Religion

Religion is a set of common beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural (and its relationship to humanity and the cosmos), which are often codified into prayer, ritual, scriptures, and religious law. These beliefs and practices are typically defined in light of a shared canonical vocabulary of venerable traditions, writings, history, and mythology.

 

Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.

 

As religious traditions are often deeply embedded into specific cultural contexts, these traditions often contain moral codes that outline the relationships that a believer is expected to cultivate with respect to themselves, other believers, outsiders, and the supernatural world. Finally, a common element of many religious traditions is the division of the world in two comprehensive domains, one sacred, the other profane. In this context, religious thought and practice are aimed at delineating and reifying these two disparate realms through personal effort and/or communal ritual.

 

Articles about Religion

Religions

Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, and other things.

The world’s principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies.

There are different ways of categorization of world religions.

 Relatively crude geographical schemes that distinguish Western Religions from Eastern Religions are quite common.

 Religions can be categorized by how many deities they worship. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity (predominantly referred to as God), polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle; and nontheistic religions deny any supreme eternal creator deity but accept a pantheon of deities which live, die and may be reborn like any other being.

 Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths.

 Religious traditions fall into super-groups in comparative religion, arranged by historical origin and mutual influence.

  1. Middle Eastern religions originated in the Middle East; namely Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and Iranic religions (Zoroastrianism, Yazdanism and historical traditions of Gnosticism, Mandaeism, Manichaeism). religions and traditions related to, and descended from them (Bábísm and the Bahá’í Faith).
  2. Indian religions originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely HinduismJainism, Buddhism and Sikhism, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them. Also called Dharmic religions that have idea of Dharma.
  3. East Asian religions originated in East Asia, also known as Taoic religions; namely Taoism, ConfucianismChinese folk religion, Shintoism, Cheondoism, Caodaism, and East Asian Buddhism, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.
  4. Indigenous tribal religions, formerly found on every continent, but now marginalized by the major organized faiths. Despite this, they often persist as undercurrents of Ethnic religionFolk religionPaganism, AnimismTotemism, and Shamanism. This category includes African traditional religions, African diasporic religions, Asian Shamanism, Native American religions, Mesoamerican Religion, Aztec Religion, Inuit Religion, Austronesian and Australian Aboriginal traditions and arguably Chinese folk religion (overlaps with Far Eastern religions).
  5. New religious movements, a heterogeneous group of religious faiths emerging since the nineteenth century, often syncretizing, re-interpreting or reviving aspects of older traditions (Wicca, New Age, Neopaganism, Hellenism, Hindu derived religions, Entheogenic religions, transcendentalism, polytheistic reconstructionism, and Satanism), some inspired by science-fiction (UFO religions, Scientology, Cult). Irreligion and New Thought.
  6. Historical religions of the ancient world shared many of the same patterns with each other even though the cultures may never have had any contact with each other. Such as Prehistoric religionAncient Egyptian ReligionAncient Mesopotamian religion, Brahmanism, Religion in pre-Islamic ArabiaInca mythology, ancient Greece and Rome and their Hellenistic descendants.

Atheism refers in its broadest sense to a denial of theism (the belief in the existence of a single deity or deities). Atheism has many shades and types. Some atheists strongly deny the existence of God (or any form of deity) and attack theistic claims.

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Kalam Cosmological Argument

Kalam Cosmological Argument The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). The argument’s key underpinning idea is the metaphysical impossibility...

The doctrine of the Filioque, from the Boulbon Altarpiece: The Trinity with a donor presented by St. Agricol. Provence, c. 1450. From the high altar of the chapelle Saint-Marcellin, Boulbon, France.

Filioque

Filioque Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity. The Latin term Filioque describes the Holy Spirit as proceeding from both the Father and the Son, (not from the Father only). In the Nicene Creed it is translated...

Methodists often seek the new birth and entire sanctification at the mourners' bench or chancel rails during services held in local churches, tent revivals and camp meetings (pictured are people praying at Mount Zion United Methodist Church in Pasadena).

Baptism with The Holy Spirit

Baptism with The Holy Spirit In Christian theology, baptism with the Holy Spirit, also called baptism in the Holy Spirit or baptism in the Holy Ghost, has been interpreted by different Christian denominations and traditions in a variety of ways due to differences in the doctrines of salvation and ecclesiology. It is frequently associated with incorporation into the Christian Church,...

The Holy Trinity

Perichoresis

Perichoresis Perichoresis (“rotation”) is a term referring to the relationship of the three persons of the triune God (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) to one another. Circumincession is a Latin-derived term for the same concept. It was first used as a term in Christian theology, by the Church Fathers. The noun first appears in the writings of Maximus Confessor (d....

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What is Trinity?

What is Trinity? The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, ‘triad’, trinus “threefold”) holds that God is one God, but three coeternal and consubstantial persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct, yet are one “substance, essence or nature” (homoousios). In this context, a “nature” is what one is, whereas a...

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Introduction to The Trinity

The Trinity A difficult but fundamental concept within Christianity, the Trinity is the belief that God is three separate persons but is still a single God. Introduction to The Trinity The core belief The doctrine of the Trinity is the Christian belief that: There is One God, who is Father, Son,...

trinity cross Christianity

The Trinity Doctrine

The Trinity Doctrine Preface The inspiration for writing this paper began with a discussion between a neighbor and myself. She, believing in the Trinity as a doctrine of her faith, would like to convince me that it is scriptural. I on the other hand, professing no particular formal religious belief,...

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Christian Agnosticism

Christian Agnosticism Christian agnostics practice a distinct form of agnosticism that applies only to the properties of God. They hold that it is difficult or impossible to be sure of anything beyond the basic tenets of the Christian faith. They believe that God or a higher power exists, that Jesus may have a special relationship with God and...

Holy Spirit

Gender of the Holy Spirit

Gender of the Holy Spirit In Christian theology, the gender of the Holy Spirit has been the subject of some debate in recent times. The grammatical gender of the word for “spirit” is feminine in Hebrew (רוּחַ, rūaḥ), neuter in Greek (πνεῦμα, pneûma) and masculine in Latin (spiritus). The neuter Greek πνεῦμα is used in the Septuagint to...

Fausto Sozzini was an Italian theologian who helped define Unitarianism and also served the Polish Brethren church

Socinianism

Socinianism Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Italians Lelio Sozzini (Latin: Laelius Socinus) and Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), uncle and nephew, respectively, which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period. It is most...

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Spiritual Gift

Spiritual Gift A spiritual gift or charism (plural: charisms or charismata) is a concept in Christianity that refers to an endowment or extraordinary power given by the Holy Spirit. These are believed by followers to be supernatural graces which individual Christians need (and needed in the days of the Apostles) to fulfill the mission of the Church. In the...

The Tovar Codex, attributed to the 16th-century Mexican Jesuit Juan de Tovar, contains detailed information about the rites and ceremonies of the Aztecs (also known as Mexica). The codex is illustrated with 51 full-page paintings in watercolor.

Aztec Philosophy

Aztec Philosophy Aztec philosophy was a school of philosophy that developed out of Aztec culture. The Aztecs had a well-developed school of philosophy, perhaps the most developed in the Americas and in many ways comparable to Ancient Greek philosophy, even amassing more texts than the ancient Greeks. Aztec cosmology was in some sense dualistic, but exhibited a less common form...

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Religious Philosophy

Religious Philosophy Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is influences and directed as a consequence to teachings from a particular religion. It can be done objectively, but may also be done as a persuasion tool by believers in that faith. Religious philosophy is predominantly concerned with the concept of god, gods, and/or the divine....

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Christians

Christians Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach (מָשִׁיח). While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing...

All praise and gratitude is due to God, Rabb of all the worlds.

Rabb

Rabb Lord (رب‎, rabb), is often used to refer to God in Islam (Allah). In the Quran God refers to Himself as Rabb in several places. When it is used with the definite article ‘Ar’ (Ar-Rabb) the Arabic word refers to God. In other cases, context makes it clear as to whom the...

Om or Aum

Om

Om Om or Aum (Oṃ, ॐ) is a sacred sound and a spiritual symbol in Indian religions. It signifies the essence of the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atman. More broadly, it is a syllable that is chanted either independently or before a spiritual recitation in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The meaning and connotations of Om vary between the diverse schools...

Allah's Attributes

Attributes of God in Islam

The Attributes of God in Islam According to the religious methodology or the basic principles of religion, the Attributes of God in Islam consist of certain transcending and blessed concepts—whose transcendence and blessedness come from the Being Whom they describe; these describe God Almighty and are, in one sense, regarded...

Local African ceremony in Benin featuring a zangbeto.

African Traditional Concept of God

African Traditional Concept of God: A critical Analysis ABSTRACT Oneness of God joined its moral vision with the traditional activities, which have opened the way to the triumph of the African traditional religious followers in their expectations of life and spiritual satisfactions. Monotheism’s insistence on the concept of One God...

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Islamic theology

Islamic theology Islamic theology is derived from the expression “Word of God” (Kalām Allāh) found in the Qur’an. The Arabic term Kalām means “speech, word, utterance” among other things. Ilm al-Kalam (عِلْم الكَلام‎, literally “science of discourse”), usually foreshortened to Kalam and sometimes called “Islamic scholastic theology”, is the study of Islamic doctrine (‘aqa’id). It...

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Holy

Holy The word Holy (from Old English: hālig meaning “wholeness”) denotes the presence of sacredness in an object, being, person, place or idea. It can also indicates an experience of numinosity, (from the adjective numenous “all-inspiring” or embued with sacredness). Alternatively, it refer to items set aside for divine liturgies. Holiness, or the state of being holy is...

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