Why Hell

Why Hell?

Belief bears the seed of a sort of Paradise experienced by the spirit, while unbelief contains the seed of a sort of Hell, which is again experienced spiritually. Just as unbelief is the seed of Hell, so too, Hell is a fruit of unbelief. As unbelief is the cause of entering Hell, it is also the cause of Hell’s existence and creation. For if there is an insignificant ruler of small dignity, small pride, and small majesty, and an unmannerly one tells him rebelliously, ‘You cannot punish me!’ for sure, if there is no prison in that place, the ruler will have one built for him and will cast him in it. However, by denying Hell the unbeliever contradicts the infinitely Powerful One, Who has infinite dignity, glory and majesty, and is infinitely great, and is accusing Him of impotence and lying, he is severely insulting His honor and dignity, and offending His pride, glory and majesty in awesome and rebellious manner. Certainly, if to suppose the inconceivable, there was no reason for the existence of Hell, it will be created to punish unbelief, which comprises contradiction of God and insulting Him with impotence to such degree, and such an unbeliever will be cast into it.

 

Why A Living Body Is In Constant Formation And Deformation And Subject To Disintegration

Why A living body is in constant formation and deformation and subject to disintegration; therefore it cannot be eternal. Eating and drinking are for the perpetuation of the individual, and sexual relations are for the perpetuation of the species. These are fundamental to the worldly life but there is no need for them in the world of eternity. So why have they been included in the greatest pleasures of Paradise?

Answer: Firstly, a living body is doomed to decline and death because of the imbalance between what it takes in and what it consumes. From childhood to the age of maturity, what it takes in is more than it expends. Afterwards its expenditure increases until it results in the destruction of the balance and death. In the world of eternity, however, the particles of the body remain constant and are not subject to disintegration and reformation. Or the balance between the body’s income and consumption remains constant.2 Like moving in perpetual cycles, a living body gains eternity together with the constant operation of the factory of bodily life for pleasure. Although in this world eating, drinking and sexual relations between married couples arise from a need and perform a function, a great variety of excellent pleasures are ingrained in them as an immediate wage for the functions performed, which are superior to other pleasures. Since in this world of ailments eating and marriage are means to many wonderful and various pleasures, for sure, in Paradise, which is the realm of happiness and pleasures, those pleasures will take on a most elevated form, and with the addition to them as pleasures of the otherworldly wages for the duties performed in the world and of the need felt for them in the world in the form of a pleasant, otherworldly appetite, they will become an all-encompassing, living source of pleasure, appropriate to Paradise and eternity.

“This life of the world is nothing but a pastime and a game, but the Abode of the Hereafter, it is all living indeed.”

According to the verse, all the lifeless and unconscious substances and objects in this world are living and conscious there. Like human beings and animals here, the trees and stones there will understand commands and carry them out. If you tell a tree to bring you such-and-such a fruit, it will bring it. If you tell a stone to come, it will come. Since stones and trees will take on such an elevated form, for sure and of a necessity, together with preserving their bodily realities, eating, drinking and marital relations also will take on a form as much higher than their worldly forms as Paradise is higher than this world.

 

Where Is Hell

Where is Hell?

According to some narrations, Hell is beneath the earth. As we have explained in other places, in its annual orbit, the globe of the earth traces a circle around an area that in the future will be the place of the Great Gathering and Last Judgement. It means Hell is beneath the area of its orbit. It is invisible and unperceptible because it consists of veiled and lightless fire. In the vast distance traveled by the earth are many creatures that are invisible because they are without light. Like the moon loses its existence when its light withdraws, so we are unable to see numerous lightless globes and creatures, which are before of our eyes.

There are two Hells, the Lesser and the Greater. In the future, the Lesser will be transformed into the Greater and is like its seed; in the future it will become one of its habitations. The Lesser Hell is under the earth, that is, at the earth’s center. It is the inside and center of the globe. It is known in geology that in digging downwards, the heat for the most part increases one degree every thirty-three meters. That means that since half the diameter of the earth is around six thousand kilometers, the fire at the center is at a temperature of around two hundred thousand degrees, that is, two hundred times hotter than fire at the circumference; this is in agreement with what is related by Narrations. This Lesser Hell performs many of the functions of the Greater Hell in this world and Intermediate Realm, and this is indicated in Narrations. Just as in the world of the hereafter, the earth will pour its inhabitants into the arena of the resurrection within its annual orbit, so too at the Divine command will it hand over the Lesser Hell within it to the Greater Hell.

Some of Learned people said that “Hell will be created later,” but this is mistaken and foolish, and arises from Hell not having completely opened up at the present time and developed into a form entirely appropriate to its inhabitants. In order to see with our worldly eyes the dwelling places of the world of the hereafter within the veil of the Unseen and to demonstrate them, either the universe has to be shrunk to the size of two provinces, or our eyes have to be enlarged to the size of stars, so that we can see and specify their places. God knows best, the dwelling-places of the hereafter are not visible to our worldly eyes, but as indicated by certain narrations, the Hell of the hereafter is connected with our world. In a Narration it is said of the intense heat of summer, “It gives an inkling of Hell.” That is to say, that Greater Hell is not visible to the tiny and dim eyes of the minds of this world. However, we may look with the light of the Divine Name of the All Wise, as follows:

The Greater Hell beneath the earth’s annual orbit has as though made the Lesser Hell at the earth’s center its deputy and made it perform some of its functions. The possessions of the All-Powerful One of Glory are truly extensive; wherever Divine wisdom pointed out, He situated the Greater Hell there. Yes, an All-Powerful One of Glory, an All-Wise One of Perfection Who is owner of the command of ‘Be!’ and it is has tied the moon to the earth before our eyes in perfect wisdom and order, and with vast power and perfect order tied the earth to the sun, and has made the sun travel together with its planets with a speed close to that of the annual rotation of the earth, and with the majesty of His dominicality, according to one possibility, made it travel towards the sun of suns, and like a fleet decked out with electric lights has made the stars luminous witnesses to the sovereignty of His dominicality. It is not far from the perfect wisdom, tremendous power, and sovereignty of dominicality of one thus the All-Glorious to make the Greater Hell like the boiler of an electric light factory and with it set fire to the stars of the heavens which look to the hereafter, and give them heat and power. That is, give light to the stars from Paradise, the world of light, and send them fire and heat from Hell, and at the same time, make part of that Hell a habitation and place of imprisonment for those who are to be tormented. Furthermore, He is the All Wise Creator Who conceals a tree as large as a mountain in a seed the size of a fingernail. It is surely not far then from the power and wisdom of such an All-Glorious One to conceal the Greater Hell in the seed of the Lesser Hell in the heart of the earth.

