What Is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to experiences occurring in the present moment, which one can develop through the practice of meditation and through other training. Mindfulness is derived from sati, a significant element of Buddhist traditions, and based on Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan meditation techniques. Individuals who have contributed to the popularity of mindfulness in the modern Western context include Thích Nhất Hạnh (1926– ), Herbert Benson (1935– ), Jon Kabat-Zinn (1944– ), and Richard J. Davidson (1951– ). Mindfulness is very similar to what was earlier known as Gestalt therapy.
Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. Mindfulness practice has been employed to reduce symptoms of depression, to reduce stress, anxiety, and in the treatment of drug addiction. Programs based on Kabat-Zinn’s and similar models have been adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans’ centers, and other environments, and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for healthy aging, weight management, athletic performance, helping children with special needs, and as an intervention during the perinatal period.
Clinical studies have documented both physical- and mental-health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. Research studies have consistently shown a positive relationship between trait mindfulness and psychological health. The practice of mindfulness appears to provide therapeutic benefits to people with psychiatric disorders, including to those with psychosis. Studies also indicate that rumination and worry contribute to the onset of a variety of mental disorders, and that mindfulness-based interventions significantly reduce both rumination and worry. Further, the practice of mindfulness may be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental-health problems.
The necessity for more high-quality research in this field has also been identified – such as the need for more randomized controlled studies, for providing more methodological details in reported studies and for the use of larger sample sizes.
Mindfulness practice involves the process of developing the skill of bringing one’s attention to whatever is happening in the present moment.
Watching the breath, body-scan and other techniques
There are several exercises designed to develop mindfulness meditation, which are aided by guided meditations “to get the hang of it.”[note 2]
- One method is to sit on a straight-backed chair or sit cross-legged on the floor or a cushion, close one’s eyes and bring attention to either the sensations of breathing in the proximity of one’s nostrils or to the movements of the abdomen when breathing in and out. In this meditation practice, one does not try to control one’s breathing, but attempts to simply be aware of one’s natural breathing process/rhythm. When engaged in this practice, the mind will often run off to other thoughts and associations, and if this happens, one passively notices that the mind has wandered, and in an accepting, non-judgmental way, returns to focusing on breathing.
- In body-scan meditation the attention is directed at various areas of the body and noting body sensations that happen in the present moment.
- One could also focus on sounds, sensations, thoughts, feelings and actions that happen in the present. In this regard, a famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.[note 3]
- Other approaches include engaging in yoga practices, while attending to movements and body sensations, and walking meditation.
Meditators are recommended to start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.
In Buddhist context; moral precepts
In a Buddhist context the keeping of moral precepts is an essential preparatory stage for mindfulness or meditation. Vipassana also includes contemplation and reflection on phenomena as dukkha, anatta and anicca, and reflections on causation and other Buddhist teachings.
Mindfulness meditation is part of Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.
Sati and smṛti
The Buddhist term translated into English as “mindfulness” originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. It is often translated as “bare attention,” but in the Buddhist tradition it has a broader meaning and application, and the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion.
According to Bryan Levman writing in the Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, “the word sati incorporates the meaning of ‘memory’ and ‘remembrance’ in much of its usage in both the suttas and the [traditional Buddhist] commentary, and… without the memory component, the notion of mindfulness cannot be properly understood or applied, as mindfulness requires memory for its effectiveness”.
According to Robert Sharf, smṛti originally meant “to remember,” “to recollect,” “to bear in mind,” as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means “to remember.” In the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arising of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four foundations of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eightfold path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,
[sati] should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of dhammas; sati is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the satipaṭṭhānas, presumably what this means is that sati is what causes the practitioner of yoga to “remember” that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults or faultless, relatively inferior or refined, dark or pure.”[note 4]
Sharf further notes that this has little to do with “bare attention,” the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, “since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise.”
Georges Dreyfus has also expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as “bare attention” or “nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness”, stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also “remembering”, which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.[note 5] Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of “correct view”, not just “bare attention”.[note 6] Jay Garfield, quoting Shantideva and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality – at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.
The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843–1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati “Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind”. Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as “Correct meditation”, Davids explained:
sati is literally ‘memory’ but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase ‘mindful and thoughtful’ (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist.”
John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish “retention” as the preferred alternative. Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of “sati” as “memory”.[note 7] The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:
- Attention (Jack Kornfield)
- Concentrated attention (Mahasi Sayadaw)
- Inspection (Herbert Guenther)
- Mindful attention
- Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin)
- Recollection (Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
- Reflective awareness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
- Remindfulness (James H. Austin)
- Self-recollection (Jack Kornfield)
A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional over engagement on the other hand. Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop self-knowledge and wisdom.
Trait, state and practice
According to Brown, Ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques. A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.
