The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds. The Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588, known as Mevlid Kandil. The term Mawlid is also used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, “Birth of the Prophet”, sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi’ al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar. 12th Rabi’ al-awwal is the accepted date among most of the Sunni scholars, while Shi’a scholars regard 17th Rabi’ al-awwal as the accepted date.
Most denominations of Islam approve of the commemoration of Muhammad’s birthday; however, some denominations including Wahhabism/Salafism and Deobandism disapprove its commemoration, considering it an unnecessary religious innovation (bid’ah or bidat). Mawlid is recognized as a national holiday in most of the Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia and Qatar which are officially Wahhabi/Salafi.
Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid also refers to the ‘text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad’s nativity celebration’ or “a text recited or sung on that day”.Mawlid is derived from the Arabic root word (Arabic: ولد), meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant. In contemporary usage, Mawlid refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad.
The date of Muhammad’s birth is a matter of contention since the exact date is unknown and is not definitively recorded in the Islamic traditions. The issue of the correct date of the Mawlid is recorded by Ibn Khallikan as constituting the first proven disagreement concerning the celebration. Among the most recognisable dates, Sunni Muslims believe the date to have been on the twelfth of Rabi’ al-awwal, whereas Shi’a Muslimsbelieve the date to have been on the seventeenth. Since the Islamic calendar came into existence after Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) the date of death is known (according to some, twelfth of Rabi’ al-awwal) but the date of birth is not known.
The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with animal sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons and a feast. The celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, with the ruler playing a key role in the ceremonies. Emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt with presentation of sermons and recitations of the Qur’an.
According to the hypothesis of Nico Kaptein of Leiden University, the Mawlid was initiated by the Fatimids, with Marion Holmes Katz adding “The idea that the celebration of the mawlid originated with the Fatimid dynasty has today been almost universally accepted among both religious polemicists and secular scholars.” This Shia origin is frequently noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid. Among Sunnis, the Mawlid celebration emerged in the 12th century, and the first detailed description of a Sunni Mawlid celebration was of one sponsored by emir Gökböri.
Observance by Islamic tradition
|Madhhab||Date of Mawlid an-Nabi||Permissability|
|Hanafi||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Permissable|
|Maliki||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Permissable|
|Shafi’i||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Recommended|
|Ibadi||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Recommended|
|Ismaili||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Recommended|
|Zaidi||12 Rabi Al-Awwal||Recommended|
|Jafari||17 Rabi Al-Awwal||Recommended|
Examples of historic Sunni scholars who permitted the Mawlid include the Shafi’i scholar Al-Suyuti (d 911 A.H.) who stated that:
My answer is that the legal status of the observance of the Mawlid – as long as it just consists of a meeting together by the people, a recitation of apposite parts of the Qur’an, the recounting of transmitted accounts of the beginning of (the biography of) the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the wonders that took place during his birth, all of which is then followed by a banquet that is served to them and from which they eat-is a good innovation (bid’a hasana), for which one is rewarded because of the esteem shown for the position of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – that is implicit in it, and because of the expression of joy and happiness on his – may God bless him and grant him peace – noble birth.
The Shafi’i scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d 852 A.H.) too approved of the Mawlid and states that:
As for what is performed on the day of the Mawlid, one should limit oneself to what expresses thanks to God, such as the things that have already been mentioned: [Qur’anic] recitation, serving food, alms-giving, and recitation of praise [poems] about the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and asceticism which motivate people to perform good deeds and act in view of the next world.
The Damascene Shafi’i scholar Abu Shama (d 665 A.H.) (who was a teacher of Imam al-Nawawi (d 676 A.H.)) also supports the celebration of the Mawlid as does the Maliki scholar Ibn al-Hajj (d 737 A.H.) who spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid in his book al-Madhkal. Likewise, the Shafi’i Egyptian scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 A.H.) was an avid supporter of the Mawlid and wrote a text in praise of it. This was supported and commented on by the Egyptian scholar and former head of Al-Azhar University Ibrahim al-Bajuri and by the Hanafi Syrian Mufti Ibn Abidin. Another Hanafi Mufti Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 A.H.) too supported the celebration of the Mawlid and wrote a text on the subject as did the Moroccan Maliki scholar Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar al-Kattānī (d. 1345 A.H.). Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833 A.H.), a Syrian Shafi’i scholar considers the celebration of the Mawlid to be a means of gaining Paradise.
