the god El in particular.
The Hebrew form Eloah (אלוהּ), which appears to be a singular feminine form of Elohim, is comparatively rare, occurring only in poetry and prose (in the Book of Job, 41 times). What is probably the same divine name is found in Arabic (Ilah as singular “a god”, as opposed to Allah meaning “The God” or “God”, “al” in “al-Lah” being the definite article “the”) and in Aramaic (Elaha).
Eloah or Elah may be considered cognates of Allah due to the common Semitic root name for (an or the) creator God, as in El (deity) of ancient Near Eastern cosmology. Allah (literally, al-ʾilāh) is also the Arabic name for the God of Abraham in general, as it is used by Arab Christians and traditionally, Mizrahi Jews. Its Aramaic form, ʼAlâhâ in use by modern Assyrian Christians, is taken from the Biblical Aramaic ʼĔlāhā and was the everyday word for God at the time of the Roman occupation.
This unusual singular form of Elohim is used in six places for heathen deities (examples: 2 Chronicles 32:15; Daniel 11:37, 38;). The normal Elohim form is also used in the plural a few times to refer to multiple entities other than God, either for gods or images (Exodus 9:1, 12:12, 20:3; and so forth) or for one god (Exodus 32:1; Genesis 31:30, 32; and elsewhere). In the great majority of cases both are used as names of the One God of Israel.
Main article: Elohim
A common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (אלהים). Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim when referring to God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the ‘lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as “Elohim” although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:3). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba’alim (“owner”, “lord”, or “husband”) looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb.
A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, “to be first, powerful”, despite some difficulties with this view. Elohim is thus the plural construct “powers”. Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean “He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)”, just as the word Ba’alim means “owner” (see above). “He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural).”
Other scholars interpret the -im ending as an expression of majesty (pluralis majestatis) or excellence (pluralis excellentiae), expressing high dignity or greatness: compare with the similar use of plurals of ba`al (master) and adon (lord). For these reasons many Christians cite the apparent plurality of elohim as evidence for the basic Trinitarian doctrine of the Trinity. This was a traditional position but there are some modern Christian theologians who consider this to be an exegetical fallacy.
Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian (284-305 CE). Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following:
The Jewish grammarians call such plurals … plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.
Various scholars have cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to “the gods” (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.
The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim (“life”) or betulim (“virginity”). If understood this way, Elohim means “divinity” or “deity”. The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise.
Eloah, Elohim, means “He who is the object of fear or reverence”, or “He with whom one who is afraid takes refuge”. Another theory is that it is derived from the Semitic root “uhl” meaning “to be strong”. Elohim then would mean “the all-powerful One”, based on the usage of the word “el” in certain verses to denote power or might (Genesis 31:29, Nehemiah 5:5).
In many of the passages in which elohim [lower case] occurs in the Bible it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances.
Elohai or Elohei (“My God”) is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names “God of Abraham” (Elohai Avraham); “God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and “God of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel” (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah ve Elohai Rakhel).
Main article: El Shaddai
El Shaddai (אל שדי) [shah-‘dah-yy] is one of the names of God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as “God Almighty”. While the translation of El as “god” in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate.
YHWH and Elohim frequently occur with the word tzevaot or sabaoth (“hosts” or “armies”, צבאות) as YHWH Elohe Tzevaot (“YHWH God of Hosts”), Elohe Tzevaot (“God of Hosts”), Adonai YHWH Tzevaot (“Lord YHWH of Hosts”) and, most frequently, YHWH Tzevaot (“YHWH of Hosts”).
This compound name occurs chiefly in the prophetic literature and does not appear at all in the Torah, Joshua or Judges. The original meaning of tzevaot may be found in 1 Samuel 17:45, where it is interpreted as denoting “the God of the armies of Israel”. The word, in this special use is used to designate the heavenly host, while otherwise it always means armies or hosts of men, as, for example, in Exodus 6:26, 7:4, 12:41.
The Latin spelling Sabaoth combined with the golden vines over the door on the Herodian Temple (built by the Idumean Herod the Great) led to false-identification by Romans with the god Sabazius.
Jah appears often in theophoric names, such as Elijah or Adonijah. The Rastafarian Jah is derived from this, as is the expression Hallelujah. Found in the Authorized King James Version of the Bible at Psalm 68:4. Different versions report different names such as: YAH, YHWH, LORD, GOD and JAH.
