philosophy

Imperial powers in 1800

Imperialism

Imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending a country’s rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism has been common throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC. In recent times (since at least the 1870s),...

A statue of the Greek titan Atlas, the inspiration for the novel Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand, which was a catalyst for the Objectivist movement

Objectivist Movement

Objectivist Movement The Objectivist movement is a movement of individuals who seek to study and advance Objectivism, the philosophy expounded by novelist-philosopher Ayn Rand. The movement began informally in the 1950s and consisted of students who were brought together by their mutual interest in Rand’s novel, The Fountainhead. The group, ironically named “the Collective” due to their...

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Moral Skepticism

Moral Skepticism Moral skepticism (or moral scepticism) is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge. Many moral skeptics also make the stronger, modal claim that moral knowledge is impossible. Moral skepticism is particularly opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable and objective moral truths. Some defenders of moral skepticism...

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, where the children of Marcus and Faustina were buried

Ancient Roman Philosophy

Ancient Roman Philosophy Ancient Roman philosophy was heavily influenced by the ancient Greeks and the schools of Hellenistic philosophy; however, unique developments in philosophical schools of thought occurred during the Roman period as well. Interest in philosophy was first excited at Rome in 155 BCE. by an Athenian embassy consisting of the Academic Skeptic...

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Reality

Reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary. The term is also used to refer to the ontological status of things, indicating their existence. In physical terms, reality is the totality of a system, known and unknown....

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What is Eschatology?

What is Eschatology? Eschatology (from the Greek έσχατος, “last, ultimate, end” and logy, teaching), simply translated as “discourse about the last things,” generally reflects the quest for an ultimate human purpose on the individual and the cosmic levels. The driving force of seeking answers to such a twofold human purpose is confirmed by the two...

philosophy

Outline of Philosophy

Outline of Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing fundamental questions (such as mysticism, myth, or religion) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

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Outline of Metaphysics

Outline of Metaphysics  The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to metaphysics: Metaphysics is traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:  What is...

Music critics listen to symphony orchestra concerts and write a review which assesses the conductor and orchestra's interpretation of the pieces they played. The critic uses a range of aesthetic evaluation tools to write their review. They may assess the tone of the orchestra, the tempos that the conductor chose for the symphony movements, the taste and judgement showed by the conductor in their creative choices, and even the selection of pieces which formed the concert program.

Aesthetics of Music

Aesthetics of Music Aesthetics of music is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste in music, and with the creation or appreciation of beauty in music. In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization. In the eighteenth...

science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.

Einstein’s Science and Religion

Einstein’s Science and Religion Section I During the last century, and part of the one before, it was widely held that there was an unreconcilable conflict between knowledge and belief. The opinion prevailed among advanced minds that it was time that belief should be replaced increasingly by knowledge; belief that...

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Outline of The Existence of God

The Existence of God The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture. A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of...

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Justice

Justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes “deserving” being impacted upon by numerous fields, with many differing viewpoints and perspectives, including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness. Consequently, the application of...

afterlife

Argument From Desire

Argument From Desire The argument from desire is an argument for the existence of God and/or a heavenly afterlife. The best-known defender of the argument is the Christian writer C. S. Lewis. Briefly and roughly, the argument states that humans’ natural desire for eternal happiness must be capable of satisfaction, because all natural desires...

Schrödinger's cat (1935) presents a cat that is indeterminately alive or dead, depending on a random quantum event. It illustrates the counterintuitive implications of Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation when applied to everyday objects.

Evil God Challenge

Evil God Challenge The Evil God Challenge is a thought experiment. The challenge is to explain why an all-good god should be more likely than an all-evil god. Those who advance this challenge assert that, unless there is a satisfactory answer to the challenge, there is no reason to accept God is good or...

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Fate of The Unlearned

Fate of The Unlearned The fate of the unlearned, also known as the destiny of the unevangelized, is an eschatological question about the ultimate destiny of people who have not been exposed to a particular theology or doctrine and thus have no opportunity to embrace it. The question is whether those who never hear of requirements...

God of The Gaps

God of The Gaps

God of The Gaps “God of the gaps” is a theological perspective in which gaps in scientific knowledge are taken to be evidence or proof of God’s existence. The term “gaps” was initially used by Christian theologians not to discredit theism but rather to point out the fallacy of relying on teleological arguments for God’s existence. Origins of the term...

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God The Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (TAG) is the argument that attempts to prove the existence of God by arguing that logic, morals, and science ultimately presuppose a supreme being and that God must therefore be the source of logic and morals. A version was formulated by Immanuel Kant in his...

Razor

Occam’s Razor

Occam’s Razor Occam’s razor, Ockham’s razor, Ocham’s razor, or law of parsimony is the problem-solving principle that “entities should not be multiplied without necessity”, or more simply, the simplest explanation is usually the right one. The idea is attributed to English Franciscan friar William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), a scholastic philosopher and theologian who used a preference for simplicity to defend the idea...

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Arguments Against The Existence of God

Arguments Against The Existence of God Arguments against the existence of God (atheism) range from philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts...

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Being and Existence

Being and Existence Being and existence in philosophy are related and somewhat overlapping with respect to their meanings. Classical Greek had no independent word of “existence.” The word “existence,” as distinguished from the word “being,” arose in the Middle Ages. Influenced by Islamic philosophy that recognized the contingency of the created world as compared with God the Creator,...

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