In the Muslim world, the majority of Sunni Islamic scholars are in favor of the Mawlid. Examples include the former Grand Mufi of Al-Azhar University Ali Gomaa, Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki of Saudi Arabia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the primary scholar of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, Habib Ali al-Jifri, Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy of Syria, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Khazraji, president of the Heritage and History Committee of the United Arab Emirates and Zaid Shakir, all of whom subscribe to Sunni Islam, have given their approval for the observance of Mawlid.
The Ahmadiyya celebrate the Mawlid in a particular way, but oppose only certain aspects of the Mawlid, particularly those that represent excesses in celebrations and what they deem to be innovations, for example, standing at the mention of the Prophet to indicate physical presence. This is in contradistinction, perhaps, to the celebration of those who are given to excesses during the Mawlid particularly in the Indian sub-Continent. The Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement stated that: “To refer to the commemoration of our Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as ‘haram’ (forbidden) is sheer ignorance – especially as the true following of our Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is the essential means and way of becoming a beloved of Allah, the High – and the passion and drive for following the Prophet (saw) emanates from the remembrance [of the Prophet (saw)]. One who loves someone, performs much remembrance of that person.” The Founder of The Ahmadiyya Movement also stated: “The remembrance of our beloved [Prophet] is highly commendable – in fact it is proven by the Hadith that mercy descends with the remembrance of the Prophets and the saints [auliyaa’] – and Allah has Himself admonished the remembrance of the Prophets – but if this is accompanied by such innovations which involve anything that cause a breach of Tauheed [Oneness of God] then that thing is impermissible. Eulogise Allah as He should be eulogised and eulogise the Prophet [saw] as he should be eulogised. The clerics of today employ more innovations [in their sermons] and these innovations are contrary to the Will of Allah…the commemoration of the advent, birth and demise of our Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is deserving of rewards – I am not one who would create my own Sharia or Holy book.” The Ahmadiyya often celebrate the Mawlid in the form of gatherings and conventions called Jalsa Seerat-un-Nabi commemorating the life and legacy of the Prophet oriented towards educating both Muslim and non-Muslim audiences about the Prophet’s life, example and teachings. These gatherings could be held in the month of the Mawlid, but not necessarily on a specific date, rather they are promoted often throughout the year.
The Mawlid was not accepted by Wahhabi and Salafi. Taj al-Din al-Fakihani (d. 1331), an Egyptian Maliki, considered Mawlid to be a blameworthy innovation that was either makruh or haram. This view was shared by fellow Egyptian Maliki Ibn al-Haj al-Abdari, who added that the celebration was never practiced by the Salaf. However Ibn al-Haj affirms the auspicious qualities of the month of the Mawlid in the most effusive terms and considers Muhammad’s date of birth as a particularly blessed time of the year. The Maliki scholar Al-Shatibi considered Mawlid an illegitimate innovation.  The Andalusian jurist Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Haffar (d. 1408) opposed Mawlid, noting that had the Sahaba celebrated it then its exact date would not be a matter of uncertainty. The former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, along with Hammud ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Tuwayjiri (d. 1992), another Saudi scholar, in their opposition also argued that there were many worthy occasions in Muhammad’s life which he never commemorated, such as the revelation of the first verses of the Qur’an, the Night Journey and the hijra.
Ibn Taymiyya’s position on the Mawlid has been described as “paradoxical” and “complex” by some academics. He ruled that it was a reprehensible (makrūh) devotional innovation and criticised those who celebrated the Mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus’ birthday. At the same time, he recognised that some observe the Prophet’s birthday out of a desire to show their love and reverence of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions. The Salafi writer Hamid al-Fiqi (d. 1959) criticised Ibn Taymiyya for holding this view and stating that “How can they receive a reward for this when they are opposing the guidance of God’s Messenger (pbuh)?”.
Often organized in some countries by the Sufi orders, Mawlid is celebrated in a carnival manner, large street processions are held and homes or mosques are decorated. Charity and food is distributed, and stories about the life of Muhammad are narrated with recitation of poetry by children. Scholars and poets celebrate by reciting Qaṣīda al-Burda Sharif, the famous poem by 13th-century Arabic Sufi Busiri. A general Mawlid appears as “a chaotic, incoherent spectacle, where numerous events happen simultaneously, all held together only by the common festive time and space”. These celebrations are often considered an expression of the Sufi concept of the pre-existence of Muhammad. However, the main significance of these festivities is expression of love for Muhammad.
