Domestic Violence Against Men
Men who report domestic violence can face social stigma regarding their perceived lack of machismo and other denigrations of their masculinity.:6 Additionally, intimate partner violence (IPV) against men is generally less recognized by society than IPV against women, which can act as a further block to men reporting their situation.:1
The relative prevalence of IPV against men to that of women is highly disputed between different studies, with some countries having no data at all. Some researchers believe the actual number of male victims may be greater than law enforcement statistics suggest due to the number of men who do not report their abuse. However, for both men and women, domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide.
IPV against men is a controversial area of research, with terms such as gender symmetry, battered husband syndrome and bidirectional IPV provoking a great deal of debate. The lines of the debate tend to fall between two basic polemics. The first of these argues that scholars who focus on female-perpetrated IPV are part of an anti-feminist backlash, and are attempting to undermine the problem of male-perpetrated abuse by championing the cause of the man, over the much more serious cause of the abused woman. The second polemic argues that IPV against men is a significant problem and underreported, and that it puts women in even greater risk of victimization by abusive men, which domestic violence researchers and radical feminists have ignored in order to protect the fundamental gains of the battered women’s movement, specifically, the view that intimate partner abuse is an extension of patriarchal dominance. One of the tools used to generate statistics concerning IPV perpetration, the conflict tactics scale, is especially contentious.
Determining the rate of intimate partner violence (IPV) against males can be difficult, as men may be reluctant to report their abuse or seek help. Male victims of IPV may face socio-cultural issues pertaining to hegemonic masculinity such as judgement by male peers, fear of coming out as LGBTQ, or having their masculinity questioned. IPV against men is generally less recognized by society than IPV against women.:1 For a man to admit he is the victim of female perpetrated IPV necessitates the abandonment of the veneer of machismo which society expects from men, and to admit being submissive to a female partner. For some men, this is an admission they are unwilling, or unable, to make.
On the other hand, many abusive men readily adopt a victim identity. For example, O. J. Simpson often referred to himself as a “battered husband“. In cases like this, reporting IPV victimization may lead to exposing themselves as batterers. Some male victims fear people assuming that the woman is the real victim, and must have been acting in self-defense or retaliating for abuse.
Researchers have demonstrated a degree of socio-cultural acceptance of aggression by women against men as opposed to a general condemnation of aggression by men against women. Male-on-female IPV has been shown to cause significantly more fear and more severe injuries than female-on-male violence. This can lead to men not considering themselves victims, and/or not realizing the IPV they are experiencing is a crime.
Some research has shown that women who assault their male partners are more likely to avoid arrest than men who assault their female partners, due to the fact that female perpetrators of IPV tend to be viewed by law enforcement agencies and the courts as victims. As such, some men fear that if they do report to the police, they will be assumed to be the abuser, and placed under arrest.
However, analyses of research indicates that frequently the legal system fails to view women who use IPV against controlling male partners as victims due to gendered high expectations on women to be the “perfect victim” and the culturally pervasive stereotype of the passive, “cowering” battered woman.
Statistics indicate that under-reporting is an inherent problem with IPV irrespective of gender. For example, in England and Wales, the 1995 “Home Office Research Study 191”, carried out as a supplementary study to the British Crime Survey, reported 6.6 million incidents of IPV in the previous twelve months, compared with the 987,000 incidents found by the Crime Survey. The difference in the two reports was that Study 191 was a questionnaire of a random representative sample of people, while the Crime Survey attained its figures from crime records, i.e. actual reported cases of IPV. Supplementary studies carried out in 2001 and from 2004 onwards have consistently recorded significantly higher rates of IPV (committed against both men and women) than the standard crime surveys. The 2010–2011 report found that whilst 27% of women who experienced IPV reported it to the police, only 10% of men did so, and whilst 44% of women reported to some professional organization, only 19% of men did so. In a 2005 report carried out by the National Crime Council in the Republic of Ireland, it was estimated that 5% of men who had experienced IPV had reported it to the authorities, compared to 29% of women.
Estimates of male victimization
In England and Wales, the 1995 “Home Office Research Study 191” surveyed 10,844 people (5,886 women and 4,958 men) between the ages of 16 and 59, finding that for the twelve-month period preceding the survey, 4.2% of men had experienced IPV. Over a lifetime, this figure increased to 14.9% of men. Of the 6.6 million incidents of IPV in 1995, 3.25 million involved male victims, with 1 million incidents resulting in injury. Since 2004, more detailed annual records have been maintained as a supplementary survey attached to the annual Home Office Crime in England and Wales reports. These reports have consistently recorded significantly higher rates of both male and female victims of IPV than the standard crime surveys. In the case of male victims, the figures range from a high of 4.5% in 2007/2008 to a low of 3.1% in 2009/2010. In the Republic of Ireland, a 2005 report carried out by the National Crime Council found that 15% of women and 6% of men had suffered severe IPV in their lifetime, equating to roughly 213,000 women and 88,000 men. In Northern Ireland, police records for 2012 listed 2,525 male victims of domestic violence, an increase of 259 cases from 2011.
In the United States, the National Violence Against Women Survey carried out by the Department of Justice in 2000, surveyed 16,000 people (8,000 men and 8,000 women), and found that 7.4% of men reported physical assault by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend/girlfriend, or date in their lifetime. Additionally, 0.9% of men reported experiencing domestic violence in the past year, equating to 834,732 men. In 2000, the Canadian General Social Survey found 7% of men had experienced IPV from 1994 to 1999, amounting to 549,000 men. Another Canadian General Social Survey, in 2005, found 6% of men had experienced IPV between 2000 and 2005, amounting to 546,000 men. Data concerning campus rape, such as from a National Institute of Mental Health and Ms. Magazine study, has found a 1 in 7 sexual assault rate for men in U.S. colleges. In 2013, the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that from a sample of 16,000 U.S. adults, 26% of homosexual men, 37.3% of bisexual men, and 29% of heterosexual men had been a victim of IPV, compared to 43.8% of lesbians, 61.1% of bisexual women and 35% of heterosexual women. CDC Director Tom Frieden stated, “This report suggests that lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in this country suffer a heavy toll of sexual violence and stalking committed by an intimate partner.”
