philosophy

Brahmanism

What Is Brahmanism? Definition Brahmanism is an ideology and a way of life, originating from the history of the Vedas, often called a philosophy, practised on the basis of specific inferred beliefs. The fundamental and principle belief of Brahmanism defines Brahman and its attributeless element that was first captured by the Rishis who...

Library Books Knowledge Historically Education

Understanding Wisdom

Understanding Wisdom Editor’s Note “At present there can be little doubt that the whole of mankind is in mortal danger, not because we are short of scientific and technological know-how, but because we tend to use it destructively, without wisdom. More education can help us only if it produces more...

Nature Earth Sustainability Leaf Caution Cycle

How Can Life of Value Best Flourish in the Real World?

How Can Life of Value Best Flourish in the Real World? The Urgent Need for an Intellectual Revolution For much of my working life (from 1972 onwards) I have argued, in and out of print, that we need to bring about a revolution in the aims and methods of science...

Confucius and Socrates

Confucius and Socrates Teaching Wisdom Introduction When contemplating what philosophical contribution can be made to education, one way to begin is to look at the origin of the word “philosophy,” which derives from Greek, and means literally “the love of wisdom.” In Plato’s Phaedrus, Socrates said that those whose ideas...

Greek Writing Engraving Stone Marble

Sophism

What Is Sophism? Sophism in the modern definition is a specious argument used for deceiving someone. In ancient Greece, sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching arete — excellence, or virtue — predominantly to young statesmen...

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The Key to Wisdom

The Key to Wisdom Nearly forty years ago I discovered a profoundly significant idea – or so I believe. Since then, I have expounded and developed the idea in six books[1] and countless articles published in academic journals and other books.[2] I have talked about the idea in universities and...

Sophology: The Study of Wisdom

Sophology: The Study of Wisdom An Exploratory Essay Outline: Wisdom: preliminary notion Analysis of the situation calling for wisdom What wisdom is not Wisdom, psychiatry, midwifery Sophology as a justified neologism: against philosophy Some analogies of wisdom Winning, losing – losing one’s soul Economics as a pseudo-analogy of wisdom The...

Sentience

What Is Sentience? Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.[1] Eighteenth-century philosophers used the concept to distinguish the ability to think (reason) from the ability to feel (sentience). In modern Western philosophy, sentience is the ability to experience sensations (known in philosophy of mind as “qualia”). In Eastern philosophy, sentience...

Sophia (wisdom)

Sophia (wisdom) Sophia (σοφία sophía “wisdom“) is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology. Originally carrying a meaning of “cleverness, skill”, the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis (“wisdom, intelligence”), was significantly shaped by the term philosophy (“love of wisdom”) as used by Plato. In...

Taoist Philosophy

What Is Taoist Philosophy? Taoist philosophy (道家; dàojiā; lit. “school or family of the Tao”) also known as Taology (道學; dàoxué; lit. “learning of the Tao”) refers to the various philosophical currents of Taoism, a tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (道; Dào; literally: ‘the Way’, also romanized as Dao). The Tao is a mysterious...

Socialism

What Is Socialism? Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers’ self-management,[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many...

Noam Chomsky

Who Is Noam Chomsky? Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called “the father of modern linguistics”, Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive...

Jeremy Bentham

Who Is Jeremy Bentham? Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 [O.S. 4 February 1747][2] – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.[3][4] Bentham defined as the “fundamental axiom” of his philosophy the principle that “it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of...

John Locke

Who Is John Locke? John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the “Father of Liberalism”.[9][10][11] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally...

Thomas Hobbes

Who Is Thomas Hobbes? Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury,[4] was an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern Political Philosophy.[5][6] Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory.[7] In...

Neoplatonism And Christianity

Neoplatonism and Christianity Neoplatonism was a major influence on Christian theology throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West. This was due to St. Augustine of Hippo, who was influenced by the early Neoplatonists Plotinus and Porphyry, as well as the works of the Christian writer Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, who was influenced by later Neoplatonists, such as Proclus and Damascius. Main articles: Neoplatonism, Christianity...

John Stuart Mill

Who is John Stuart Mill? John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873),[8] usually cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy. Dubbed “the most influential...

Stephen Hawking

Who Is Stephen Hawking? Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of...

Orientalism

What Is Orientalism? In art history, literature and cultural studies, Orientalism is the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically “the Middle East”,[1] was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and...

Western Esotericism

What Is Western Esotericism? Western esotericism, also known as esotericism, esoterism, and sometimes the Western mystery tradition,[1] is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they...

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