During Pakistan’s Mawlid, the day starts with a 31-gun salute in federal capital and a 21-gun salute at the provincial capitals and religious hymns are sung during the day.
In many parts of Indonesia, the celebration of the Mawlid al-nabi “seems to surpass in importance, liveliness, and splendour” the two official Islamic holidays of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
In Qayrawan, Tunisia, Muslims sing and chant hymns of praise to Muhammad, welcoming him in honor of his birth. Also, generally in Tunisia, people usually prepare Assidat Zgougou to celebrate the Mawlid.
Among non-Muslim countries, India is noted for its Mawlid festivities. The relics of Muhammad are displayed after the morning prayers in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir at the Hazratbal Shrine, where night-long prayers are also held.. Hyderabad Telangana is noted for its grand milad festivities Religious meetins,Night long prayers, Rallies, Parades and decorations are made throughout the city
Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid also refers to the ‘text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad’s nativity celebration’ or “a text recited or sung on that day”.These texts contain stories of the life of Muhammad, or at least some of the following chapters from his life, briefly summarized below:
- The Ancestors of Muhammad
- The Conception of Muhammad
- The Birth of Muhammad
- Introduction of Halima
- Life of Young Muhammad in Bedouins
- Muhammad’s orphanhood
- Abu Talib’s nephew’s first caravan trip
- Arrangement of Marriage between Muhammad and Khadija
- Al-Mi’radj, or the Ascension to heaven
- Al-Hira, first revelation
- The first converts to Islam
- The Hijra
- Muhammad’s death
These text are only part of the ceremonies. There are many different ways that people celebrate Mawlid, depending on where they are from. There appears to be a cultural influence upon what kind of festivities are a part of the Mawlid celebration. In Indonesia, it is common the congregation recite Simthud Durar, especially among Arab Indonesians.
In some countries, such as Egypt and Sudan, Mawlid is used as a generic term for the celebration of birthdays of local Sufi saints and not only restricted to the observance of the birth of Muhammad. Around 3,000 Mawlid celebrations are held each year. These festivals attract an international audience, with the largest one in Egypt attracting up to three million people honouring Ahmad al-Badawi, a local 13th-century Sufi saint.
- “Mawlid in Africa”. Muhammad (pbuh) – Prophet of Islam. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Bentley, David (20 September 2018). “Islamic Calendar 2018 – All the Muslim holidays and festivals and what they mean”. www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Mawlid. Reference.com
- The Sealed Nectar.
- “Mawlid an-Nabi: Celebrating Prophet Muhammad’s (s) Birthday”. The Islamic Supreme Council of America. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Shoup, John A. (1 January 2007). Culture and Customs of Jordan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN9780313336713.
- Manuel Franzmann, Christel Gärtner, Nicole Köck Religiosität in der säkularisierten Welt: Theoretische und empirische Beiträge zur Säkularisierungsdebatte in der ReligionssoziologieSpringer-Verlag 2009 ISBN978-3-531-90213-5page 351
- “In pictures: Egypt’s biggest moulid”. BBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- Schussman, Aviva (1998). “The Legitimacy and Nature of Mawid al-Nabī: (analysis of a Fatwā)”. Islamic Law and Society. 5 (2): 214–234. doi:10.1163/1568519982599535.
- McDowell, Michael; Brown, Nathan Robert (3 March 2009). World Religions At Your Fingertips. Penguin. p. 106. ISBN9781101014691.
- http://islamqa.info/en/249Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid.
- March, Luke (24 June 2010). Russia and Islam. Routledge. p. 147. Retrieved 10 May2015.
- Merkel, Udo (11 February 2015). Identity Discourses and Communities in International Events, Festivals and Spectacles. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 203. ISBN9781137394934.
- Woodward, Mark (28 October 2010). Java, Indonesia and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 169. ISBN9789400700567.
- Arabic: قاموس المنجد – Moungued Dictionary (paper), or online: Webster’s Arabic English DictionaryArchived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Knappert, J. “The Mawlid”. S.O.A.S.
- Sanjuán, Alejandro García, ed. (2007). Till God Inherits the Earth: Islamic Pious Endowments in Al-Andalus (9–15th Centuries) (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 235. ISBN9789004153585.
- Annemarie Schimmel (1994). Deciphering the signs of God: a phenomenological approach to Islam (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 69.
- Eliade, Mircea, ed. (1987). The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9 (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 292. ISBN9780029098004.
