Benjamin Franklin’s Thirteen Virtues
|1.||Temperance: Eat not to dullness. Drink not to elevation.|
|2.||Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Avoid trifling conversation.|
|3.||Order: Let all your things have their places. Let each part of your business have its time.|
|4.||Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform without fail what you resolve.|
|5.||Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself: i.e., Waste nothing.|
|6.||Industry: Lose no time. Be always employed in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary actions.|
|7.||Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit. Think innocently and justly; and if you speak, speak accordingly.|
|8.||Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.|
|9.||Moderation: Avoid extremes. Forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.|
|10.||Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanness in body, clothes, or habitation.|
|11.||Tranquility: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.|
|12.||Chastity: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring; never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another’s peace or reputation.|
|13.||Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.|
It may be well my posterity should be informed that to this little artifice, with the blessing of God, their ancestor ow’d the constant felicity of his life, down to his 79th year, in which this is written.
What reverses may attend the remainder is in the hand of Providence; but, if they arrive, the reflection on past happiness enjoy’d ought to help his bearing them with more resignation.
To Temperance he ascribes his long-continued health, and what is still left to him of a good constitution;
to Industry and Frugality, the early easiness of his circumstances and acquisition of his fortune, with all that knowledge that enabled him to be a useful citizen, and obtained for him some degree of reputation among the learned;
to Sincerity and Justice, the confidence of his country, and the honorable employs it conferred upon him; and to the joint influence of the whole mass of the virtues, even in the imperfect state he was able to acquire them, all that evenness of temper, and that cheerfulness in conversation, which makes his company still sought for, and agreeable even to his younger acquaintance.
I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit.
In this piece it was my design to have endeavored to convince young persons that no qualities were so likely to make a poor man’s fortune as those of probity and integrity.
My list of virtues contain’d at first but twelve; but a Quaker friend having kindly informed me that I was generally thought proud; that my pride show’d itself frequently in conversation; that I was not content with being in the right when discussing any point, but was overbearing, and rather insolent, of which he convinc’d me by mentioning several instances; I determined endeavouring to cure myself, if I could, of this vice or folly among the rest, and I added Humility to my list).
In reality, there is, perhaps, no one of our natural passions so hard to subdue as pride. Disguise it, struggle with it, beat it down, stifle it, mortify it as much as one pleases, it is still alive, and will every now and then peep out and show itself; you will see it, perhaps, often in this history; for, even if I could conceive that I had completely overcome it, I should probably be proud of my humility.
[Thus far written at Passy, 1741]
Benjamin Franklin Jan. 17th, 1706 ~ 1790