Other Names and Titles of God
In the Masoretic Text the name YHWH is vowel pointed as יְהֹוָה, as if pronounced YE-HO-VAH in modern Hebrew, and Yəhōwāh in Tiberian vocalization. Traditionally in Judaism, the name is not pronounced but read as Adonai (“my Lord”), during prayer, and referred to as HaShem (“the Name”) at all other times. This is done out of reluctance to pronounce the name anywhere but in the Temple in Jerusalem, due to its holiness. This tradition has been cited by most scholars as evidence that the Masoretes vowel pointed YHWH as they did only to indicate to the reader they are to pronounce “Adonai” in its place. While the vowel points of אֲדֹנָי (Aḏōnáy) and יְהֹוָה (Yəhōwāh) are very similar, they are not identical, which may indicate that the Masoretic vowel pointing represented the actual pronunciation of the name YHWH and was not or not only an indication to use a substitute name (Qere-Ketiv).
Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of “Adonai” with the last syllable of “Hashem”‘, was quite common. This was discouraged by Rabbi David HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. The rationale behind Segal’s reasoning was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of God with another word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by Jews who do not wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his prayer “Shema Yisrael” with the words Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu Adoshem Eḥad instead of Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad.
Main article: Baal
Baal (properly Baʿal, meant “owner” and, by extension, “lord”, “master”, and “husband” in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (“My Lord”) were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai. After the time of Solomon and particularly after Jezebel’s attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baʿal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh. Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth (“shame”). The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites for continuing to use the term:
“It will come about in that day,” declares the Lord, “That you will call Me Ishi And will no longer call Me Baali.”
Ehyeh asher ehyeh
Main article: I Am that I Am
Ehyeh asher ehyeh (אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God’s name in the Book of Exodus. The King James Version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as “I Am that I Am” and uses it as a proper name for God.
The word ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, “to be”. Biblical Hebrew does not distinguish between grammatical tenses. It has instead an aspectual system in which the imperfect denotes any actions that are not yet completed, Accordingly, Ehyeh asher ehyeh can be rendered in English not only as “I am that I am” but also as “I will be what I will be” or “I will be who I will be”, or “I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be” or even “I will be because I will be”. Other renderings include: Leeser, “I Will Be that I Will Be”; Rotherham, “I Will Become whatsoever I please”, Greek, Ego eimi ho on (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν), “I am The Being” in the Septuagint, and Philo, and Revelation or, “I am The Existing One”; Lat., ego sum qui sum, “I am Who I am.”
The word asher is a relative pronoun whose meaning depends on the immediate context, so that “that”, “who”, “which”, or “where” are all possible translations of that word.
Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; “elim”) is the Aramaic word for God. The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning “reverence”. Elah is found in the Tanakh in the books of Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic), and Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews’ God. The word ‘Elah – إله‘ is also an Arabic word which means god. The name is etymologically related to Allah الله used by Muslims.
- Elah Yisrael, God of Israel (Ezra 5:1)
- Elah Yerushelem, God of Jerusalem (Ezra 7:19)
- Elah Shemaya, God of Heaven (Ezra 7:23)
- Elah-avahati, God of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23)
- Elah Elahin, God of gods (Daniel 2:47)
Main article: El Roi
In the Book of Genesis, Hagar uses this name for the God who spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase “El Roi”, literally, “God of Seeing Me”, is translated in the King James Version as “Thou God seest me.”
Main article: Elyon
The name Elyon (עליון) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective “
Elyon" means "supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". <i>El Elyon</i> has been traditionally translated into English as 'God Most High'. The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, one that the Greeks wrote as Έλιον. It is cognate to the Arabic <i>Aliyy.
“The Eternal One” is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language. In the Torah, Hashem El Olam (“the Everlasting God”) is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.
It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the word Adonai to prayer only. In conversation, many Jewish people, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem, השם, which is Hebrew for “the Name” (this appears in Leviticus 24:11). Many Jews extend this prohibition to some of the other names listed below, and will add additional sounds to alter the pronunciation of a name when using it outside of a liturgical context, such as replacing the “h” with a “k” in names of God such as “kel” and “elokim”.
While other names of God in Judaism are generally restricted to use in a liturgical context, HaShem is used in more casual circumstances. HaShem is used by Orthodox Jews so as to avoid saying Adonai outside of a ritual context. For example, when some Orthodox Jews make audio recordings of prayer services, they generally substitute HaShem for Adonai; a few others have used Amonai. On some occasions, similar sounds are used for authenticity, as in the movie Ushpizin, where Abonai Elokenu [sic] is used throughout.