In New Zealand, the twenty-one year Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, published in 1999, reported that of their sample of 1,037 people, 27% of women and 34% of men reported being physically abused by a partner, with 37% of women and 22% of men reporting they had perpetrated IPV. Also in New Zealand, a 2009 report by the Journal of Applied Social Psychology evaluated samples of university students (35 female, 27 male), general population (34 female, 27 male), and incarcerated participants (15 female, 24 male), and found that 16.7% of the male respondents reported physical abuse (12.9% for students and 15.4% for convicts), while 29.5% reported bidirectional (i.e. both partners commit IPV) violence (14.5% for students and 51.3% for convicts).
The 2006 International Dating Violence Study, which investigated IPV amongst 13,601 students across thirty-two-nations found that “about one-quarter of both male and female students had physically attacked a partner during that year”. It reported that 24.4% of males had experienced minor IPV and 7.6% had experienced “severe assault”.
In 2012, two Swedish studies were released that showed men experienced IPV at rates similar to women—8% per year in one study and 11% per year in the other.
Since 1975, numerous other empirical studies have found evidence of gender symmetry in IPV. For example, in the United States, the National Comorbidity Study of 1990-1992 found 18.4% of men and 17.4% of women had experienced minor IPV, and 5.5% of men and 6.5% of women had experienced severe IPV. In England and Wales, the 1995 “Home Office Research Study 191” found that in the twelve months prior to the survey, 4.2% of both men and woman between the ages of 16 and 59 had been assaulted by an intimate. The Canadian General Social Survey of 2000 found that from 1994 to 1999, 4% of men and 4% of women had experienced IPV in a relationship in which they were still involved, 22% of men and 28% of women had experienced IPV in a relationship which had now ended, and 7% of men and 8% of women had experienced IPV across all relationships, past and present. The 2005 Canadian General Social Survey, looking at the years 1999–2004 found similar data; 4% of men and 3% of women had experienced IPV in a relationship in which they were still involved, 16% of men and 21% of women had experienced IPV in a relationship which had now ended, and 6% of men and 7% of women had experienced IPV across all relationships, past and present.
An especially controversial aspect of the gender symmetry debate is the notion of bidirectional or reciprocal IPV (i.e. when both parties commit violent acts against one another). Findings regarding bidirectional violence are particularly controversial because, if accepted, they can serve to undermine one of the most commonly cited reasons for female perpetrated IPV; self-defense against a controlling male partner. Despite this, many studies have found evidence of high levels of bidirectionality in cases where women have reported IPV. For example, social activist Erin Pizzey, who established the first women’s shelter in the U.K. in 1971, found that 62 of the first 100 women admitted to the centre were “violence-prone,” and just as violent as the men they were leaving. The 1975 National Family Violence Survey found that 27.7% of IPV cases were perpetrated by men alone, 22.7% by women alone and 49.5% were bidirectional. In order to counteract claims that the reporting data was skewed, female-only surveys were conducted, asking females to self-report, resulting in almost identical data. The 1985 National Family Violence Survey found 25.9% of IPV cases perpetrated by men alone, 25.5% by women alone, and 48.6% were bidirectional. A study conducted in 2007 by Daniel J. Whitaker, Tadesse Haileyesus, Monica Swahn, and Linda S. Saltzman, of 11,370 heterosexual U.S. adults aged 18 to 28 found that 24% of all relationships had some violence. Of those relationships, 49.7% of them had reciprocal violence. In relationships without reciprocal violence, women committed 70% of all violence. However, men were more likely to inflict injury than women.
In 1997, Philip W. Cook conducted a study of 55,000 members of the United States Armed Forces, finding bidirectionality in 60-64% of IPV cases, as reported by both men and women. The 2001 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found that 49.7% of IPV cases were reciprocal and 50.3% were non-reciprocal. When data provided by men only was analyzed, 46.9% of cases were reported as reciprocal and 53.1% as non-reciprocal. When data provided by women only was analyzed, 51.3% of cases were reported as reciprocal and 49.7% as non-reciprocal. The overall data showed 70.7% of non-reciprocal IPV cases were perpetrated by women only (74.9% when reported by men; 67.7% when reported by women) and 29.3% were perpetrated by men only (25.1% when reported by men; 32.3% when reported by women). The 2006 thirty-two nation International Dating Violence Study “revealed an overwhelming body of evidence that bidirectional violence is the predominant pattern of perpetration; and this … indicates that the etiology of IPV is mostly parallel for men and women”. The survey found for “any physical violence”, a rate of 31.2%, of which 68.6% was bidirectional, 9.9% was perpetrated by men only, and 21.4% by women only. For severe assault, a rate of 10.8% was found, of which 54.8% was bidirectional, 15.7% perpetrated by men only, and 29.4% by women only.
In 2000, John Archer conducted a meta-analysis of eighty-two IPV studies. He found that “women were slightly more likely than men to use one or more acts of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. Men were more likely to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured by a partner were women.” By contrast, the U.S. Department of Justice finds that women make up 84% of spouse abuse victims and 86% of victims of abuse by a boyfriend or girlfriend.
As both Fiebert and Archer point out, although the numerical tally of physical acts in these studies has found similar rates of IPV amongst men and women, and high rates of bidirectionality, there is general agreement amongst researchers that male violence is a more serious phenomenon, primarily, but not exclusively, because male violence tends to inflict more psychological and physical damage than female violence. Male violence produces injury at roughly six times the rate of female violence. Women are also more likely to be killed by their male partners than the reverse (according to the US Department of Justice, 84% of spousal murder victims are female), and women in general are more likely to be killed by their spouses than all other types of assailants combined. In relation to this, Murray A. Straus has written “although women may assault their partners at approximately the same rate as men, because of the greater physical, financial, and emotional injury suffered by women, they are the predominant victims. Consequently, the first priority in services for victims and in prevention and control must continue to be directed toward assaults by husbands.”
From 2010 to 2012, scholars of domestic violence from the U.S., Canada and the U.K. assembled The Partner Abuse State of Knowledge, a research database covering 1700 peer-reviewed studies, the largest of its kind. Among its findings:
- More women (23%) than men (19.3%) have been assaulted at least once in their lifetime.
- Rates of female-perpetrated violence are higher than male-perpetrated (28.3% vs. 21.6%).
- Male and female IPV are perpetrated from similar motives.
- Studies comparing men and women in the power/control motive have mixed results overall.
A 2013 review examined studies from five continents and the correlation between a country’s level of gender inequality and rates of domestic violence. The authors found that when partner abuse is defined broadly to include emotional abuse, any kind of hitting, and who hits first, partner abuse is relatively even. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims.
Conflict tactics scale
In a 2002 review of the research presenting evidence of gender symmetry, Michael Kimmel noted that more than 90% of “systematic, persistent, and injurious” violence is perpetrated by men. He was especially critical of the fact that the majority of the empirical studies reviewed by Fiebert and Archer used the conflict tactics scale (CTS) as the sole measure of domestic violence, and that many of the studies used samples composed entirely of single people under the age of thirty, as opposed to older married couples. Although the CTS is the most widely used domestic violence measurement instrument in the world, it is also one of the most criticized instruments, due to its exclusion of context variables, inability to measure systemic abuse and motivational factors in understanding acts of violence. For example, the National Institute of Justice cautions that the CTS may not be appropriate for IPV research at all “because it does not measure control, coercion, or the motives for conflict tactics”.
Kimmel argues that the CTS is particularly vulnerable to reporting bias because it depends on asking people to accurately remember and honestly report incidents which have occurred up to a year previously. Even Straus admitted that the data indicates men tend to underestimate their use of violence, and women tend to overestimate their use of violence. “He attempts to control for this by examining only reports from women. Yet this does not correct the bias, because women also tend to underestimate men’s use of violence. Furthermore, men and women alike tend to overestimate women’s use of violence. Violence by men is expected, so it is not reported; violence by women is not expected, so it is notable and reported.” Thus men will overestimate their victimization and underestimate their perpetration, while women will underestimate their victimization and overestimate their perpetration. Barbara J. Morse and Malcolm J. George have presented data suggesting that male underestimation of their partner’s violence is more common in CTS based studies than overestimation. Linda Kelly has noted that even when dividing the data provided by CTS based studies into that given by men and that given by women (such as in the 2001 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), the rate of female perpetrated IPV remains at roughly the same level. The Dunedin Longitudinal Study interviewed both partners in an attempt to test for intentional bias by the participants but found a high degree of correlation between the two partners. Indeed,
Contrary to expectations, agreement between partners did not vary with the perpetrator’s gender or with the type of abusive behavior.
R. Emerson Dobash and Russell P. Dobash have also criticized the CTS, arguing that it is improper to equate male IPV with female IPV. They question the methodology behind the CTS, the data which stems from it and the theoretical framework used by investigators who champion it, arguing that male aggression is much more severe than female aggression and the two should not be measured by the same tool on the same scale. Such an approach would make it impossible to compare male and female aggression because there would be no common measurement.
Another critic, Kersti Yllö, who holds Straus and those who use the CTS accountable for damaging the gains of the battered women’s movement, by releasing their findings into the “marketplace of ideas”. She argues that, as sociologists committed to ending domestic violence, they should have foreseen the controversy such statistics would cause and the damage it could potentially do to battered women. Similarly, Nancy Worcester refers to studies which find evidence of gender symmetry and high levels of bidirectionality as part of the “anti-feminist backlash”, arguing that studies which use the CTS demonstrate the “limitations and dangers of a gender-neutral approach to anti-violence work”.
Straus argues that it is more harmful to women to attempt to tackle the problem of domestic abuse without proper strategy based on facts: “The research shows that this so-called harmless violence by women because a meta-analysis by Stith and colleagues (2004) found that a woman’s perpetration of violence was the strongest predictor of her being a victim of partner violence.”
Straus responded to criticism of the CTS by arguing that it is driven by radical-feminists who are uncomfortable with any evidence that women can be as violent as men because it undermines their belief that IPV is an extension of men’s desire to subjugate women; “one of the explanations for denying the evidence on gender symmetry is to defend feminism in general. This is because a key step in the effort to achieve an equalitarian society is to bring about recognition of the harm that a patriarchal system causes. The removal of patriarchy as the main cause of IPV weakens a dramatic example of the harmful effects of patriarchy.” Straus also points out that despite being critical of the CTS, numerous feminist researchers use it for their own research, and that it was CTS based studies which first illustrated and brought to the public’s attention the extent of the battered women problem in the 1970s.
Battered husband syndrome
The most controversial aspect of female perpetrated IPV is the theory of “battered husband syndrome”. In reaction to the findings of the U.S. National Family Violence Survey in 1975, Suzanne K. Steinmetz wrote an article in 1977 in which she coined the term as a correlative to “battered wife syndrome”. Steinmetz conducted several empirical investigations prior to writing her article. Using a broad-based non-representative sample of fifty-four couples, Steinmetz found male perpetrated IPV at a rate of 47% and female perpetrated IPV at a rate of 43%. She further found that while 39% of husbands had thrown objects, 31% of wives had done likewise; 31% of husbands had pushed or shoved their partner, compared to 32% of wives; 20% of husbands had hit their wives, 20% of wives had hit their husbands; 10% of husbands had hit their wives with an object, 10% of wives had hit their husbands with an object. In another study, using a sample of fifty-two Canadian college students, Steinmetz found male perpetrated IPV at a rate of 23% and female perpetrated IPV at a rate of 21%. Further investigation found that 21% of both husbands and wives had thrown objects; 17% of husbands had pushed or shoved, compared to 13% of wives; 13% of husbands had hit their wives, 13% of wives had hit their husbands; 10% of husbands had hit their wives with an object, 12% of wives had hit their husbands with an object.:501–503 In a third study, using a random sample of ninety-four people, Steinmetz found male perpetrated IPV at a rate of 32% and female perpetrated IPV at a rate of 28%. Further investigation found that 31% of husbands had thrown objects compared to 25% of wives; 22% of husbands had pushed or shoved, compared to 18% of wives; 17% of husbands had hit their wives, 12% of wives had hit their husbands; 12% of husbands had hit their wives with an object, 14% of wives had hit their husbands with an object.
These findings led Steinmetz to conclude that IPV was roughly reciprocal between husbands and wives, with a similar level of intentionality between men and women; “women are as likely to select physical conflict to resolve marital conflict as are men … women have the potential to commit acts of violence and under certain circumstances, they do carry out these acts”.:505  According to Malcolm J. George, Steinmetz’ article “represented a point of departure and antithetical challenge to the otherwise pervasive view of the seemingly universality of female vulnerability in the face of male hegemony exposed by the cases of battered wives”.
Steinmetz’ colleague, Richard J. Gelles, publicly addressed confusion caused by the research and father’s rights groups “significant distortion” of the data in his public response Domestic Violence: Not An Even Playing Field, “Indeed, men are hit by their wives, they are injured, and some are killed. But, are all men hit by women battered? No. Men who beat their wives, who use emotional abuse and blackmail to control their wives, and are then hit or even harmed, cannot be considered battered men. A battered man is one who is physically injured by a wife or partner and has not physically struck or psychologically provoked her.”
Steinmetz’ claims in her article, and her use of the phrase “battered husband syndrome” in particular, aroused a great deal of controversy, with many scholars criticizing research flaws in her work. In particular, she was criticized for not differentiating between verbal and physical aggression or between intentionality and action (wanting to hit was considered the same as actually hitting). For example, David Finkelhor argues that Steinmetz’ methodology was unacceptably unscientific. He argues that her work looks at all violence as fundamentally similar; there is no differentiation between male and female violence, or violence against a child and violence against a wife, such as a mother spanking a child and a father breaking a mother’s ribs. Finkelhor sees this as especially important insofar as it does not allow a differentiation between ongoing systemic abuse and once-off violence, or between disciplining a child and beating a partner.
Causes of female-perpetrated IPV
Linda Kelly writes that “in conceding that women do engage in acts of domestic violence, female use of violence is justified as self-defense—a lifesaving reaction of women who are being physically attacked by their male partners. The development of the battered woman syndrome as a defense for crimes committed against abusive male partners, including homicide, evidences the wide acceptance of a woman’s use of violence as self-defense.” The theory is that when women commit IPV, it is probably justified because they were previously victims and, therefore, the male was the “primary aggressor.” Thus, the woman’s violent behavior is caused by her background as a victim. Juan Carlos Ramírez explains that given the socially accepted model of femininity as one of submission, passivity and abnegation, whatever behavior does not follow this stereotype will be perceived in an exaggerated manner as abnormal and violent. Thus, women will be perceived as disproportionately aggressive even if merely defending themselves.
Meta-analyses of the research find that the overwhelming majority of women’s IPV against male partners is in the context of being victimized. A 2010 systematic review of the literature on women’s perpetration of IPV found that anger, self-defense and retaliation were common motivations but that distinguishing between self-defense and retaliation was difficult. Several studies have found evidence that only a small proportion of women identify their IPV as self-defense. For example, in a 1996 study of 1,978 people in England, 21% of women who admitted to committing IPV gave self-defense as a reason. More prevalent reasons were “Get through to” (53%), “Something said” (52%) and “Make do something” (26%). In a five-year study of 978 college students from California, concluded in 1997, Martin S. Fiebert and Denise M. Gonzalez found an IPV rate amongst women of 20%. Within this group, perpetrators were asked to select reasons as to why they assaulted their partner, with the option to choose multiple reasons. The breakdown of reasons had “my partner wasn’t sensitive to my needs” as the most prevalent (46%). Also found more frequently than self-defense were “I wished to gain my partner’s attention” (44%) and “My partner was not listening to me” (43%).
Looking beyond self-defense, studies have found a range of causes for female-perpetrated IPV. Writing of the feminist theory which regards reinforcement of patriarchy as a primary cause of IPV, Murray A. Straus writes “Patriarchy and male dominance in the family are clearly among the causes [of IPV], but there are many others. However, with rare exceptions, current offender treatment programs are based on the assumption that the primary cause is male dominance. Thus, they proceed under an erroneous assumption. Illustrative of this fallacious single-cause approach are the state-mandated offender treatment programs that forbid treating other causes, such as inadequate anger management skills.” In 2006, Rose A. Medeiros and Murray A. Straus conducted a study using a sample of 854 students (312 men and 542 women) from two American universities. They identified fourteen specific risk factors common amongst both males and females who had committed IPV; poor anger management, antisocial personality disorders, borderline personality disorders, pattern of dominating relationships, substance abuse, criminal history, posttraumatic stress disorders, depression, communication problems, jealousy, sexual abuse as a child, stress, and a general attitudinal approval of partner violence. Straus states that most female perpetrated IPV is not motivated by self-defense, but by a desire to control their partners. In 2014, a study involving 1,104 male and female students in their late teens and early twenties found that women are more likely than men to be controlling and aggressive towards their partners, more likely to demonstrate a desire to control their partners, and more likely to use physical aggression in ensuring that control. The main author of the study, Elizabeth Bates, wrote “this suggests that intimate partner violence may not be motivated by patriarchal values and needs to be studied within the context of other forms of aggression, which has potential implications for interventions.”
Other explanations for both male and female-perpetrated IPV include psychopathology, anger, revenge, skill deficiency, head injuries, biochemical imbalances, feelings of powerlessness, lack of resources, and frustration. Researchers have also found a correlation between the availability of domestic violence services, increased access to divorce, higher earnings for women, and improved laws and enforcement regarding domestic violence with declines in female perpetrated IPV.
Many critics have rejected the research cited by men’s rights activists and dispute their claims that such violence is gender symmetrical, arguing that MRAs’ focus on women’s violence against men stems from a misogynistic political agenda to minimize the issue of men’s violence against women and to undermine services to abused women.
Current literature on IPV has alternative viewpoints in relation to gender symmetry theory. A 2008 review published in journal of Violence and Victims found that although less serious situational violence or altercation was equal for both genders, more serious and violent abuse was perpetrated by men. It was also found that women’s physical violence was more likely motivated by self-defense or fear while men’s was more likely motivated by control. A 2011 systematic review from the journal of Trauma Violence Abuse also found that the common motives for female on male domestic violence were anger, a need for attention, or as a response to their partner’s own violence. Another 2011 review published in the journal of Aggression and Violent Behavior also found that although minor domestic violence was equal, more severe violence was perpetrated by men. It was also found that men were more likely to beat up, choke or strangle their partners, while women were more likely to throw things at their partner, slap, kick, bite, punch, or hit with an object.
Researchers have also found different outcomes in men and women in response to intimate partner violence. A 2012 review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of IPV especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress.:42–45 The review also found that 70% of female victims in one of their studies were “very frightened” in response to intimate partner violence from their partners, but 85% of male victims cited “no fear”. The review also found that IPV mediated the satisfaction of the relationship for women but it did not do so for men.
Gender asymmetry is also consistent with government findings. According to government statistics from the US Department of Justice, male perpetrators constituted 96% of federal prosecution on domestic violence. Another report by the US Department of Justice on non-fatal domestic violence from 2003–2012 found that 76 percent of domestic violence was committed against women and 24 percent were committed against men. Dr. Ruth M. Mann of the University of Windsor, an expert on sociology and criminology, stated her opposition to the gender symmetry theory of domestic violence on the grounds that women as well as children are the main victims in the “annual pile up” (Coyle, 2001) of victims being murdered by intimate partners and fathers throughout Canada (AuCoin, 2005; Ogrodnik, 2006).
Police services in several locations have expanded their domestic violence programs and response units in an effort to deal with IPV against men. Shelters specifically for men have been set up in the UK; as of 2010, there are sixty refuge places available to men throughout England and Wales, compared to 7,500 places for women.
The Police Service of Northern Ireland has also campaigned to spread awareness of the problem of male victimization and to promote reporting of incidents. The country’s first shelter for male abuse victims, Men’s Aid NI, opened in early 2013. Chairman Peter Morris has remarked, “Domestic violence against men can take many forms, including emotional, sexual and physical abuse and threats of abuse. It can happen in heterosexual and same-sex relationships and, as with domestic abuse against females, can go largely unreported.”
- Lupri, Eugene; Grandin, Elaine (2004). “Intimate partner abuse against men”(PDF). National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Archived from the original(PDF) on January 4, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Migliaccio, Todd A. (Winter 2001). “Marginalizing the Battered Male”. The Journal of Men’s Studies. 9 (2): 205–226. doi:10.3149/jms.0902.205.(subscription required)
- Das Dasgupta, Shamita (November 2002). “A Framework for Understanding Women’s Use of Nonlethal Violence in Intimate Heterosexual Relationships”. Violence Against Women. 8 (11): 1364–1389. doi:10.1177/107780102237408. (subscription required)
- Watson, Dorothy; Parsons, Sara (2005). Domestic Abuse of Women and Men in Ireland: Report on the National Study of Domestic Abuse(PDF). Dublin: National Crime Council of Ireland. p. 169. Archived from the original(PDF) on December 29, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Strong, Bryan; DeVault, Christine; Cohen, Theodore (February 16, 2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. p. 447. ISBN978-1133597469. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017.
- Concannon, Diana (July 11, 2013). Kidnapping: An Investigator’s Guide. Newnes. p. 30. ISBN978-0123740311. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017.
- Yllö, Kersti (1988). “Political and Methodological Debates in Wife Abuse Research”. In Yllö, Kersti; Bogard, Michele (eds.). Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. pp. 40–47. ISBN9780803930537.
- Worcester, Nancy (November 2000). “Women’s Use of Force: Complexities and Challenges of Taking the Issue Seriously”. Violence Against Women. 8 (11): 1390–1415. doi:10.1177/107780102762478055. (subscription required)
- Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L. (September 2005). “The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: Part 1 — The conflict of theory and data”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 10 (6): 680–714. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.02.001.
- Straus, Murray A. (June 2010). “Thirty Years of Denying the Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence: Implications for Prevention and Treatment”(PDF). Partner Abuse. 1 (3): 332–362. CiteSeerX10.1.1.372.5578. doi:10.1891/1946-6522.214.171.1242. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Loseke, Donileen R.; Gelles, Richard J.; Cavanaugh, Mary M. (2005). Current Controversies on Family Violence. SAGE. ISBN9780761921066.
- Robertson, Kristen; Murachver, Tamar (July 2009). “Attitudes and Attributions Associated With Female and Male Partner Violence”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 39 (7): 1481–1512. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00492.x. (subscription required)
- Sullivan, Vince (July 10, 2013). “Help domestic abuse victims for 35 years”. The Delco Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Fontena Vera, Carol; Gatricia Duhart, Andrés. “La Violencia Doméstica hacia el Varón: factores que inciden en el hombre agredido para no denunciar a su pareja” (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Jacobson, Neil S.; Gottman, John Mordechai (1998). When Men Batter Women: New Insights Into Ending Abusive Relationships. Simon and Schuster. ISBN9780684814476.
- Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L. (2008). “A Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners”. Violence and Victims. 23 (3): 301–314. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.23.3.301. PMC2968709. PMID18624096.
- Migliaccio, Todd A. (July 2002). “Abused Husbands: A Narrative Analysis”. Journal of Family Issues. 23 (1): 26–52. doi:10.1177/0192513X02023001002. Retrieved June 20, 2014. (subscription required)
- E. Caldwell, Jennifer; C. Swan, Suzanne; Diane Woodbrown, V (January 1, 2012). “Gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes”. Psychology of Violence. 2: 42–57. doi:10.1037/a0026296. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Moore, David W. (1997). “Change in Cultural Norms Approving Marital Violence from 1968-1994”(PDF). In Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Jasinski, Jana L. (eds.). Out of the Darkness: Contemporary Perspectives on Family Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. pp. 3–16. ISBN9780761907756. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe (September 2007). “Does the Criminal Justice System Treat Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Offenders Leniently?”(PDF). Justice Quarterly. 24 (3): 440, 447. doi:10.1080/07418820701485601. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Kingsnorth, Rodney F.; MacIntosh, Randall C. (September 2007). “Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of Suspect Gender in Prosecutorial Decision-Making”(PDF). Justice Quarterly. 24 (3): 460–494. doi:10.1080/07418820701485395. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Cook, Phillip W. (1997). Abused Men: The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 43–91. ISBN9780313356711.
- Grady, Ann (2002). “Female-on-Male Domestic Violence: Uncommon or Ignored?”. In Hoyle, Carolyn; Young, Richard (eds.). New Visions of Crime Victims. Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing. pp. 93–95. ISBN9781841132808.
- Goodmark, Leigh (2008). “When Is a Battered Woman Not a Battered Woman? When She Fights Back”. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism. 20 (1): 75–129. ISSN1043-9366.
- Mirrlees-Black, Catriona (1999). Domestic Violence: Findings from a new British Crime Survey self-completion questionnaire(PDF). London: Home Office. pp. 17–26. ISBN9781840821932. Archived from the original(PDF)on March 14, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- “Government Statistics on Domestic Violence”(PDF). Dewar Research. February 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Britton, Andrew (2011). “Intimate violence: 2010/11 BCS”(PDF). In Smith, Kevin (ed.). Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence, 2010/2011: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales, 2010/2011. London: Home Office. p. 96. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Roe, Stephen (2009). “Intimate violence: 2007/08 BCS”(PDF). In Povey, David (ed.). Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence, 2010/2011: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales, 2007/2008. London: Home Office. p. 66. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 20, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Hall, Philip (2011). “Intimate violence: 2009/10 BCS”(PDF). In Smith, Kevin (ed.). Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence, 2009/2010: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales, 2009/2010. London: Home Office. p. 82. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- Watson, Dorothy; Parsons, Sara (2005). Domestic Abuse of Women and Men in Ireland: Report on the National Study of Domestic Abuse(PDF). Dublin: National Crime Council of Ireland. p. 24. Archived from the original(PDF) on December 29, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- McNeilly, Claire (October 29, 2013). “Domestic violence against men at its highest level in Northern Ireland since police began recording statistics”. The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Tjaden, Patricia; Thoennes, Nancy (2000). Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women(PDF). Washington DC: National Institute of Justice. p. 26. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Bunge, Valerie Pottie; Locke, Daisy, eds. (2000). Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2000(PDF). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. p. 11. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Mihorean, Karen (2005). “Trends in self-reported spousal violence”(PDF). In AuCoin, Kathy (ed.). Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2005. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. p. 14. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- “Rape on College Campus”. Union College. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Heavey, Susan (January 25, 2013). “Data shows domestic violence, rape an issue for gays”. Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom E. (July 1999). “Findings About Partner Violence From the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study”(PDF). National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief: 2. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (March 2008). “Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations”(PDF). Children and Youth Services Review. 30 (3): 258. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Nybergh, Lotta; Taft, Charles; Enander, Viveka; Krantz, Gunilla (2013). “Self-reported exposure to intimate partner violence among women and men in Sweden: Results from a population-based survey”. BMC Public Health. 13: 845. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-845. PMC3848440. PMID24034631.
- Lövestad, Solveig; Krantz, Gunilla (2012). “Men’s and women’s exposure and perpetration of partner violence: An epidemiological study from Sweden”. BMC Public Health. 12: 945. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-945. PMC3534228. PMID23116238.
- Gelles, Richard J.; Straus, Murray A. (1988). Intimate Violence: The Causes and Consequences of Abuse in the American Family. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 104. ISBN978-0-671-68296-5. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
- Steinmetz, Suzanne K. (1977). “The Battered Husband Syndrome”(PDF). Victimology. Visage Press. 2 (3–4): 499–509. OCLC936769926.
- List of articles:
- Saunders, Daniel G. (1988). “Wife Abuse, Husband Abuse, or Mutual Combat? A Feminist Perspective on the Empirical Findings”. In Yllö, Kersti; Bogard, Michele (eds.). Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. pp. 90–113. ISBN9780803930537.
- Dobash, Russell P.; Dobash, R. Emerson; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin(February 1992). “The Myth of Sexual Symmetry in Marital Violence”. Social Problems. 39 (1): 71–91. doi:10.2307/3096914. JSTOR3096914.
- Straus, Murray A. (1999). “The Controversy Over Domestic Violence by Women: A Methodological, Theoretical and Sociology of Science Analysis”(PDF). In Arriaga, Ximena B.; Oskamp, Stuart (eds.). Violence in Intimate Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 17–44. ISBN9780761916420.
- Archer, John (September 2000). “Sex Differences in Aggression between Heterosexual Partners: A Meta-Analytic Review”(PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 651–680. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.651. PMID10989615.
- Robertson, Kirsten (2005). Intimate Partner Violence: Gender Symmetry and the Victim Perpetrator Overlap(PDF) (PhD). University of Otago.
- Johnson, Michael P. (December 2005). “Domestic Violence: It’s Not About Gender-Or is It?”(PDF). Journal of Marriage and Family. 67 (5): 1126–1130. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00204.x. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Johnson, Michael P. (November 2006). “Conflict and Control: Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence”(PDF). Violence Against Women. 12 (11): 1003–1018. doi:10.1177/1077801206293328. PMID17043363.
- Porter, Theresa (May 14, 2011). “Hit Like A Girl: Women Who Batter Their Partners”(PDF). Evil Women and the Feminine: 3rd Global Conference. Archived from the original(Lecture) on August 6, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve (April 2012). “The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse”. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 27 (6): 1090–1111. doi:10.1177/0886260511424498. PMID22203618.
- Dobash, Russell P.; Dobash, R. Emerson (May 2004). “Women’s Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships: Working on a Puzzle”(PDF). British Journal of Criminology. 44 (3): 324–349. doi:10.1093/bjc/azh026.
- Straus, Murray A (2009). “Gender symmetry in partner violence: Evidence and implications for prevention and treatment”. Preventing partner violence: Research and evidence-based intervention strategies. pp. 245–71. doi:10.1037/11873-011. ISBN978-1-4338-0434-2.
- Kessler, Ronald C.; Molnar, Beth E.; Feurer, Irene D.; Applebaum, Mark (October 2001). “Patterns and Mental Health Predictors of Domestic Violence in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey”. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 24 (4–5): 487–508. doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(01)00080-2. PMID11521422. (subscription required)
- Dutton, Donald G. (2006). Rethinking Domestic Violence. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. p. 140. ISBN9780774810159.
- Mirrlees-Black, Catriona (1999). Domestic Violence: Findings from a new British Crime Survey self-completion questionnaire(PDF). London: Home Office. pp. 20–21. ISBN9781840821932. Archived from the original(PDF)on March 14, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Pizzey, Erin (2000). “From the Personal to the Political”(PDF). In Pizzey, Erin; Shackleton, J.R.; Urwin, Peter (eds.). Women or Men: Who Are the Victims?. London: Civitas. p. 27. ISBN978-1-903386-09-5. Retrieved June 28,2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (May 1980). “Victims and Aggressors in Marital Violence”(PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 23 (5): 681–704. doi:10.1177/000276428002300505. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (1997). “Physical Assaults by Women Partners: A Major Social Problem”(PDF). In Walsh, M.R. (ed.). Women, Men and Gender: Ongoing Debates. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN978-0-300-06938-9. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Whitaker, Daniel (May 2007). “Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships With Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence”. Am J Public Health. 97 (5): 941–947. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020. PMC1854883. PMID17395835.
- Cook, Phillip W. (1997). Abused Men: The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence. Westport, CT: Praeger. p. 6. ISBN978-0-313-35671-1.
- Whitaker, Daniel J.; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Swahn, Monica; Saltzman, Linda S. (May 2007). “Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships With Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence”. American Journal of Public Health. 97 (5): 941–7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020. PMC1854883. PMID17395835.
- Straus, Murray A. (March 2008). “Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations”(PDF). Children and Youth Services Review. 30 (3): 260–261. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Archer, John (September 2000). “Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: a meta-analytic review”. Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 651–680. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.651. PMID10989615.Pdf.
- Frieze, Irene (September 2000). “Violence in close relationships—development of a research area: Comment on Archer”. Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 681–684. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.681. PMID10989616.
- O’Leary, K. Daniel (September 2000). “Are women really more aggressive than men in intimate relationships? Comment on Archer”. Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 685–689. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.685. PMID10989617.
- “Family Violence Statistics: Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances”(PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Archived(PDF) from the original on August 11, 2015.
- Vivian, Dina; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer (Summer 1994). “Are bi-directionality violent couples mutually victimized? A gender-sensitive comparison”. Violence & Victims. 9 (2): 107–124. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.9.2.107. PMID7696192. (subscription required)
- Young, Cathy (September 2005). Domestic violence: an in-depth analysis. Independent Women’s Forum. p. 8. Position paper no. 504.Pdf.Archived February 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Browne, Angela; Williams, Kirk R. (1989). “Exploring the effect of resource availability and the likelihood of female-perpetrated homicides”. Law and Society Review. 23 (1): 75–94. doi:10.2307/3053881. JSTOR3053881.(subscription required)
- Straus, Murray A. (1997), “Domestic violence: are women as likely as men to initiate physical assaults in partner relationships: YES: “Physical assaults by women partners: a major social problem““, in Walsh, Mary Roth (ed.), Women, men and gender: ongoing debates, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 219, ISBN9780300069389.
- See also: Kurz, Demie (1997), “Domestic violence: are women as likely as men to initiate physical assaults in partner relationships: NO: “Physical assaults by male partners: a major social problem““, in Walsh, Mary Roth (ed.), Women, men and gender: ongoing debates, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 222–232, ISBN9780300069389.
- Partner Abuse State of Knowledge Project Findings At-a-Glance, Sponsored by the Journal Partner Abuse, John Hamel, LCSW, Editor-in-Chief, www.springerpub.com/pa, November 2012
- Esquivel-Santovena, Esteban Eugenio; Lambert, Teri; Hamel, John (January 2013). “Partner abuse worldwide”(PDF). Partner Abuse. 4 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1891/1946-6560.4.1.e14.
- Kimmel, Michael S. (November 2002). “‘Gender symmetry’ in domestic violence: a substantive and methodological research review”. Violence Against Women. 8 (11): 1332–1363. doi:10.1177/107780102237407.Pdf.Archived October 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- Straus, Murray A.; Douglas, Emily M. (October 2004). “A short form of the revised conflict tactics scales, and typologies for severity and mutuality”. Violence & Victims. 19 (5): 507–520. doi:10.1891/088667004780927800.NCJ210048Pdf.Archived August 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Colarossi, Linda (January 2005). “A response to Danis & Lockhart: what guides social work knowledge about violence against women”. Journal of Social Work Education. 41 (1): 147–159. doi:10.5175/JSWE.2005.200400418. JSTOR23044038. (subscription required)
- “Measuring intimate partner (domestic) violence”. nij.gov. National Institute of Justice. May 12, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Morse, Barbara J. (December 1995). “Beyond the Conflict Tactics Scale: assessing gender differences in partner violence”. Violence and Victims. 10(4): 251–272. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.10.4.251. PMID8703839. Retrieved June 21, 2014. (subscription required)
- George, Malcolm J. (2003). “Invisible touch”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 8: 23–60. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00048-9. (subscription required)
- Kelly, Linda (Summer 2003). “Disabusing the definition of domestic abuse: how women batter men and the role of the feminist state”. Florida State University Law Review. 30 (4): 804–805.Pdf.
- Moffitt, Terrie; Caspi, Avshalom (July 1999). “Findings About Partner Violence From the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study”. Research in Brief: 4.
- Dobash, R. Emerson; Dobash, Russell P. (December 1981). “Social science and social action: the case of wife beating” [2017-01-01]. Journal of Family Issues. 2 (4): 439–470. doi:10.1177/0192513X8100200404. Retrieved June 28, 2014. (subscription required)
- Straus, Murray A. (June 2010). “Thirty years of denying the evidence on gender symmetry in partner violence: implications for prevention and treatment”. Partner Abuse. 1 (3): 349. CiteSeerX10.1.1.372.5578. doi:10.1891/1946-65126.96.36.1992.Pdf.Archived July 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- Steinmetz, Suzanne K. (1977). Cycle of Violence: Assertive, Aggressive and Abusive Family Interactions. New York: Praeger. ISBN9780275914769.
- Steinmetz, Suzanne K. (January 1977). “The Use of Force for Resolving Family Conflict: The Training Ground for Abuse”. The Family Coordinator. 26(1): 19–26. doi:10.2307/581856. JSTOR581856. (subscription required)
- Steinmatz, Suzanne K. (1977). “Wifebeating, husband beating — a comparison of the use of physical violence between spouses to resolve marital fights”. In Roy, Maria (ed.). Battered Women: A Psychosociological Study of Domestic Violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 63–72. ISBN9780442272012.
- George, Malcolm J. (2003). “Invisible touch”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 8: 32. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00048-9. (subscription required)
- “Richard Gelles: oh so magnanimous, and dead wrong”. fathersmanifesto.net. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Finkelhor, David (1983). “Common Features of Family Abuse”. In Finkelhor, David; Hotaling, Gerald T.; Gelles, Richard J.; Straus, Murray A. (eds.). The Dark Side of Families: Current Family Violence Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 17–30. ISBN9780803919358.
- Kelly, Linda (Summer 2003). “Disabusing the Definition of Domestic Abuse: How Women Batter Men and the Role of the Feminist State”. Florida State University Law Review. 30 (4): 806. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Walker, Leonore E. (1984). The Battered Woman Syndrome. New York: Springer. ISBN9780826102522.
- Tower, Leslie E.; Fernandez, Maria Elena (January 2008). “English- and Spanish-Speaking Women’s Use of Violence”. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 23 (1): 23–38. doi:10.1177/0886260507307649. PMID18087030. Retrieved June 21, 2014. (subscription required)
- Ramírez, Juan Carlos (2005). Madejas entreveradas: Violencia, masculinidad y poder [Interlocked skeins: Violence, masculinity and power] (in Spanish). Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara. ISBN978-970-722-360-8.
- Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica; Trent, Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn (2010). “Why Do Women Use Intimate Partner Violence? A Systematic Review of Women’s Motivations”. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. 11 (4): 178–189. doi:10.1177/1524838010379003. PMC2994556. PMID20823071.
- Carrado, Michelle; George, Malcolm J.; Loxam, Elizabeth; Jones, L.; Templar, Dale (June 1996). “Aggression in British Heterosexual Relationships: A Descriptive Analysis”. Aggressive Behavior. 22 (6): 401–415. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:6<401::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-K. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Fiebert, Martin S.; Gonzalez, Denise M. (1997). “Women who initiate assaults: The reasons offered for such behavior”. Psychological Reports. 80(2): 583–590. doi:10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.523. PMID9129375.
- Straus, Murray A. (June 2010). “Thirty Years of Denying the Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence: Implications for Prevention and Treatment”(PDF). Partner Abuse. 1 (3): 351. CiteSeerX10.1.1.372.5578. doi:10.1891/1946-65184.108.40.2062. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Medeiros, Rose A.; Straus, Murray A. (2006). “Risk Factors for Physical Violence Between Dating Partners: Implications for Gender-Inclusive Prevention and Treatment of Family Violence”(PDF). In Hamel, John; Nicholls, Tonia (eds.). Family Approaches to Domestic Violence: A Practitioner’s Guide to Gender-Inclusive Research and Treatment. New York: Springer. pp. 59–87. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A (2011). “Gender symmetry and mutuality in perpetration of clinical-level partner violence: Empirical evidence and implications for prevention and treatment”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 16 (4): 279–288. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.04.010.
- Bates, Elizabeth A.; Graham-Kevan, Nicholas; Archer, John (January 2014). “Testing predictions from the male control theory of men’s partner violence”(PDF). Aggressive Behavior. 40 (1): 46–50. doi:10.1002/ab.21499. PMID23878077.
- Straus, Murray A.; Hotaling, Gerald T., eds. (1980). The Social Causes of Husband-Wife Violence(PDF). Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN9780816609550.
- Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Bates, Leonard; Smutzler, Natalie; Sandin, Elizabeth (Spring 1997). “A Brief Review of the Research on Husband Violence, Part I: Maritally Violent Versus Nonviolent Men”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2 (1): 65–99. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(96)00015-8.
- Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Bates, Leonard; Smutzler, Natalie; Sandin, Elizabeth (Summer 1997). “A Brief Review of the Research on Husband Violence, Part II: The Psychological Effects of Husband Violence on Battered Women and Their Children”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2 (3): 179–213. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(96)00017-1.
- Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Bates, Leonard; Smutzler, Natalie; Sandin, Elizabeth (Fall 1997). “A Brief Review of the Research on Husband Violence, Part III: Sociodemographic Factors, Relationship Factors, and Differing Consequences of Husband and Wife Violence”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2 (3): 285. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(96)00017-1.
- Follingstad, Diane R.; Bradley, Rebekah G.; Helff, Cynthia M.; Laughlin, James E. (January 2002). “A Model for Predicting Dating Violence: Anxious Attachment, Angry Temperament, and Need for Relationship Control”. Violence and Victims. 17 (1): 35–47. doi:10.1891/vivi.220.127.116.11639. PMID11991155.
- George, Malcolm J. (2003). “Invisible touch”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 8: 46. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00048-9.
- Manchikanti Gómez, Anu (March 2011). “Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood”(PDF). Youth & Society. 43 (1): 171–192. doi:10.1177/0044118X09358313.
- Saldivia, Claudia; Vizcarra, Beatriz (July 2012). “Consumo de Drogas y Violencia en el Noviazgo en Estudiantes Universitarios del Sur de Chile”. Terapia Psicológica (in Spanish). 30 (2): 43–49. doi:10.4067/s0718-48082012000200004.
- Dugan, Laura; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenfeld, Richard (August 1999). “Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women’s Status, and Domestic Violence Resources”. Homicide Studies. 3 (3): 187–214. doi:10.1177/1088767999003003001. (subscription required)
- Potok, Mark; Schlatter, Evelyn (Spring 2012). “Men’s Rights Movement Spreads False Claims about Women”. Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. 145. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Messner, Michael A. (June 1998). “The limits of ‘The Male Sex Role’: an analysis of the men’s liberation and men’s rights movements’ discourse”. Gender & Society. 12 (3): 255–276. doi:10.1177/0891243298012003002. JSTOR190285.
- Miller, Susan L.; Lilley, Terry G. (2008), “Female perpetrators of intimate partner violenceArchived December 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine“, in Renzetti, Claire M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L., eds. (June 19, 2008). Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. pp. 257–258. ISBN978-1-4129-1800-8.
- Kimmel, Michael S. (November 2002). “‘Gender symmetry’ in domestic violence: a substantive and methodological research review”. Violence Against Women. 8 (11): 1332–1363. doi:10.1177/107780102237407.Pdf.
- Chan, KL (2011). “Gender differences in self-reports of intimate partner violence: A review”(PDF). Aggression and Violent Behavior. 16 (2): 167–175. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.008. Archived(PDF) from the original on December 23, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Caldwell, Jennifer E (2012). “Gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes”. Psychology of Violence. 2 (1): 42–57. doi:10.1037/a0026296.Pdf.Archived December 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Durose, Matthew R. (2005). “Family Violence Statistics Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances”(PDF). bjs.gov. US Department of Justice. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016.
- Truman, Jennifer L. (2014). “Nonfatal Domestic Violence, 2003–2012”(PDF). bjs.gov. US Department of Justice. Archived(PDF) from the original on January 17, 2016.
- Mann, Ruth M. (January 2008). “Men’s rights and feminist advocacy in Canadian domestic violence policy arenas”. Feminist Criminology. 3 (1): 44–75. doi:10.1177/1557085107311067.
- Campbell, Denis (September 5, 2010). “More than 40% of domestic violence victims are male, report reveals”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia