philosophy

Avicenna

Who Is Avicenna? Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا‎; c. 980 – June 1037) was a Persian[4][5][6] polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.[7] He has been described as the father of early modern medicine.[8][9][10] Of the 450 works he is known to have written,...

Lao Tzu

Who Is Laozi (Lao Tzu)? Laozi (老子; literally “Old Master”), also rendered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tze, was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.[5] He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching,[6] the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. A semi-legendary figure, Laozi was usually portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but some modern historians consider...

Sun Tzu

Who Is Sun Tzu? Sun Tzu (孫子; Pinyin transliteration Sunzi) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected Western and East Asian philosophy and military...

Socrates

Who Is Socrates? Socrates (Sōkrátēs, c. 470 – 399 BC)[3][4] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher[5][6] of the Western ethical tradition of thought.[7][8][9] An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his...

Socrates, Xenophon, And Plato

Socrates, Xenophon, And Plato Empedocles In the fifth century BC the Pythagorean school continued, and Parmenides in Elea contributed to metaphysics. Zeno also of Elea let his mind trap himself into thinking one could never get somewhere, because by going half-way there each time one would get closer but never...

God Is Dead

God Is Dead ‘God is Dead’ also known as The Death of God is a widely quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche used the phrase to express his idea that the Enlightenment had eliminated the possibility of the existence of God. However, proponents of the strongest form of the Death of God theology have used the phrase in a...

Nihilism

What Is Nihilism? Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial of, or lack of belief in, the reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.[1] Moral nihilists assert that there is no inherent morality, and that accepted...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the...

Hermes Trismegistus

Hermes Trismegistus Hermes Trismegistus (“thrice-greatest Hermes”; Mercurius ter Maximus) is the purported author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism. Origin and identity Hermes Trismegistus may be associated with the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.[1] Greeks in the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt recognized the...

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642) was an astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath from Pisa.[4] Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”,[5] the “father of modern physics”,[6][7] the “father of the scientific method”,[8] and the “father of modern science”.[9][10] Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity...

Aristotle

Aristotle Aristotle (Aristotélēs, 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy”. His writings cover many subjects –...

Al-Kindi

Al-Kindi Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician. Al-Kindi was the first of the Islamic peripatetic philosophers, and is hailed as the “father of Arab philosophy”. Al-Kindi was born...

Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr Sayyid Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر‎, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University,[7] and an Islamic philosopher. He is the author of scholarly books and articles.[8][9] Nasr speaks and writes on subjects such as philosophy, religion, spirituality, music, art, architecture, science, literature, civilizational dialogues, and the natural...

Epikoros

Who is Epikoros? Epikoros (or Apikoros or Apikores or Epicurus; אפיקורוס, lit. “Heretic”, pl. Epicorsim ) is a Jewish term cited in the Mishnah, referring to one who does not have a share in the world to come: “All Israel have a share in the world to come as states:...

Epicurus

Who Is Epicurus? Epicurus[a] (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents. Influenced by Democritus, Aristotle, Pyrrho,[3] and possibly the Cynics, he turned against the Platonism of his day and...

Greek Philosophers And Aristophanes

Greek Philosophers And Aristophanes Don’t stir the fire with a knife. Pythagoras Let no man by word or deed persuade you To do or to say that which is not best for you. Pythagoras I myself would wish neither; but if it were necessary either to do wrong or to...

Sufis, Philosophers, And Nanak

Sufis, Philosophers, And Nanak Justice is the king of salvation. Whoever is just is saved from all kinds of errors and futilities. It is better to be just than to pass your whole life in the genuflexions and prostrations of exterior worship. Attar, The Conference of the Birds 31 The...

Lists of Philosophers

Lists of Philosophers The alphabetical list of philosophers    A Adi Shankara, circa. 7th Century Nicola Abbagnano, (1901–1990) Muhammad Abduh, (1849–1905) Peter Abelard, (1079–1142) Abhinavagupta, (fl. c. 975 – 1025) Isaac ben Judah Abravanel, (1437–1508) Judah ben Isaac Abravanel, (1460?-1535?) Marilyn McCord Adams, (born 1943) Robert Adams, (born 1937) Joseph...

heart spiritual love

Free Love

Free Love Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[1] Principles Much of the free...

Secular Morality

Secular Morality Secular morality is the aspect of philosophy that deals with morality outside of religious traditions. Modern examples include humanism, freethinking, and most versions of consequentialism. Additional philosophies with ancient roots include those such as skepticism and virtue ethics. Greg M. Epstein also states that, “much of ancient Far...

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