Main article: Jehovah
When the Masoretes added vowel pointings (niqqud) to the text of the Hebrew Bible around the 8th century CE, they gave the word YHVH vowels very similar to that of Adonai. Tradition claims this is to remind the reader to say Adonai instead.
Later medieval Christian Biblical scholars took this vowel substitution for the actual spelling of YHVH and transliterated the name of God literally as Jehovah. Its use became widespread in Christendom. It was also eventually used in the name of a millenarian restorationist denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity, Jehovah’s Witnesses.
The Jewish Publication Society translation of 1917, in online versions does use Jehovah once at Exodus 6:3 in order to explain its use among Christians.
Main article: Shalom
Talmudic authors, ruling on the basis of Gideon’s name for an altar (“YHVH-Shalom”, according to Judges 6:24), write that “the name of God is ‘Peace'” (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word shalom in order for the word not to be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of the holiness of the name.
Main article: Shekhinah
Shekhinah (שכינה) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to “dwell” among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means “dwelling”. Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: “the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them” or “He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst”). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names.
The Arabic form of the word “Sakīnah سكينة” is also mentioned in the Quran (see Sakina and Itmi’nan (Serenity and Peacefulness)). This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean “security” and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell:
And (further) their Prophet said to them: “A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a Symbol for you if ye indeed have faith.”
Uncommon or esoteric names
- Abir – “Strong One”
- Adir – “Great One”
- Adon Olam – “Master of the World”
- Aibishter – “The One Above” (Yiddish)
- Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim, A’lim “عليم” in Arabic means “who intensively knows”, A’alim “عالم” means “who knows”, the verb is A’lima علم means “knows”, while Allahumma “اللهم” in Arabic equals to “O’God” and used to supplicate him for something.
- Aravat (or Avarat) – “Father of Creation”; mentioned once in 2 Enoch, “On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called Aravat”.
- Avinu Malkeinu – “Our Father, Our King”
- Bore – “The Creator”
- Dibbura or Dibbera – “The Word (The Law)” – used primarily in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); e.g. Num 7:89, The Word spoke to Moses from between the cherubim in the holy of holies.
- Ehiyeh sh’Ehiyeh – “I Am That I Am“: a modern Hebrew version of “Ehyeh asher Ehyeh“
- Ein Sof – “Endless, Infinite”, Kabbalistic name of God
- El ha-Gibbor – “God the Hero” or “God the Strong” or “God the Warrior”. Allah jabbar “الله جبار” in Arabic means “the God is formidable and invincible”
- Emet – “Truth”
- HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic); تبارك القدوس (Arabic) – “The Holy One, Blessed Be He”
- HaRachaman – “The Merciful One”; Rahman – رحمن” (Arabic)
- Kadosh Israel – “Holy One of Israel”
- Magen Avraham – “Shield of Abraham”
- Makom or HaMakom – literally “The Place”, perhaps meaning “The Omnipresent” (see Tzimtzum)
- Malbish Arumim – “Clother of the Naked”
- Matir Asurim – “Freer of the Captives”
- Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic al-Muhyi al-Kull محيي الكل – “Life giver to All” (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim)
- Mechayeh Metim – “Life giver to the Dead”
- Melech HaMelachim – “The King of Kings” or Melech Malchei HaMelachim “The King, King of Kings”, to express superiority to the earthly ruler’s title. Arabic version of it is مالك الملك (Malik al-Mulk).
- Melech HaOlam – “The King of the World”
- Memra d’Adonai – “The Word of the LORD” (plus variations such as “My Word”) – restricted to the Aramaic Targums (the written Tetragrammaton is represented in various ways such as YYY, YWY, YY, but pronounced as the Hebrew “Adonai”)
- Mi She’amar V’haya Ha`olam – “He who spoke, and the world came into being.”
- Netzakh Yisrael – “The Glory of Israel” (1 Samuel 15:29)
- Oseh Shalom – “Maker of Peace”
- Pokeach Ivrim – “Opener of Blind Eyes”
- Ribono shel’Olam – “Master of the World”. Arabic version of it is رب العلمين
- Rabb al-‘Alamin
- Ro’eh Yisra’el – “Shepherd of Israel”
- Rofeh Cholim – “Healer of the Sick”
- Shomer Yisrael – “Guardian of Israel” (Psalms 121:4)
- Somech Noflim – “Supporter of the Fallen”
- Tzur Israel – “Rock of Israel“
- YHWH-Niss’i (Adonai-Nissi) – “The LORD Our Banner” (Exodus 17:8–15)
- YHWH-Rapha – “The LORD that Healeth” (Exodus 15:26)
- YHWH-Ro’i – “The LORD My Shepherd” (Psalms 23:1)
- YHWH-Shalom – “The LORD Our Peace” (Judges 6:24)
- YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – “The LORD Is Present” (Ezekiel 48:35)
- YHWH-Tsidkenu – “The LORD Our Righteousness” (Jeremiah 23:6)
- YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – “The LORD Will Provide” (Genesis 22:13–14)
- Yotsehr ‘Or – “Fashioner of Light”
- Zokef kefufim – “Straightener of the Bent”
Writing divine names
In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.
One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof (אין סוף “Endless”), which first came into use after ce 1300. Another name is derived from the names אהיה יהוה אדוני הויה. By spelling these four names out with the names of the Hebrew letters (אלף, הא, ואו, יוד, דלת and נון) this new forty-five letter long name is produced. Spelling the letters in יהוה (YHWH) by itself gives יוד הא ואו הא. Each letter in Hebrew is given a value, according to gematria, and the value of יוד הא ואו הא is also 45.
The seventy-two-fold name is derived from three verses in Exodus 14:19–21. Each of the verses contains 72 letters. When the verses are read boustrophedonically 72 names, three letter each, are produced (the niqqud of the source verses is disregarded in respect to pronunciation). Some regard this name as the Shemhamphorasch. The Proto-Kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah describe how the creation of the world was achieved by manipulation of these 216 sacred letters that form the names of God.
Erasing the name of God
And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God.— Deuteronomy 12:3–4
From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute as to whether the word “God” in English or other languages may be erased or whether Jewish law and/or Jewish custom forbids doing so, directly or as a precautionary “fence” about the law. The words “God” and “Lord” are written by some Jews as “G-d” and “L-rd” as a way of avoiding writing any name of God in full out. The hyphenated version of the English name (“G-d”) can be destroyed, so by writing that form, religious Jews prevent documents in their possession with the unhyphenated form from being destroyed later. Alternatively, a euphemistic English reference such as Hashem (literally, “the Name”) may be substituted, or an abbreviation thereof, such as B‘‘H (B’ezrat Hashem “by the blessing of the Name”).
This issue is most controversial in the context of the motto of the United States, “In God We Trust“, which has been minted or printed without hyphenation since its first appearance in 1864. While many Jews write the name “God” in English, others will not or will only under special circumstances. By comparison, the nation of Israel struck down efforts to enshrine an allusive reference to God (ב‘‘ה B‘‘H) on its currency in 2002, 2003, and 2009 because the frequency of currency destruction was considered too high. According to Talmudic Tractate Rosh Hashana (18B4), Jews in the times of the Hasmonean Kingdom were “weaned off” the practice of writing the name of Heaven by the Sages, an event that was commemorated as a holiday on the third of Tishrei, a date now dedicated to the Fast of Gedaliah.
- Ancient of Days
- Baal Shem
- Besiyata Dishmaya
- Names of God
- Names of God in Christianity
- Names of God in Islam
- Sacred Name Bibles
- Ten Commandments
- Vishnu Sahasranama
- Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions, New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59339-491-2.
- Diccionario de la Lengua Ugarítica, 3rd ed., Leiden: translated from the Spanish for E.J. Brill as A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (Ser. Handbuch der Orientalistik [Handbook of Oriental Studies], Vol. 112), 2015, ISBN 978-90-04-28864-5.
- “Names of God”, Encyclopedia of Judaism, Infobase Publishing, 2005, p. 179, ISBN 0816069824.
- The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1963, ISBN 978-0310235606.
- Cleghorn, T. L.; et al. (2011), Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics: A Tool for Mastering the World’s Languages, 2nd ed., ISBN 978-1-4507-8190-9.
- Herrmann, Wolfgang (1999), “Baal”, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 132–139.
- Pope, Marvin H. (2006), “Baal Worship”, Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. III, New York: Thomas Gale, ISBN 978-0028659282.
- God’s names in Jewish thought and in the light of Kabbalah
- The Name of God as Revealed in Exodus 3:14—an explanation of its meaning.
- Bibliography on Divine Names in the Dead Sea Scrolls
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Names of God
- “Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh” – Song and Video of Ancient Yemenite Prayer From the Diwan
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia