A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science. The term “philosopher” comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος, meaning “lover of wisdom”. The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.

Karl Marx

Who Is Karl Marx? Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university. He married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop...

Avicenna

Who Is Avicenna? Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا‎; c. 980 – June 1037) was a Persian[4][5][6] polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.[7] He has been described as the father of early modern medicine.[8][9][10] Of the 450 works he is known to have written,...

Lao Tzu

Who Is Laozi (Lao Tzu)? Laozi (老子; literally “Old Master”), also rendered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tze, was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.[5] He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching,[6] the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. A semi-legendary figure, Laozi was usually portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but some modern historians consider...

Sun Tzu

Who Is Sun Tzu? Sun Tzu (孫子; Pinyin transliteration Sunzi) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected Western and East Asian philosophy and military...

Socrates

Who Is Socrates? Socrates (Sōkrátēs, c. 470 – 399 BC)[3][4] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher[5][6] of the Western ethical tradition of thought.[7][8][9] An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his...

Socrates, Xenophon, And Plato

Socrates, Xenophon, And Plato Empedocles In the fifth century BC the Pythagorean school continued, and Parmenides in Elea contributed to metaphysics. Zeno also of Elea let his mind trap himself into thinking one could never get somewhere, because by going half-way there each time one would get closer but never...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the...

Hermes Trismegistus

Hermes Trismegistus Hermes Trismegistus (“thrice-greatest Hermes”; Mercurius ter Maximus) is the purported author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism. Origin and identity Hermes Trismegistus may be associated with the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.[1] Greeks in the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt recognized the...

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath from Pisa.[4] Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”,[5] the “father of modern physics”,[6][7] the “father of the scientific method”,[8] and the “father of modern science”.[9][10] Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity...

Aristotle

Aristotle Aristotle (Aristotélēs, 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy”. His writings cover many subjects –...

Al-Kindi

Al-Kindi Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician. Al-Kindi was the first of the Islamic peripatetic philosophers, and is hailed as the “father of Arab philosophy”. Al-Kindi was born...

Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr Sayyid Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر‎, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University,[7] and an Islamic philosopher. He is the author of scholarly books and articles.[8][9] Nasr speaks and writes on subjects such as philosophy, religion, spirituality, music, art, architecture, science, literature, civilizational dialogues, and the natural...

Epikoros

Who is Epikoros? Epikoros (or Apikoros or Apikores or Epicurus; אפיקורוס, lit. “Heretic”, pl. Epicorsim ) is a Jewish term cited in the Mishnah, referring to one who does not have a share in the world to come: “All Israel have a share in the world to come as states:...

Epicurus

Who Is Epicurus? Epicurus[a] (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents. Influenced by Democritus, Aristotle, Pyrrho,[3] and possibly the Cynics, he turned against the Platonism of his day and...

Rumi

Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ – Mawlānā (مولانا, “our master”), Mevlevî – Mawlawī (مولوی, “my master”), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian[8][1][9] poet, jurist, Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan.[9][10] Rumi’s influence transcends national borders...

Disciples of Confucius

Disciples of Confucius According to Sima Qian, Confucius said: “The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of extraordinary ability.” It was traditionally believed that Confucius had three thousand students, but that only 72 mastered what he taught. The following is a list...

Confucius

Who Is Confucius? Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred...

Alan Watts

Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (6 January 1915 – 16 November 1973) was a British[1] philosopher who interpreted and popularised Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Born in Chislehurst, England, he moved to the United States in 1938 and began Zen training in New York. Pursuing a career, he attended Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, where he received a master’s degree in theology. Watts...

Who Is Confucius?

Confucius Confucius was born around the year 551 BC in China, in a very humble environment. It is said that he was orphaned as a small boy, since there is no records of his parents. While he was growing up China was in despair with warfare and corruption running rampant....

M. Fethullah Gülen

Who Is M. Fethullah Gülen? A Brief History A man for all seasons, M. Fethullah Gülen was born in tiny village of Korucuk, in Erzurum Province, Eastern Turkey, in November 1938. His family tree is traced to a noble lineage. He comes from a long line of learned scholars. Born...

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