philosophy

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Environmental Philosophy

Environmental Philosophy Environmental philosophy is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the natural environment and humans’ place within it. It asks crucial questions about human environmental relations such as “What do we mean when we talk about nature?” “What is the value of the natural, that is non-human environment to us, or in...

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Outline Of Humanism

Outline Of Humanism The Outline Of Humanism is provided as an overview of and topical guide to humanism: Humanism group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence (rationalism, empiricism), over established doctrine or faith (fideism)....

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Philosophy Of Space And Time

Philosophy Of Space And Time Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time. While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a...

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Speech

Speech Creation began with a syllable of speech made up of two letters, namely “Be”. The roads leading from unity to multiplicity, from single to plural, appeared with speech and were illuminated with words, which are parts of speech. Before speech resounded in their hearts, man was in no way...

Huike Thinking, a portrait of the Chán patriarch Dazu Huike attributed to the 10th-century painter Shi Ke

Thought

Thought Thought (or thinking) encompasses a flow of ideas and associations that can lead to logical conclusions. Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is still no consensus as to how it is adequately defined or understood. Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins and its effects has...

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Phenomenon

Phenomenon A phenomenon (‘thing appearing to view’; plural phenomena) is “an observable fact or event.” The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon, which cannot be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms....

Business ethics, ethics, values, trust, responsibility

Meta-ethics

Meta-ethics Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature, scope, and meaning of moral judgment. It is one of the three branches of ethics generally studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics. While normative ethics addresses such questions as “What should I do?”, evaluating specific practices and principles of...

Imperial powers in 1800

Imperialism

Imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending a country’s rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Imperialism has been common throughout recorded history, the earliest examples dating from the mid-third millennium BC. In recent times (since at least the 1870s),...

A statue of the Greek titan Atlas, the inspiration for the novel Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand, which was a catalyst for the Objectivist movement

Objectivist Movement

Objectivist Movement The Objectivist movement is a movement of individuals who seek to study and advance Objectivism, the philosophy expounded by novelist-philosopher Ayn Rand. The movement began informally in the 1950s and consisted of students who were brought together by their mutual interest in Rand’s novel, The Fountainhead. The group, ironically named “the Collective” due to their...

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Moral Skepticism

Moral Skepticism Moral skepticism (or moral scepticism) is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge. Many moral skeptics also make the stronger, modal claim that moral knowledge is impossible. Moral skepticism is particularly opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable and objective moral truths. Some defenders of moral skepticism...

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Ancient Roman Philosophy

Ancient Roman Philosophy Ancient Roman philosophy was heavily influenced by the ancient Greeks and the schools of Hellenistic philosophy; however, unique developments in philosophical schools of thought occurred during the Roman period as well. Interest in philosophy was first excited at Rome in 155 BCE. by an Athenian embassy consisting of the Academic Skeptic...

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Terrorism

Terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). The terms “terrorist” and “terrorism” originated during...

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Reality

Reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary. The term is also used to refer to the ontological status of things, indicating their existence. In physical terms, reality is the totality of a...

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Teleology

Teleology Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something as a function of its end, purpose, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy, though controversial today, contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of...

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What is Eschatology?

What is Eschatology? Eschatology (from the Greek έσχατος, “last, ultimate, end” and logy, teaching), simply translated as “discourse about the last things,” generally reflects the quest for an ultimate human purpose on the individual and the cosmic levels. The driving force of seeking answers to such a twofold human purpose is confirmed by the two...

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Environmental Ethics

Environmental Ethics In environmental philosophy, environmental ethics is an established field of practical philosophy “which reconstructs the essential types of argumentation that can be made for protecting natural entities and the sustainable use of natural resources.” The main competing paradigms are anthropocentrism, physiocentrism (called ecocentrism as well), and theocentrism. Environmmental ethics exerts...

philosophy

Outline Of Philosophy

Outline Of Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing fundamental questions (such as mysticism, myth, or religion) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

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Outline Of Metaphysics

Outline of Metaphysics The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to metaphysics: Metaphysics is traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:  What is...

Music critics listen to symphony orchestra concerts and write a review which assesses the conductor and orchestra's interpretation of the pieces they played. The critic uses a range of aesthetic evaluation tools to write their review. They may assess the tone of the orchestra, the tempos that the conductor chose for the symphony movements, the taste and judgement showed by the conductor in their creative choices, and even the selection of pieces which formed the concert program.

Aesthetics of Music

Aesthetics of Music Aesthetics of music is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste in music, and with the creation or appreciation of beauty in music. In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization. In the eighteenth...

science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.

Einstein’s Science and Religion

Einstein’s Science and Religion Section I During the last century, and part of the one before, it was widely held that there was an unreconcilable conflict between knowledge and belief. The opinion prevailed among advanced minds that it was time that belief should be replaced increasingly by knowledge; belief that...