In Short: Paradise and Hell are the two fruits of a branch of the tree of creation, which stretches out towards eternity. The fruits’ place is at the branch’s tip. And they are the two results of the chain of the universe; and the places of the results are the two sides of the chain. The base and heavy are on its lower side, the luminous and elevated on its upper side. They are also the two stores of this flood of events and the immaterial produce of the earth. And the place of a store is according to the variety of the produce, the bad beneath, the good above. They are also the two pools of the flood of beings, which flows in waves towards eternity. As for the pool’s place, it is where the flood stops and gathers. That is, the obscene and filthy below, the good and the pure above. They are also the two places of manifestation, the one of beneficence and mercy, the other of wrath and tremendousness. Places of manifestation may be anywhere; the All-Merciful One of Beauty, the All-Compelling One of Glory, establishes His places of manifestation where He wishes.

As for the existence of Paradise and Hell, they have been proved most decisively in other Q & A sections. Here, we only say this: the existence of the fruit is as definite and certain as that of the branch; the result as the chain; the store as the produce; the pool as the river; and the places of manifestation as definite and certain as the existence of mercy and wrath.

“Say: the knowledge is with God alone…. None knows the Unseen save God.”

 

Punishment varies according to the one who committed the crim

Punishment varies according to the one who committed the crim

Punishment varies according to the one who committed the crimThe punishment for breaching a trust is proportional to the significance of the trust and its true owner. The punishment given to a child who has broken the window of an ordinary building is not like that of the aide-de-camp of a king who has lost or broken the crown of the king. If, again, a private and an army commander spent the capital that was given to each according to his rank on petty things and wasted it away, the commander would certainly be tried at a court-martial and sentenced to a much greater punishment than the private. Likewise, if a scientist responsible for carrying out scientific investigations behaved like a shepherd and spent the resources assigned to his investigations on trifling things, certainly he would not be treated the same as a shepherd who spent resources assigned to him for feeding sheep to meet his own needs.

Animals spend the capital of life assigned for them in the world without any misuse or waste; they fulfill whatever they must: some carry burdens, some give milk and meat, and still some others produce things like honey or silk for the use of human beings. It is only man that may spend whatever is given to him in either the right or the wrong way. So, despite being the most honored of beings endowed with many faculties like conscience, intellect, consciousness, memory, and powers of thinking and reasoning, as well as with numerous inner and outer senses and feelings, if man wastes all these faculties, senses and feelings, he will certainly deserve a severe punishment. Particularly, if he lets his evil-commanding self dominate over his heart, which must overflow with knowledge and love of the Creator, he will undoubtedly be reduced to being a kind of fuel for Hell whose fuel is of men and stones.

 

Punishment is judged according to the nature of the crime

Punishment is judged according to the nature of the crime

Punishment is judged according to the nature and result of the crime and the intention of the criminal in committing it, not to how long it took the criminal to commit the act.

The punishment of murder, which in most cases takes five minutes or even seconds, ranges from imprisonment for many years or for life to death. What is considered here is the nature and result of the crime, not the duration of its committal. Unbelief is infinitely graver than murder. If you accuse a truthful, innocent one of lying and deception, he will be very angry with you. Likewise, unbelief means the denial of the true testimony of innumerable creatures, from atoms to huge galaxies, to the existence and Unity of their Creator, and accusing them of lying or false testimony. Again, unbelief is the denial of God, Who is the Unique Creator, Sustainer and Administrator of the whole of existence, and degradation of His innumerable works of art. Unbelief is also an accusation of more than one hundred thousand Messengers, who, according to the testimony of history and the people of each, are the most truthful of humankind, of the most abased form of lying, deception and trickery. Again, unbelief means accusing the followers of the Messengers of following the greatest tricksters of human history. It is also is an insult to and accusation of deception and deviation against innumerable believing men from the time of Adam. For all these and other similar reasons, it is pure justice to condemn unbelief to the eternal punishment of Hell.

 

Hell By Wiki

Hell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Hortus_Deliciarum_-_Hell.jpg/250px-Hortus_Deliciarum_-_Hell.jpgIn many religious traditions, hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions locate hell under the Earth‘s external surface and often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory, Paradise, and Limbo.

Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of p unishment or reward, merely describe hell as an abode of the dead, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth (for example, see sheol and Hades). Modern understandings of hells often depict them abstractly, as a state of loss rather than as fiery torture literally underground, but this view of the concept of a hell can, in fact, be traced back into the ancient and medieval periods as well. Hell is sometimes portrayed as populated with demons who torment those dwelling there. Many are ruled by a death god such as Nergal, Hades, Enma or the Christian and Islamic Devil (Satan or Lucifer). In Islam, the Devil does not actually reside in Hell.

Etymology and Germanic mythology

The modern English word Hell is derived from Old English hel, helle (about 725 AD to refer to a nether world of the dead) reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period, and ultimately from Proto-Germanic *halja, meaning “one who covers up or hides something”.[1] The word has cognates in related Germanic languages such as Old Frisian helle, hille, Old Saxon hellja, Middle Dutch helle (modern Dutch hel), Old High German helle (Modern German Hölle), Danish, Norwegian and Swedish “helvede”/helvete (hel + Old Norse vitti, “punishment” whence the Icelandic víti “hell”), and Gothic halja.[1] Subsequently, the word was used to transfer a pagan concept to Christian theology and its vocabulary[1] (however, for the Judeo-Christian origin of the concept see Gehenna).

The English word hell has been theorized as being derived from Old Norse hel[1] but the cognate does appear in all the other languages and has a Proto-Germanic origin.[2] Among other sources, the Poetic Edda, compiled from earlier traditional sources in the 13th century, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, provide information regarding the beliefs of the Norse pagans, including a being named Hel, who is described as ruling over an underworld location of the same name. This is envisioned as a “misty” place (rather than the fire envisioned by Christianity and Islam) where go all women and in addition, some men. Punishment for wrong deeds is not mentioned.

Religion, mythology, and folklore

Hell appears in several mythologies and religions. It is commonly inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is often depicted in art and literature, perhaps most famously in Dante‘s Divine Comedy.

Punishments

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/Hell-fresco-from-Raduil.jpg/220px-Hell-fresco-from-Raduil.jpgPunishment in Hell typically corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed (see for example Plato’s myth of Er or Dante’s The Divine Comedy), but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering.

In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is traditionally depicted as fiery and painful, inflicting guilt and suffering.[3][specify] Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Bud dhist – and particularly Tibetan Buddhist – descriptions of hell feature an equal number of hot and cold hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante‘s Inferno portrays the innermost (9th) circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.[4] But cold also played a part in earlier Christian depictions of hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul, originally from the early third century;[5] the “Vision of Dryhthelm” by the Venerable Bede from the seventh century;[6]St Patrick’s Purgatory“, “The Vision of Tundale” or “Visio Tnugdali“, and the “Vision of the Monk of Enysham”, all from the twelfth century;[7] and the “Vision of Thurkill” from the early thirteenth century.[8]

Polytheism

Ancient Egypt

With the rise of the cult of Osiris during the Middle Kingdom the “democratization of religion” offered to even his humblest followers the prospect of eternal life, with moral fitness becoming the dominant factor in determining a person’s suitability. At death a person faced judgment by a tribunal of forty-two divine judges. If they led a life in conformance with the precepts of the Goddess Maat, who represented truth and right living, the person was welcomed into the Two Fields. If found guilty the person was thrown to a “devourer” and didn’t share in eternal life.[9] The person who is taken by the devourer is subject first to terrifying punishment and then annihilated. These depictions of punishment may have influenced medieval perceptions of the inferno in hell via early Christian and Coptic texts.[10] Purification for those who are considered justified may be found in the descriptions of “Flame Island”, where they experience the triumph over evil and rebirth. For the dammed complete destruction into a state of non being awaits but there is no suggestion of eternal torture; the weighing of the heart in Egyptian Mythology can lead to annihilation.[11][12] Divine pardon at judgement was always a central concern for the Ancient Egyptians.[13]

Modern undertsanding of Egyptian notions of hell is based on six ancient texts: The Book of Two Ways (Book of the Ways of Rosetau), The Book of Amduat (Book of the Hidden Room, Book of That Which Is in the Underworld), The Book of Gates, The Book of the Dead (Book of Going Forth by Day), The Book of the Earth and The Book of Caverns.[14]

Ancient Near East

The cultures of Mesopotamia (including Sumeria, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia and Assyria), the Hittites and the Canaanites/Ugarits reveal some of the earliest evidence for the notion of a Netherworld or Underworld. From among the few texts that survive from these civilizations, this evidence appears in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the “Descent of Inanna to the Netherworld,” “Baal and the Underworld,” the “Descent of Ishtar” and the “Vision of Kummâ.”[15]

Greek

In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). It is either a deep, gloomy place, a pit or abyss used as a dungeon of torment and suffering that resides within Hades (the entire underworld) with Tartarus being the hellish component. In the Gorgias, Plato (c. 400 BC) wrote that souls were judged after death and those who received punishment were sent to Tartarus. As a place of punishment, it can be considered a hell. The classic Hades, on the other hand, is more similar to Old Testament Sheol.

Europe

The hells of Europe include Breton Mythology’s “Anaon”, Celtic Mythology‘s “Uffern“, Slavic mythology‘s “Peklo”, the hell of Sami mythology and Finnish “tuonela” (“manala”).

Asia

The hells of Asia include Bagobo Mythology’s “Gimokodan” and Ancient Indian mythology‘s “Kalichi”.

Africa

African hells include Haida Mythology’s “Hetgwauge” and the hell of Swahili Mythology (kuzimu). Serer religion rejects the general notion of heaven and hell.[16] In Serer religion, acceptance by the ancestors who have long departed is as close to heaven. Rejection and becoming a wandering soul is as close to hell after one passes over. The souls of the dead must make their way to Jaaniw (the sacred dwelling place of the soul). Only those who have lived their lives on earth in accordance with Serer doctrines will be able to make this necessary journey and thus accepted by the ancestors. Those who can’t make the journey become lost and wandering souls, but they do not burn in “hell fire”.[16][17]

Oceania

The Oceanic hells include Samoan Mythology’s “O le nu’u-o-nonoa” and the hells of Bangka Mythology and Caroline Islands Mythology.

Native American

The hells of the Americas include Aztec Mythology‘s “Mictlan”, Inuit mythology‘s “Adlivun” and Yanomamo Mythology’s “Shobari Waka”. In Maya mythology, Xibalbá is the dangerous underworld of nine levels ruled by the demons Vucub Caquix and Hun Came. The road into and out of it is said to be steep, thorny and very forbidding. Metnal is the lowest and most horrible of the nine Hells of the underworld, ruled by Ah Puch. Ritual healers would intone healing prayers banishing diseases to Metnal. Much of the Popol Vuh describes the adventures of the Maya Hero Twins in their cunning struggle with the evil lords of Xibalbá.

The Aztecs believed that the dead traveled to Mictlan, a neutral place found far to the north. There was also a legend of a place of white flowers, which was always dark, and was home to the gods of death, particularly Mictlantecutli and his spouse Mictlantecihuatl, which means literally “lords of Mictlan”. The journey to Mictlan took four years, and the travelers had to overcome difficult tests, such as passing a mountain range where the mountains crashed into each other, a field where the wind carried flesh-scraping knives, and a river of blood with fearsome jaguars.

Abrahamic

Judaism

Early Judaism had no concept of Hell, though the concept of an afterlife was introduced during the Hellenic period, apparently from neighboring Hellenistic religions. It occurs for example in Book of Daniel. Daniel 12:2 proclaims “And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Some to everlasting life, Some to shame and everlasting contempt.” Judaism does not have a specific doctrine about the afterlife, but it does have a mystical/Orthodox tradition of describing Gehenna. Gehenna is not Hell, but originally a grave and in later times a sort of Purgatory where one is judged based on one’s life’s deeds, or rather, where one becomes fully aware of one’s own shortcomings and negative actions during one’s life. The Kabbalah explains it as a “waiting room” (commonly translated as an “entry way”) for all souls (not just the wicked). The overwhelming majority of rabbinic thought maintains that people are not in Gehenna forever; the longest that one can be there is said to be 12 months, however there has been the occasional noted exception. Some consider it a spiritual forge where the soul is purified for its eventual ascent to Olam Habah (heb. עולם הבא; lit. “The world to come”, often viewed as analogous to Heaven). This is also mentioned in the Kabbalah, where the soul is described as breaking, like the flame of a candle lighting another: the part of the soul that ascends being pure and the “unfinished” piece being reborn.

According to Jewish teachings, hell is not entirely physical; rather, it can be compared to a very intense feeling of shame. People are ashamed of their misdeeds and this constitutes suffering which makes up for the bad deeds. When one has so deviated from the will of God, one is said to be in gehinom. This is not meant to refer to some point in the future, but to the very present moment. The gates of teshuva (return) are said to be always open, and so one can align his will with that of God at any moment. Being out of alignment with God’s will is itself a punishment according to the Torah.

Christianity

The Christian doctrine of hell derives from the teaching of the New Testament, where hell is typically described using the Greek words Tartarus or Hades or the Arabic word Gehenna.

Hebrew OT

Septuagint

Greek NT

times in NT

Vulgate

KJV

NIV

Sheol[18]

Hades

Hades[19]

x10

infernus[20]

Hell

Hades

Ge Hinom[21]

Ennom[22]

Gehenna[23]

x11

infernus

Hell

Hell

tartaro[24]

x1

infernus

Hell

Hell

These three terms have different meanings and must be recognized.

  • Hades has similarities to the Old Testament term, Sheol as “the place of the dead”. Thus, it is used in reference to both the righteous and the wicked, since both wind up there eventually.[25]
  • Gehenna refers to the “Valley of Hinnon”, which was a garbage dump outside of Jerusalem. It was a place where people burned their garbage and thus there was always a fire burning there. Bodies of those deemed to have died in sin without hope of salvation (such as people who committed suicide) were thrown there to be destroyed.[26] Gehenna is used in the New Testament as a metaphor for the final place of punishment for the wicked after the resurrection.[27]
  • Tartaro (the verb “throw to Tartarus“) occurs only once in the New Testament in II Peter 2:4, where it is parallel to the use of the noun form in 1 Enoch as the place of incarceration of 200 fallen angels. It mentions nothing about human souls being sent there in the afterlife.

In many Christian churches, such as the Catholic Church, most Protestant churches (such as the Baptists, Episcopalians, etc.), and some Greek Orthodox churches,[28] Hell is taught as the final destiny of those who have not been found worthy after they have passed through the great white throne of judgment,[29][30] where they will be punished for sin and permanently separated from God after the general resurrection and last judgment. The nature of this judgment is inconsistent with many Protestant churches teaching the saving comes from accepting Jesus Christ as their savior, while the Greek Orthodox and Catholic Churches teach that the judgment hinges on both faith and works. However, many Liberal Christians throughout Liberal Protestant, Anglican and some Orthodox churches believe in Universal Reconciliation (see below) even though it might contradict more evangelical views in their denomination.[31]

Some modern Christian theologians subscribe to the doctrines of Conditional Immortality. Conditional Immortality is the belief that the soul dies with the body and does not live again until the resurrection. This is the view held by a few Christian sects such as the Living Church of God, The Church of God International, and Seventh Day Adventist Church.

Annihilationism is the belief that the soul is mortal unless granted eternal life, making it possible to be destroyed in Hell.

Jehovah’s Witnesses hold that the soul ceases to exist when the person dies[32] and therefore that Hell (Sheol or Hades) is a state of non-existence.[32] In their theology, Gehenna differs from Sheol or Hades in that it holds no hope of a resurrection.[32] Tatarus is held to be the metaphorical state of debasement of the fallen angels between the time of their moral fall (Genesis chapter 6) until their post-millennial destruction along with Satan (Revelation chapter 20).[33]

Universal Reconciliation is the belief that all human souls (and even Demons) will be eventually reconciled with God and admitted to Heaven. This view is held by some Unitarian-Universalists.[34][35][36]

According to Emanuel Swedenborg’s Second Coming Christian revelation, hell exists because evil people want it.[37] They, not God, introduced evil to the human race.[38]

Islam

Prophet Muhammad, along with Buraq and Gabriel, visit Hell, and see “shameless women” being eternally punished for exposing their hair to the sight of strangers. Persian, 15th century.

Muslims believe in jahannam (in Arabic: جهنم) (which is related to the Hebrew word gehinnom and resembles the versions of Hell in Christianity). In the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, there are literal descriptions of the condemned in a fiery Hell, as contrasted to the garden-like Paradise (jannah) enjoyed by righteous believers.

In addition, Heaven and Hell are split into many different levels depending on the actions perpetrated in life, where punishment is given depending on the level of evil done in life, and good is separated into other levels depending on how well one followed God while alive. The gate of Hell is guarded by Maalik who is the leader of the angels assigned as the guards of hell also known as Zabaaniyah.

Although generally Hell is often portrayed as a hot steaming and tormenting place for sinners, there is one Hell pit which is characterized differently from the other Hell in Islamic tradition. Zamhareer is the Hell of extreme coldness, of unbearable blizzards, ice, and snow.

The lowest pit of Hell is Hawiyah, meant for those hypocrites who claimed aloud to believe in Allah and His messenger but denounced both in their hearts. Hypocrisy is considered to be one of the most dangerous sins, along with shirk.[citation needed]

Bahá’í Faith

In the Bahá’í Faith, the conventional descriptions of Hell and Heaven are considered to be symbolic representations of spiritual conditions. The Bahá’í writings describe closeness to God to be heaven, and conversely, remoteness from God is hell.[39]

Eastern

Buddhism

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Ngaye_%28Naraka%29_in_Burmese_art.jpg/220px-Ngaye_%28Naraka%29_in_Burmese_art.jpg

 

Naraka in the Burmese representation

In “Devaduta Sutta”, the 130th discourse of the Majjhima Nikaya, Buddha teaches about the hell in vivid detail. Buddhism teaches that there are five (sometimes six) realms of rebirth, which can then be further subdivided into degrees of agony or pleasure. Of these realms, the hell realms, or Naraka, is the lowest realm of rebirth. Of the hell realms, the worst is Avīci or “endless suffering”. The Buddha’s disciple, Devadatta, who tried to kill the Buddha on three occasions, as well as create a schism in the monastic order, is said to have been reborn in the Avici Hell.

However, like all realms of rebirth, rebirth in the Hell realms is not permanent, though suffering can persist for eons before being reborn again. In the Lotus Sutra, the Buddha teaches that eventually even Devadatta will become a Pratyekabuddha himself, emphasizing the temporary nature of the Hell realms. Thus, Buddhism teaches to escape the endless migration of rebirths (both positive and negative) through the attainment of Nirvana.

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha, according to the Ksitigarbha Sutra, made a great vow as a young girl to not reach Enlightenment until all beings were liberated from the Hell Realms or other unwholesome rebirths. In popular literature, Ksitigarbha travels to the Hell realms to teach and relieve beings of their suffering.

Hinduism

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Yama%27s_Court_and_Hell.jpg/220px-Yama%27s_Court_and_Hell.jpg

 

Yama’s Court and Hell. The Blue figure is Yamaraja (The Hindu god of death) with his consort Yami and Chitragupta
17th century Painting from Government Museum,
Chennai.

Early Vedic religion doesn’t have a concept of Hell. Ṛg-veda mentions three realms, bhūr (the earth), svar (the sky) and bhuvas or antarikṣa (the middle area, i.e. air or atmosphere)). In later Hindu literature, especially the law books and Puranas, more realms are mentioned, including a realm similar to Hell, called naraka (in Devanāgarī: नरक). Yama as first born human (together with his twin sister Yamī) in virtue of precedence becomes ruler of men and a judge on their departure. Originally he resides in Heaven, but later, especially medieval traditions, mention his court in naraka.

In the law-books (smṛtis and dharma-sūtras, like the Manu-smṛti) naraka is a place of punishment for sins. It is a lower spiritual plane (called naraka-loka) where the spirit is judged, or partial fruits of karma affected in a next life. In Mahabharata there is a mention of the Pandavas and the Kauravas both going to Heaven.At first Yudhisthir goes to heaven where he sees Duryodhana enjoying in heaven,Indra tells him Duryodhana is in heaven as he did his Kshatriya duties,then he shows Yudhisthir hell where it appears his brothers are but later its revealed it was a test for Yudhisthir and his brothers and Kauravas both are in heaven and both live happily in divine abode of gods.Hells are also described in various Puranas and other scriptures. Garuda Purana gives a detailed account of Hell, its features and enlists amount of punishment for most of the crimes like a modern day penal code.

It is believed that people who commit sins go to Hell and have to go through punishments in accordance with the sins they committed. The god Yamarāja, who is also the god of death, presides over Hell. Detailed accounts of all the sins committed by an individual are kept by Chitragupta, who is the record keeper in Yama’s court. Chitragupta reads out the sins committed and Yama orders appropriate punishments to be given to individuals. These punishments include dipping in boiling oil, burning in fire, torture using various weapons, etc. in various Hells. Individuals who finish their quota of the punishments are reborn in accordance with their balance of karma. All created beings are imperfect and thus have at least one sin to their record; but if one has generally led a pious life, one ascends to svarga, a temporary realm of enjoinment similar to Paradise, after a brief period of expiation in Hell and before the next reincarnation according to the law of karma.

Jainism

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Seven_Jain_Hells.jpg/220px-Seven_Jain_Hells.jpg17th century cloth painting depicting seven levels of Jain hell and various tortures suffered in them. Left panel depicts the demi-god and his animal vehicle presiding over the each hell.

In Jain cosmology, Naraka (translated as hell) is the name given to realm of existence having great suffering. However, a Naraka differs from the hells of Abrahamic religions as souls are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment and punishment. Furthermore, length of a being’s stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is usually very long—measured in billions of years. A soul is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma (actions of body, speech and mind), and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. After his karma is used up, he may be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened.

The hells are situated in the seven grounds at the lower part of the universe. The seven grounds are:

  1. Ratna prabha
  2. Sharkara prabha.
  3. Valuka prabha.
  4. Panka prabha.
  5. Dhuma prabha.
  6. Tamaha prabha.
  7. Mahatamaha prabha.

The hellish beings are a type of souls which are residing in these various hells. They are born in hells by sudden manifestation.[40] The hellish beings possess vaikriya body (protean body which can transform itself and take various forms). They have a fixed life span (ranging from ten thousand to billions of years) in the respective hells where they reside. According to Jain scripture, Tattvarthasutra, following are the causes for birth in hell:[41]

  1. Killing or causing pain with intense passion.
  2. Excessive attachment to things and worldly pleasure with constantly indulging in cruel and violent acts.
  3. Vowless and unrestrained life.[42]

Taoism

Ancient Taoism had no concept of Hell, as morality was seen to be a man-made distinction and there was no concept of an immaterial soul. In its home country China, where Taoism adopted tenets of other religions, popular belief endows Taoist Hell with many deities and spirits who punish sin in a variety of horrible ways. This is also considered Karma for Taoism.

Chinese folk beliefs

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/ROM-ChineseGallery-DemonSculpture.png/170px-ROM-ChineseGallery-DemonSculpture.png

 

A Chinese glazed earthenware sculpture of “Hell’s torturer,” 16th century, Ming Dynasty

Diyu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 地獄; pinyin: Dìyù; Wade–Giles: Ti-yü; Japanese: 地獄, jigoku; literally “earth prison”) is the realm of the dead in Chinese mythology. It is very loosely based upon the Buddhist concept of Naraka combined with traditional Chinese afterlife beliefs and a variety of popular expansions and re-interpretations of these two traditions. Ruled by Yanluo Wang, the King of Hell, Diyu is a maze of underground levels and chambers where souls are taken to atone for their earthly sins.

Incorporating ideas from Taoism and Buddhism as well as traditional Chinese folk religion, Diyu is a kind of purgatory place which serves not only to punish but also to renew spirits ready for their next incarnation. There are many deities associated with the place, whose names and purposes are the subject of much conflicting information.

The exact number of levels in Chinese Hell – and their associated deities – differs according to the Buddhist or Taoist perception. Some speak of three to four ‘Courts’, other as many as ten. The ten judges are also known as the 10 Kings of Yama. Each Court deals with a different aspect of atonement. For example, murder is punished in one Court, adultery in another. According to some Chinese legends, there are eighteen levels in Hell. Punishment also varies according to belief, but most legends speak of highly imaginative chambers where wrong-doers are sawn in half, beheaded, thrown into pits of filth or forced to climb trees adorned with sharp blades.

However, most legends agree that once a soul (usually referred to as a ‘ghost’) has atoned for their deeds and repented, he or she is given the Drink of Forgetfulness by Meng Po and sent back into the world to be reborn, possibly as an animal or a poor or sick person, for further punishment.

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism has historically suggested several possible fates for the wicked, including annihilation, purgation in molten metal, and eternal punishment, all of which have standing in Zoroaster’s writings. Zoroastrian eschatology includes the belief that wicked souls will remain in hell until, following the arrival of three saviors at thousand-year intervals, Ahura Mazda reconciles the world, destroying evil and resurrecting tormented souls to perfection.[43]

The sacred Gathas mention a “House of the Lie″ for those “that are of an evil dominion, of evil deeds, evil words, evil Self, and evil thought, Liars.”[44] However, the best-known Zoroastrian text to describe hell in detail is the Book of Arda Viraf.[45] It depicts particular punishments for particular sins—for instance, being trampled by cattle as punishment for neglecting the needs of work animals.[46] Other descriptions can be found in the Book of Scriptures (Hadhokht Nask), Religious Judgments (Dadestan-i Denig) and the Book of the Judgments of the Spirit of Wisdom (Mainyo-I-Khard).[47]

Literature

In his Divina commedia (“Divine comedy”; set in the year 1300), Dante Alighieri employed the concept of taking Virgil as his guide through Inferno (and then, in the second canticle, up the mountain of Purgatorio). Virgil himself is not condemned to Hell in Dante’s poem but is rather, as a virtuous pagan, confined to Limbo just at the edge of Hell. The geography of Hell is very elaborately laid out in this work, with nine concentric rings leading deeper into the Earth and deeper into the various punishments of Hell, until, at the center of the world, Dante finds Satan himself trapped in the frozen lake of Cocytus. A small tunnel leads past Satan and out to the other side of the world, at the base of the Mount of Purgatory.

John Milton‘s Paradise Lost (1667) opens with the fallen angels, including their leader Satan, waking up in Hell after having been defeated in the war in heaven and the action returns there at several points throughout the poem. Milton portrays Hell as the abode of the demons, and the passive prison from which they plot their revenge upon Heaven through the corruption of the human race. 19th century French poet Arthur Rimbaud alluded to the concept as well in the title and themes of one of his major works, A Season In Hell. Rimbaud’s poetry portrays his own suffering in a poetic form as well as other themes.

Many of the great epics of European literature include episodes that occur in Hell. In the Roman poet Virgil‘s Latin epic, the Aeneid, Aeneas descends into Dis (the underworld) to visit his father’s spirit. The underworld is only vaguely described, with one unexplored path leading to the punishments of Tartarus, while the other leads through Erebus and the Elysian Fields.

The idea of Hell was highly influential to writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre who authored the 1944 play “No Exit” about the idea that “Hell is other people”. Although not a religious man, Sartre was fascinated by his interpretation of a Hellish state of suffering. C.S. Lewis‘s The Great Divorce (1945) borrows its title from William Blake‘s Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1793) and its inspiration from the Divine Comedy as the narrator is likewise guided through Hell and Heaven. Hell is portrayed here as an endless, desolate twilight city upon which night is imperceptibly sinking. The night is actually the Apocalypse, and it heralds the arrival of the demons after their judgment. Before the night comes, anyone can escape Hell if they leave behind their former selves and accept Heaven’s offer, and a journey to Heaven reveals that Hell is infinitely small; it is nothing more or less than what happens to a soul that turns away from God and into itself.

Piers Anthony in his series Incarnations of Immortality portrays examples of Heaven and Hell via Death, Fate, Nature, War, Time, Good-God, and Evil-Devil. Robert A. Heinlein offers a yin-yang version of Hell where there is still some good within; most evident in his book Job: A Comedy of Justice. Lois McMaster Bujold uses her five Gods ‘Father, Mother, Son, Daughter and Bastard’ in The Curse of Chalion with an example of Hell as formless chaos. Michael Moorcock is one of many who offer Chaos-Evil-(Hell) and Uniformity-Good-(Heaven) as equally unacceptable extremes which must be held in balance; in particular in the Elric and Eternal Champion series. Fredric Brown wrote a number of fantasy short stories about Satan’s activities in Hell. Cartoonist Jimmy Hatlo created a series of cartoons about life in Hell called The Hatlo Inferno, which ran from 1953 to 1958.[48]

Biblical words translated as “Hell”

Abaddon

The Hebrew word Abaddon, meaning “destruction”, is sometimes used as a synonym of Hell.[49]

Gehenna

In the New Testament, both early (i.e. the KJV) and modern translations often translate Gehenna as “Hell.”[50] Young’s Literal Translation is one notable exception, simply using “Gehenna”, which was in fact a geographic location just outside Jerusalem (the Valley of Hinnom).

Hades

Hades is the Greek word traditionally used for the Hebrew word Sheol in such works as the Septuagint, the Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible. Like other first-century Jews literate in Greek, Christian writers of the New Testament followed this use. While earlier translations most often translated Hades as “hell”, as does the King James Version, modern translations use the transliteration “Hades”,[51] or render the word as allusions “to the grave”,[52] “among the dead”,[53] “place of the dead”[54] and many other like statements in other verses. In Latin, Hades could be translated as Purgatorium (Purgatory in English use) after about 1200 A.D.,[55] but no modern English translations Hades to Purgatory. See Intermediate state.

Infernus

The Latin word infernus means “being underneath” and is often translated as “Hell”.

