Messianism is the belief in a messiah, a savior or redeemer. Many religions have a messiah concept, including the Jewish Messiah, the Christian Christ, the Muslim Mahdi and Isa (Islamic name for Christian Jesus), the Buddhist Maitreya, the Hindu Kalki and the Zoroastrian Saoshyant. The state of the world is seen as hopelessly flawed beyond normal human powers of correction, and divine intervention through a specially selected and supported human is seen as necessary.
Main article: List of messiah claimants
Main articles: Messiah in Judaism and List of Jewish messiah claimants
Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; mashiah, moshiah, mashiach, or moshiach, (“anointed [one]”) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible to describe priests and kings, who were traditionally anointed. For example, Cyrus the Great, the king of Persia, is referred to as “God’s anointed” (Messiah) in the Bible.
In Jewish messianic tradition and eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish King from the Davidic line, who will be “anointed” with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Standard Hebrew, The Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח, Méleḫ ha-Mašíaḥ (in the Tiberian vocalization pronounced Méleḵ hamMāšîªḥ), literally meaning “the Anointed King.”
Traditional Rabbinic teachings and current Orthodox thought has held that the Messiah will be an anointed one (messiah), descended from his father through the Davidic line of King David, who will gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel and usher in an era of peace.
Other denominations, such as Reform Judaism, perceive a Messianic Age when the world will be at peace, but do not agree that there will be a Messiah as the leader of this era.
The Jewish Messiah was the source of the development of later, similar messianic concepts in Christianity (originally a Jewish sect) and Islam.
Main articles: Christ, Christology, and Jesus in Christianity
See also: Christian eschatology and List of people claimed to be Jesus
In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus from the heavens to the earth (Zechariah 14:3-4, Acts 1:11, Revelation 19:11-20:6), an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment of the dead and the living and the establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth, including the Messianic Age. Views about the nature of this return vary among Christian denominations. Jesus is understood as having fulfilled the laws set forth by Moses (such as sacrificial offerings) with the supposition that those laws represented Jesus in the first place, being the shadow of the true substance which would be this new fulfillment, see also New Covenant. Therefore, this new fulfillment of the law is believed to now have potentiality in being upheld by each individual instinctively, as Jesus Spirit is believed to be abiding in each Christian. This includes the allowance and explanation of calling God “Father”, because God recognizes the new Christian as a son, since that person has Jesus own Spirit within them. However, Christianity has a unique attribute of a tri-part God. The “Son” is believed to be one with the “Father”, and also with the “Spirit”. Therefore there is an overall understanding of oneness, and each identity of the Christian God is fully separate, and power is authoritatively different while at the same time retaining equality among the Godhead, as being all three aspects to one God. Granted, this explanation only roughly describes the triune God within the Christian Religion. Therefore, God himself is the Messiah, King of All the Earth, in the person of Christ Jesus.
See also: Jesus in Islam, Mahdi, and List of Mahdi claimants
In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi (مهدي Mahdī, also Mehdi; “Guided One”) is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth seven, nine, or nineteen years (depending on the interpretation) before the coming of Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally “Day of the Resurrection” or “Day of the Standing”). Muslims believe the Mahdi will rid the world of error, injustice and tyranny alongside Jesus. The concept of Mahdi is not mentioned in the Qur’an nor in the Sunni hadith collection called Sahih al-Bukhari. Hadith about the Mahdi are present in other Sunni hadith collections, although some orthodox Sunnī theologians question do Mahdist beliefs. Such beliefs do form a necessary part of Shīʿī doctrine.
Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:656: Narrated Abu Hurairah:
Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established until the son of Mary (Mariam) (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you as a just ruler, he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizya tax. Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it (as charitable gifts).”
The idea of the Mahdi has been described as important to Sufi Muslims, and a “powerful and central religious idea” for Shia Muslims who believe the Mahdi is the Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi who will return from occultation. However, among Sunni, it “never became a formal doctrine” and is neither endorsed, nor condemned “by the consensus of Sunni Ulama.” It has “gained a strong hold on the imagination of many ordinary” self-described orthodox Sunni though, thanks to Sufi preaching. Another source distinguishes between Sunni and Shia beliefs on the Mahdi saying the Sunni believe the Mahdi will be a descendant of the Prophet named Muhammad who will revive the faith, but not necessarily be connected with the end of the world, Jesus or perfection.
The word Masih literally means “The anointed one” and in Islam, Isa son of Mariam, al-Masih (The Messiah Jesus son of Virgin Mary) is believed to have been anointed from birth by Allah with the specific task of being a prophet and a king. In orthodox Islam, Isa is believed to hold the task of killing the false messiah al-Dajjal (similar to the Antichrist in Christianity), who will emerge shortly before him during Qiyamah. After he has destroyed al-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim Ummah under the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.
Main articles: Maitreya, Buddhist eschatology, and List of Buddha claimants
Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Śākyamuni Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna) and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an actual event that will take place in the distant future.
Around the 3rd century CA religious Taoism developed eschatological ideas. A number of scriptures predict the end of the world cycle, the deluge, epidemics, and coming of the saviour Li Hong 李弘 (not to be confused with the Tang personalities).
Main articles: Kalki and List of avatar claimants
In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalkin and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatara (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end the present age of darkness and destruction known as Kali Yuga. The name Kalki is often a metaphor for eternity or time. The origins of the name probably lie in the Sanskrit word “kalka” which refers to dirt, filth, or foulness and hence denotes the “destroyer of foulness,” “destroyer of confusion,” “destroyer of darkness,” or “annihilator of ignorance.”
Main articles: Saoshyant and Frashokereti
According to Zoroastrian philosophy, redacted in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasht, “at the end of thy tenth hundredth winter […] the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed; and men […] become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They have no gratitude.
Honorable wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith […] and a dark cloud makes the whole sky night […] and it will rain more noxious creatures than winter.”
Saoshyant, the Man of Peace, battles the forces of evil. The events of the final renovation are described in the Bundahishn (30.1ff): In the final battle with evil, the yazatas Airyaman and Atar will “melt the metal in the hills and mountains, and it will be upon the earth like a river” (Bundahishn 34.18), but the righteous (ashavan) will not be harmed.
Eventually, Ahura Mazda will triumph, and his agent Saoshyant will resurrect the dead, whose bodies will be restored to eternal perfection, and whose souls will be cleansed and reunited with God. Time will then end, and truth/righteousness (asha) and immortality will thereafter be everlasting.
Main article: Religious Zionism
Religious Zionists are the Jewish religious minority of the basically secular Zionist movement who justified, on the basis of Judaism, secular Zionist efforts to build a Jewish state in the land of Israel. In their belief, the Jewish state is “the commencement of the growth of our redemption” (Hebrew: ראשית צמיחת גאולתנו reshit tzmichat ge’ulateinu), and that state may be brought about by human action, without waiting for the Messiah to gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel. This view ran contrary to the view of Ultra-Orthodox Judaism which rejected any secular, human effort to preempt the ingathering of the exiles by God and his chosen one, the Messiah. Religious Zionists explained in terms acceptable to the Halakha, the secular, mainly socialist, existentialist Zionist vision where material needs of the people are addressed through practical and realistic solutions, reflected by secular philosophers such as Ahad Ha’am.
In 1862, German Orthodox Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer published his tractate Derishat Zion, positing that the salvation of the Jews, promised by the Prophets, can come about only by self-help.
The main ideologue of modern religious Zionism was Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, who justified Zionism according Jewish law and urged young religious Jews to support efforts to settle the land, and the mainsteam, majority, secular and socialist Labour Zionists to give more consideration to Judaism.
Rav Kook saw Zionism as a part of a divine scheme which would result in the resettlement of the Jewish people in its homeland. This would bring salvation (Geula) to Jews, and then to the entire world. After world harmony is achieved by the refoundation of the Jewish homeland, the Messiah will come.
The apparent contradiction arising from the fact that political and practical Zionism were overwhelmingly secular, socialist and even atheist schools of thought, was resolved by the concept of “the Messiah’s donkey” (Hebrew: חמורו של משיח khamoro shel mashiakh) whereby majority secular Zionism was seen as a temporary divine measure for the achievement of Jewish salvation.
Since the Six Day War, Religious Zionism, speared by mass-movements such as Gush Emunim, has been the leading force behind Jewish settlement in the non-consensual areas of Judea and Samaria, bringing about the main schism dividing Israeli politics for the past 40 years.
Rastafarianism believes that Emperor Haile Selassie was not killed by the Derg in Ethiopia’s civil war, but will return to save Earth, and in particular, people of African descent. This is a particularly interesting case, as Selassie is identified as the Second Coming of Jesus, so the Rastafarian prophecy is effectively a second coming of the second coming.
This cargo cult believes in a messiah figure called John Frum. When David Attenborough asked one of its adherents if it was rational for them to be still waiting for Frum to re-appear after 50 years, he was told that Christianity had been waiting 2,000 years, so waiting for Frum was much more rational than that.
Russian and Slavic messianism
See also: Polish messianism
Romantic Slavic messianism held that the Slavs, especially the Russians, suffer in order that other European nations, and eventually all of humanity, may be redeemed. This theme had a profound impact in the development of Pan-Slavism and Russian and Soviet imperialism; it also appears in works by the Polish Romantic poets Zygmunt Krasiński and Adam Mickiewicz, including the latter’s familiar expression, “Polska Chrystusem narodów” (“Poland is the Christ of the nations”). Messianic ideas appear in the “Books of the Genesis of the Ukrainian People” (Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius Manifesto), in which universal equality and democracy in the Zaporizhian Sich, recognized as a revival of human society initially planned by God and faith in its future revival, associated with faith in the death and resurrection of Christ. Reborned Ukraine will expand universal freedom and faith in all Slavic countries and thus designed by God ideal society will be restored.
Main articles: Sebastianism, Sebastian of Portugal, and Fifth Empire
Sebastianism (Portuguese: Sebastianismo) is a Portuguese messianic myth, based on the belief that King Sebastian of Portugal, disappeared in the battle of Alcácer Quibir, will return to save Portugal. The belief gained momentum after an interpretation by priest António Vieira of Daniel 2 and the Book of Revelation that foreshadowed a Portuguese Fifth Empire. In Brazil the most important manifestation of Sebastianism took place in the context of the Proclamation of the Republic, when movements emerged that defended a return to the monarchy. It is categorised as an example of the King asleep in mountain folk motif, typified by people waiting for a hero to return to save them. The Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa wrote about such a hero in his epic Mensagem (The Message).
Main articles: Religion in Nazi Germany and Religious views of Adolf Hitler
There has been significant literature on the potential religious aspects of Nazism. Wilfried Daim suggests that Hitler and the Nazi leadership planned to replace Christianity in Germany with a new religion in which Hitler would be considered a messiah. In his book on the connection between Lanz von Liebenfels and Hitler, Daim published a reprint of an alleged document of a session on “the unconditional abolishment of all religious commitments (Religionsbekenntnisse) after the final victory (Endsieg) … with a simultaneous proclamation of Adolf Hitler as the new messiah.” This session report came from a private collection.
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Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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