- Fitzpatrick, Coeli; Walker, Adam Hani, eds. (2014). Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes] (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 368. ISBN9781610691789.
- N. J. G. Kaptein (1993). Muḥammad’s Birthday Festival: Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West Until the 10th/16th Century. BRILL. p. 74. ISBN9789004094529.
- Fuchs, H.; Knappert J. (2007). “Mawlid (a.), or Mawlud”. In P. Bearman; T. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth. Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill. ISSN1573-3912.
- “Mawlid”. Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. BrillOnline Reference Works.
- “Mawlid”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007.
- Kaptein (1993), p. 30
- Katz (2007), p. 2
- Katz (2007), p. 3
- Katz (2007), p. 113
- Katz (2007), p. 50
- Katz (2007), p. 67
- Katz (2007), p. 169
- “Mawlid al-Nabi: Celebrations across the Middle East”. Middle East Eye. Retrieved 28 February2016.
- https://www.alislam.org/friday-sermon/printer-friendly-summary-2009-03-13.html True Commemoration of the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)
- Kaptein (1993), p. 49
- Katz (2007), p. 108
- Katz (2007), p. 64
- Katz (2007), p. 63
- Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 328. ISBN9780199402069.
- Kaptein (1993), p. 58
- Spevack, Aaron (9 September 2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri. SUNY Press. p. 77. ISBN9781438453729.
- Katz (2007), p. 170
- Katz (2007), p. 112
- Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN9781135983949.
there is no doubt that the Prophet’s (s) recompense to someone who does something for him will be better, more momentous, more copious, greater and more abundant than [that person’s] action, because gifts correspond to the rank of those who give them and presents vary according to their bestowers; it is the custom of kings and dignitaries to recompense small things with the greatest of boons and the most splendid treasures, so what of the master of the kings of this world and the next?
- Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN9781135983949.
If Abu Lahab, the unbeliever whose condemnation was revealed in the Qur’an, was rewarded (juziya) in hell for his joy on the night of the Prophet’s birth, what is the case of a Muslim monotheist of the community of Muhammad the Prophet who delights in his birth and spends all that he can afford for love of him? By my life, his reward (jaza ‘) from the Beneficent God can only be that He graciously causes him to enter the gardens of bliss!
- Katz (2007), p. 169: “In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the celebration of the Prophet’s (s) birthday and the recitation of mawlid texts were ubiquitous practices endorsed by the majority of mainstream Sunni scholars… by the modern period the celebration of the Mawlid was overwhelmingly accepted and practiced at all levels of religious education and authority. Prominent elite scholars continued to contribute to the development of the tradition.”
- Gomaa, Sheikh Ali (1 January 2011). Responding from the Tradition: One Hundred Contemporary Fatwas by the Grand Mufti of Egypt. Fons Vitae. ISBN9781891785443.
- Katz (2007), p. 253
- Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN9780199402069.
- Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid. Yusuf Al-Qardawi.
- “Shaykh Qardawi Approves of Celebrating Mawlid”. www.sunnah.org. Retrieved 26 March2016.
- http://www.alhabibali.com/audioVideo_details/ln/en/avid/780[permanent dead link]
- Tahir-ul-Qadri, Dr Muhammad (1 May 2014). Mawlid Al-nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-UL-Quran Publications. ISBN9781908229144.
- “Milad-un-Nabi gets colourful, elaborate – Times of India”. The Times of India. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- “Mass Moulood celebrated in Green Point | IOL”. IOL. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Katz (2007), p. 203
- Malfoozaat, Vol.3 (New 5-volume edition), p.159-160 at: https://www.alislam.org/urdu/pdf/Malfoozat-v3.pdf; https://muslimsunrise.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/rabi%CA%BF-al-awwal-i-the-blessed-month-of-the-blessed-prophet-saw/
- Fn.2, Malfoozaat, Vol.3 (New 5-volume edition), p.159-160 at: https://www.alislam.org/urdu/pdf/Malfoozat-v3.pdf
- https://www.alislam.org/v/k-Seerat-un-Nabi.html?page=1 Seerat-un-Nabi; https://muslimsunrise.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/rabi%CA%BF-al-awwal-i-the-blessed-month-of-the-blessed-prophet-saw/
- Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim; Mirza, Mahan (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 335. ISBN140083855X.
- Katz (2007), p. 71
- Katz (2007), p. 201
- Katz (2007), p. 65
- Katz (2007), p. 73
- Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 159–60. ISBN9781135983949.
- Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 203–4. ISBN9781135983949.
- Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN9781135983949.
The rationale of expressing love for the Prophet was so compelling that it occasionally forced even opponents of the mawlid celebration to qualify their disapproval. Ibn Taymiya remarks that people may celebrate the mawlid either in order to emulate the Christians’ celebration of Jesus’s birthday, or “out of love (mahabba) and reverence (ta’zim) for the Prophet.” Although the first motive is manifestly invalid, Ibn Taymiya acknowledges the latter intention as legitimate; one who acts on this motivation may be rewarded for his love and his effort, although not for the sinful religious innovation in itself.
- Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 324–325. ISBN9780199402069.
At the same time, Ibn Taymiyya recognizes that people observe the mawlid for different reasons and should be recompessed according to their intentions. Some, for example, observe the mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus’s birthday on Christmas. This intention is reprehensible
- Islamic Law in Theory: Studies on Jurisprudence in Honor of Bernard Weiss. BRILL. 9 May 2014. ISBN9789004265196.
Not only does Ibn Taymiyyah recognize the pious elements within devotional innovations, but he asserts that sincere practitioners of these innovations merit a reward. As I argue elsewhere, Ibn Taymiyyah’s paradoxical position stems from a practical awareness of the way that Muslims of his day engaged in devotional practices. Ibn Taymiyya states that: “There is no doubt that the one who performs these [innovated festivals], either because of his own interpretation and independent reasoning or his being a blind imitator (muqallid) of another, receives a reward for his good purpose and for the aspects of his acts that confirm with the lawful and he is forgiven for those aspects that fall under the scope of the innovated if his independent reasoning or blind obedience is pardonable.”
- Ahmed, editors, Yossef Rapoport, Shahab (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and his times. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN9780195478341.
At the same time he recognized that some observe the Prophet’s (s) birthday out of a desire to show their love of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions.
- Woodward, Mark (28 October 2010). Java, Indonesia and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 170. ISBN9789400700567.
The Mawlid is among the most commonly mentioned examples of praiseworthy innovation. This view is shared even by some of the most strident opponents of most other modalities of popular Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah, the Kurdish reformer who most Indonesian and other Islamists take as their spiritual ancestor and mentor, was subdued in his critique of the Mawlid. His position was that those who performed it with pious intent and out of love for the Prophet Muhammad (s) would be rewarded for their actions, and forgiven any sin from bid’ah that they might incur.
- “Mawlid celebration in Russia”. Islamdag.info. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- “q News”. q News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- “Arts Web Bham”. Arts Web Bham. 14 August 1996. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- “Buildings of London”. Buildings of London. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Js BoardArchived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- “United Kingdom”. Sunni Razvi Society. Archived from the original on 25 February 2001.
- Bednikoff, Emilie. “Montreal Religious Sites Project”. Mrsp.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- “Muslim Media Network”. Muslim Media Network. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Canadian MawlidArchived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- “Religion & Ethics – Milad un Nabi”. BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- “Moon Sighting”. Moon Sighting. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 410. ISBN9781576073551.
- Elie Podeh (2011). The Politics of National Celebrations in the Arab Middle East (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–7. ISBN9781107001084.
- Reuven Firestone (2010). An Introduction to Islam for Jews (revised ed.). Jewish Publication Society. p. 132. ISBN9780827610491.
- Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN9781135983949.
- “Festivals in India”. Festivals in India. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Pakistan Celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi with Religious Zeal, FervorArchived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Pakistan Times. 2 April 2007.
- Schielke, Samuli (2012). “Habitus of the authentic, order of the rational: contesting saints’ festivals in contemporary Egypt”. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 12 (2).
- Knappert, J. “The Mawlid”. S.O.A.S.: 209–215.
- Pakistan with Muslims world-over celebrate Eid Milad-un-Nabi tomorrowArchived 4 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- Herman Beck, Islamic purity at odds with Javanese identity: the Muhammadiyah and the celebration of Garebeg Maulud ritual in Yogyakarta, Pluralism and Identity: Studies in Ritual Behaviour, eds Jan Platvoet and K. van der Toorn, BRILL, 1995, pg 262
- Speight, Marston (1980). “The nature of Christian and Muslim festivals”. The Muslim World. 70 (3–4): 260–266. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1980.tb03417.x.
- How Does Tunisia Celebrate Al Mawlid?Tunisia Live
- “Milad Celebrated”. The Times of India. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- TajaNewsArchived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Kaptein (2007)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia