Development of the Old Testament Canon

Development of the Old Testament Canon The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament. The Old Testament includes the books of the Hebrew Bible(Tanakh) or protocanon, and in various Christian denominations also includes deuterocanonical books. Orthodox Christians, Catholics...

Vulgate

What Is Vulgate? The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church’s officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day. The translation was largely the work of...

Septuagint

What Is Septuagint? The Septuagint (septuāgintā literally “seventy”; often abbreviated as 70 in Roman numerals, i.e., LXX; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures.[1] It is estimated that the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining...

Fifty Bibles of Constantine

Fifty Bibles of Constantine The Fifty Bibles of Constantine were Bibles in the original Greek language commissioned in 331 by Constantine I and prepared by Eusebius of Caesarea. They were made for the use of the Bishop of Constantinople in the growing number of churches in that very new city. Eusebius quoted the letter of commission in his Life of Constantine,...

Protestant Bible

Protestant Bible A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants. Such Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament (according to the Jewish Hebrew Bible canon, known especially to non-Protestants as the protocanonical books) and 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books. Some Protestants use Bibles which also include 14...

Old Testament

Old Testament The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites[1] believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.[2] The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament. The books that comprise the...

Jewish Apocrypha

What Is Jewish Apocrypha? Jewish apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish religious tradition either in the Intertestamental period or in the early Christian era, but outside the Christian tradition. It does not include books in the canonical Hebrew Bible, nor those accepted into the canon of some or all...

Apocrypha

What Is Apocrypha? Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.[1] Biblical apocrypha is a set of texts included in the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. While Catholic tradition considers some of these texts to be deuterocanonical, Protestants consider them apocryphal. Thus, Protestant bibles do not include the...

List of Major Textual Variants In The New Testament

List of Major Textual Variants In The New Testament This is an (incomplete) list of major textual variants in the New Testament, with a focus on differences between categories of New Testament manuscript. The Textus Receptus (Latin: “received text”) is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which was...

Summary of The Books of The Bible

Summary of The Books of The Bible THE OLD TESTAMENT There are 39 books in the Old Testament, generally separated into 4 divisions: The Pentateuch, traditionally designated as the 5 books of Moses. Historical Books, number 12, from Joshua to Esther. Poetical Books, number 4, from Job to Song of...

Redaction Criticism

What Is Redaction Criticism? Redaction criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte or Redaktionstheologie, is a critical method for the study of biblical texts. Redaction criticism regards the author of the text as editor (redactor) of the source materials. Unlike its parent discipline, form criticism, redaction criticism does not look at the various parts of...

Who Decides What To Include Into Bibles?

Who Decides What To Include Into Bibles? Old Testament books that are included in the Bibles used by Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians, but not in the Bibles used by most Protestant Christians and Jews. All Christians and Jews include the 39 books commonly known as the Old Testament in...

Who Are The Real Authors Of Gospels?

Who Are The Real Authors Of Gospels? Has the Gospel borrowed historical accounts describing Jesus from previous Eastern scriptures which existed centuries before the Bible? Krishna was depicted as if crucified. The Persian remembered only the atoning sufferings on the cross of Mithras the Mediator. Aztecs prayed for the return...

Which Bible Do You Believe?

Which Bible Do You Believe? There is a violent debate amongst Christians regarding which Bible to use. We would think all the Bibles are the same since they claim each one is by God. Some of them are lacking some words even some verses. Here we will compare the Bibles....

The Unreliability Of Gospels

The Unreliability Of Gospels The Gospels were composed after the early Christians had become divided into different factions. They were in fact composed to propagate the special teachings of the various schools and their authors showed no hesitation in tampering with the earlier documents and other traditional material regarding the...

Gospel of Philip

What Is Gospel of Philip? Read: The Gospel of Philip The Gospel of Philip is one of the Gnostic Gospels, a text of New Testament apocrypha, dated to around the 3rd century but lost in modern times until an Egyptian man red is covered it by accident, buried in a cave...

Biblical Hermeneutics

What Is Biblical Hermeneutics? Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible. It is part of the broader field of hermeneutics which involves the study of principles of interpretation for all forms of communication, nonverbal and verbal.[1] While Jewish and Christian Biblical hermeneutics have some overlap and dialogue, they have distinctly separate interpretative...

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Biblical Apocrypha

What Is Biblical Apocrypha? The biblical apocrypha (‘hidden’) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments[1] or as an appendix after the New Testament.[2] Some Christian Churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old...

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