Sheol

In the King James Bible, the Old Testament term Sheol is translated as “Hell” 31 times.[56] However, Sheol was translated as “the grave” 31 other times.[57] Sheol is also translated as “the pit” three times.[58]

Modern translations, however, do not translate Sheol as “Hell” at all, instead rendering it “the grave,” “the pit,” or “death.” See Intermediate state.

Tartarus

Appearing only in II Peter 2:4 in the New Testament, both early and modern translations often translate Tartarus as “Hell.” Again, Young’s Literal Translation is an exception, using “Tartarus”.

References

1.       ^ a b c d Barnhart, Robert K. (1995) The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology, page 348. Harper Collins ISBN 0062700847

2.       ^ Etymonline.com

3.       ^ Numerous verses in the Qu’ran and New Testament.

4.       ^ Alighieri, Dante (June 2001 (orig. trans. 1977)) [c. 1315]. “Cantos XXXI-XXXIV”. Inferno. trans. John Ciardi (2 ed.). New York: Penguin.

5.       ^ Eileen Gardiner, Visions of Heaven and Hell Before Dante (New York, Italica Press, 1989), p. 43.

6.       ^ Gardiner, Visions, pp. 58 and 61.

7.       ^ Gardiner, Visions, pp. 141, 160 and 174, and 206–7.

8.       ^ Gardiner, Visions, pp. 222 and 232.

9.       ^ Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt”, Rosalie David, p158-159, Penguin, 2002, ISBN 0-14-0262252-0

10.    ^ ”The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology: The Oxford Guide”, “Hell”, p161-162, Jacobus Van Dijk, Berkley Reference, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X

11.    ^ ”The Divine Verdict”, John Gwyn Griffiths, p233, BRILL, 1991, ISBN 9004092315

12.    ^ see also letter by Prof. Griffith to “The Independent”, 32 December 1993 [1]

13.    ^ “Egyptian Religion”, Jan Assman, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, p77, vol2, Wm. B Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, ISBN 90041 16958

14.    ^ Hell-on-line.org

15.    ^ Hell-on-line.org

16.    ^ a b (French) Thiaw, Issa Laye, “La religiosité des Seereer, avant et pendant leur islamisation”, [in] Éthiopiques, no. 54, volume 7, 2e semestre 1991

17.    ^ (French) Gravrand, Henry, “La civilisation sereer, vol. II : Pangool, Nouvelles éditions africaines, Dakar, 1990, pp 91-128, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 (Jaaniw, variation : “Jaaniiw”)

18.    ^ Sheol: 1Mos 37:35, 42:38, 44:29, 44:31,

19.    ^ Hades: Mat.11:23 16:18 Luk.10:15. Ap.2:27,31. 1Kor 15:55.Upp.1:18 6:8 20:13,14

20.    ^ Lewis & Short Inferus

21.    ^ גֵיא בֶן־הִנֹּם Hinnom: Jer.19:6

22.    ^ LXX πολυάνδριον υἱοῦ Εννομ

23.    ^ Gehenna: Mat.5:22,29,30, 10:28, 18:09, 23:15,33. Mar. 9:43,45,47, Luk.12:05, Jak.3:6.

24.    ^ tartaro – verb: throw down to Tartarus, used of the fall of the Titans

25.    ^ Unger, Merrill F. (1981). Unger’s Bible Dictionary. Chicago: Moody Bible Institute, The. pp. 467.

26.    ^ The New Schaf-Herzog Encyclopedia of religious Knowledge pg. 415

27.    ^ The New Schaf-Herzog Encyclopedia of religious Knowledge pgs. 414-415

28.    ^ See Kallistos Ware, “Dare we hope for the salvation of all?” in The Inner Kingdom: Volume 1 of the Collected Works

29.    ^ Revelation 20:11

30.    ^ Romans 6:23

31.    ^ Gooden, Joe (2000-04-04). “Hell – it’s about to get hotter”. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/699929.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-30.

32.    ^ a b c “What Does the Bible Really Teach?”, 2005, Published by Jehovah’s Witnesses

33.    ^ “Insight on the scriptures, Volume 2”, 1988, Published by Jehovah’s Witnesses.

34.    ^ New Bible Dictionary, “Hell”, InterVarsity Press, 1996.

35.    ^ New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, “Hell”, InterVarsity Press, 2000.

36.    ^ Evangelical Alliance Commission on Truth and Unity Among Evangelicals, The Nature of Hell, Paternoster, 2000.

37.    ^ Swedenborg, E. Heaven and its Wonders and Hell From Things Heard and Seen(Swedenborg Foundation, 1946 #545ff.)

38.    ^ Swedenborg, E. The True Christian Religion Containing the Universal Theology of The New Church Foretold by the Lord in Daniel 7; 13, 14; and in Revelation 21; 1, 2 (Swedenborg Foundation, 1946, #489ff.).

39.    ^ Masumian, Farnaz (1995). Life After Death: A study of the afterlife in world religions. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-074-8.

40.    ^ Sanghvi, Sukhlal (1974) (in English trans. by K. K. Dixit). Commentary on Tattvārthasūtra of Vācaka Umāsvāti. Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute of Indology. pp. 107

41.    ^ Sanghvi, Sukhlal (1974) pp.250-52

42.    ^ refer Mahavrata for the vows and restraints in Jainism

43.    ^ Meredith Sprunger. “An Introduction to Zoroastrianism”. http://www.ubfellowship.org/archive/readers/601_zoroastrianism.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-10.

44.    ^ Yasna 49:11, “Avesta: Yasna”. http://www.avesta.org/yasna/y47to50b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-11.

45.    ^ Eileen Gardiner (2006-02-10). “About Zoroastrian Hell”. http://www.hell-on-line.org/AboutZOR.html#The%20Fate%20of%20the%20Soul. Retrieved 2008-10-10.

46.    ^ Chapter 75, “The Book of Arda Viraf”. http://www.avesta.org/pahlavi/viraf.html. Retrieved 2008-10-10.

47.    ^ Eileen Gardiner (2009-01-18). “Zoroastrian Hell Texts”. http://www.hell-on-line.org/TextsZOR.html#The%20Fate%20of%20the%20Soul. Retrieved 2010-08-24.

48.    ^ Sample Hatlo Inferno comic:

49.    ^ Roget’s Thesaurus, VI.V.2, “Hell”

50.    ^ Mat. 5:29, Mat. 5:30, Matt. 10:28, Matt. 23:15, Matt. 23:33, Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, Luke 12:5, Matt. 5:22, Matt. 18:9, Jas. 3:6

51.    ^ Acts 2:27, New American Standard Bible

52.    ^ Acts 2:27, New International Version

53.    ^ Acts 2:27, New Living Translation

54.    ^ Luke 16:23, New Living Translation

55.    ^ Catholic for a Reason, edited by Scott Hahn & Leon Suprenant, copyright 1998 by Emmaus Road Publishing, Inc., chapter by Curtis Martin, pg 294-295

56.    ^ Deut. 32:22, Deut. 32:36a & 39, II Sam. 22:6, Job 11:8, Job 26:6, Psalm 9:17, Psalm 16:10, Psalm 18:5, Psalm 55:15, Psalm 86:13, Ps. 116:3, Psalm 139:8, Prov. 5:5, Prov. 7:27, Prov. 9:18, Prov. 15:11, Prov. 15:24, Prov. 23:14, Prov. 27:20, Isa. 5:14, Isa. 14:9, Isa. 14:15, Isa. 28:15, Isa. 28:18, Isa. 57:9, Ezek. 31:16, Ezek. 31:17, Ezek. 32:21, Ezk. 32:27, Amos 9:2, Jonah 2:2, Hab. 2:5

57.    ^ Gen. 37:35, Gen. 42:38, Gen. 44:29, Gen. 44:31, I Sam. 2:6, I Kings 2:6, I Kings 2:9, Job 7:9, Job 14:13, Job 17:13, Job 21:13, Job 24:19, Psalm 6:5, Psalm 30:3, Psalm 31:17, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:14, Psalm 49:15, Psalm 88:3, Psalm 89:48, Prov. 1:12, Prov. 30:16, Ecc. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. 14:11, Isa. 38:10, Isa. 38:18, Ezek. 31:15, Hosea 13:14, Hosea 13:14, Psalm 141:7

58.    ^ Num. 16:30, Num. 16:33, Job 17:16

Necessity Of Hell And Heaven

Necessity of Hell and Heaven

The confrontation, co-existence, and intermingling of good and evil, pleasure and pain, light and darkness, heat and cold, beauty and ugliness, and guidance and misguidance in the universe are there for an extremely important purpose and are full of wisdom. If there were no evil, the exis­tence of good would be indiscernible. If there were no pain, pleasure would have no meaning. Light without darkness would have no importance and the different degrees of heat are realized only through the existence of cold. Through ugliness, a single truth of beauty becomes a thousand truths, and thousands of varying degrees of beauty come into existence. If there were no Hell, many of the pleasures of Paradise would remain hidden. Extrapo­lating from these examples we see that in one respect everything becomes known through its opposite; a single truth contained in any one thing pro­duces numerous shoots and becomes numerous truths. Since these inter­mingled beings flow from this transient abode into the abode of eternal per­manence, certainly, just as things such as good, pleasure, light, beauty, and belief flow into Paradise, so harmful matters such as evil, pain, darkness, ugliness, and unbelief pour into Hell. The floods of this continuously agitat­ed universe are emptied into these two lakes.

 

How Can Infinite Torment In Hell Justified

How Can Infinite Torment In Hell Justified

Unbelief and misguidance are an infinite crime, and transgression against innumerable rights.

How can incarceration in Hell for an infinite duration for unbelief during the short earthly life be justice?

Reckoning a year to be three hundred and sixty five days, the law of justice requires for a one-minute murder seven million eight hundred and eighty-four thousand minutes imprisonment. So, since one minute’s unbelief is like a thousand murders, according to the law of human justice, someone who lives a life of twenty years in unbelief and dies in that state deserves imprisonment for fifty-seven billion, two hundred and one thousand two hundred million years. It may be understood from this how conformable with Divine justice is the verse, “They will dwell therein for ever (33:65) .”

The reason for the connection between these two numbers, so far from one another, is this: since murder and unbelief are destruction and aggression, they have an effect on others. A murder, which takes one minute, negates on average at least fifteen years of the victim’s life, so the murderer is imprisoned in their place. While since one minute of unbelief denies a thousand and one Divine Names and denigrates their inscriptions, violates the rights of the universe and denies its perfections, and gives the lie to innumerable evidences of Divine Unity and rejects their testimony, the unbeliever is cast down to the lowest of the low for more than a thousand years, and “dwells” in imprisonment.

 

Hell Is Punishment For Actions

Hell is punishment for actions, but Paradise is a Divine favor. What is the reason for this?

It is clearly shown in the above Indications that with his faculty of will and insignificant wishes, through giving form and reality to something non-existent or theoretical, man causes awesome destruction and evils. And so too, since his soul and appetites always incline towards evil and harm, he is responsible for the evils that occur as a result of his slight wishes. For his soul wanted them and his desires gave rise to them. And since evil pertains to non-existence, the servant is the agent and Almighty God creates it. Being responsible for the infinite crime, he certainly deserves infinite punishment.

However, since good deeds and actions pertain to existence, man’s will and wishes cannot be the direct cause of their existence. Man cannot be the true agent in such an act. Also, his evil-commanding soul is not biased towards good deeds, rather, Divine mercy requires them and dominical power creates them. Man can only lay a claim to them through belief, a wish, or an intention. And having claimed them, those good works consist of thanks for the infinite Divine bounties he has received, like the bounties of belief and existence. This thanks looks to past bounties while Paradise, which as a Divine promise will be given, is a favour of the Most Merciful. Apparently it will be a reward, but in reality it is a favor.

That is to say, in evils the soul is the cause and deserves the punishment, while in good deeds, both the cause and the occasion are from God. Man can only lay claim to them through belief. He may not say: “I want the reward,” but he may say: “I hope for Divine favor.”

 

Why Hell?

Belief bears the seed of a sort of Paradise experienced by the spirit, while unbelief contains the seed of a sort of Hell, which is again experienced spiritually. Just as unbelief is the seed of Hell, so too, Hell is a fruit of unbelief. As unbelief is the cause of entering Hell, it is also the cause of Hell’s existence and creation.

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