According to David S. Black, whereas “mindfulness” originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and “a capacity attainable only by certain people”, scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness.[note 8] Black mentions three possible domains:
- A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait), a person’s tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;
- A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training), being in a state of present-moment awareness;
- A practice (mindfulness meditation practice itself).[note 9]
According to Brown, mindfulness is:
A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced.”
Several mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:
- Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
- Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)
- Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
- Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)
- Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)
- Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)
- Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
According to Bishop, et alia, mindfulness is, “A kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is.”
- The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.
- The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) is a 21-item survey with an overall state mindfulness scale, and 2 sub-scales (state mindfulness of mind, and state mindfulness of body).
Mindfulness as a practice is described as:
- “Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices”
- “Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”
- “Bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis”
According to Steven F. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises. Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment. Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life. Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in dialectical behavior therapy and in acceptance and commitment therapy. 
In a paper that described a consensus among clinical psychologists on an operational and testable definition, Bishop, Lau, et al. (2004) proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:
The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance.:232
In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) “involves bringing awareness to current experience – observing and attending to the changing fields of “objects” (thoughts, feelings, sensations), from moment to moment – by regulating the focus of attention”. Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (e.g. relaxation), but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.:233
The five-aggregate model
An ancient model of the mind, generally known as the five-aggregate model enables one to understand the moment-to-moment manifestation of subjective conscious experience, and therefore can be a potentially useful theoretical resource to guide mindfulness interventions.
The five aggregates are described as follows:
- Material form: includes both the physical body and external matter where material elements are continuously moving to and from the material body.
- Feelings: can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
- Perceptions: represent being aware of attributes of an object (e.g. color, shape, etc.)
- Volition: represents bodily, verbal, or psychological behavior.
- Sensory consciousness: refers to input from the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touch sensations) or a thought that happen to arise in the mind.
This model describes how sensory consciousness results in the generation of feelings, perception or volition, and how individuals’ previously conditioned attitudes and past associations influence this generation. The five aggregates are described as constantly arising and ceasing in the present moment.
Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom
The practice of mindfulness can be utilized to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom. In this regard, Buddhist teachings provide detailed instructions on how one can carry out an inquiry into the nature of the mind, and this guidance can help one to make sense of one’s subjective experience. This could include understanding what the “present moment” is, how various thoughts, etc., arise following input from the senses, the conditioned nature of thoughts, and other realizations. In Buddhist teachings, ultimate wisdom refers to gaining deep insight into all phenomena or “seeing things as they are.”
Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation
Since the 1970s, most books on meditation use definitions of mindfulness similar to Jon Kabat-Zinn’s definition as “present moment awareness”. However, recently a number of teachers of meditation have proposed quite different definitions of mindfulness. Shinzen Young says a person is mindful when they have mindful awareness, and defines that to be when “concentration power, sensory clarity, and equanimity [are] working together.” John Yates (Culadasa) defines mindfulness to be “the optimal interaction between attention and peripheral awareness”, where he distinguishes attention and peripheral awareness as two distinct modes in which one may be conscious of things.
The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensée), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (c. 1200).
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to “a state of being aware”.[web 3] Synonyms for this “state of being aware” are wakefulness, attention, alertness, prudence,conscientiousness, awareness,[web 3] consciousness,[web 3] and observation.[web 3]
Mindfulness as a modern, Western practice is founded on Zen and modern vipassana,[note 10] and involves the training of sati, which means “moment to moment awareness of present events”, but also “remembering to be aware of something”.
Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. “Correct” or “right” mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path. Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a ‘power’ (Pali: bala) which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.
According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, “constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths.”[note 11] According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.
According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is “perhaps the most important” after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. T.W. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.
The aim of zazen is just sitting, that is, suspending all judgmental thinking and letting words, ideas, images and thoughts pass by without getting involved in them.
In modern vipassana-meditation, as propgated by the Vipassana movement, sati aids vipassana, insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a so-called Sotāpanna, a “stream-enterer”, the first stage on the path to liberation.[note 12]
Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions. According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.
Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.
Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana
Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. “Sati” means mindfulness; “ānāpāna” refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.[note 13]
Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one’s day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one’s body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā).
Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa
In contemporary Theravada practice, “mindfulness” also includes samprajaña, meaning “clear comprehension” and apramāda meaning “vigilance”.[note 14] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as “mindfulness”, but they all have specific shades of meaning.
In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera’s views on “right mindfulness” and sampajañña as follows:
He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.[note 15]
Monitoring mental processes
According to Buddhadasa, the aim of mindfulness is to stop the arising of disturbing thoughts and emotions, which arise from sense-contact.
According to Grzegorz Polak, the four upassanā (foundations of mindfulness) have been misunderstood by the developing Buddhist tradition, including Theravada, to refer to four different foundations. According to Polak, the four upassanā do not refer to four different foundations, but to the awareness of four different aspects of raising mindfulness:
- the six sense-bases which one needs to be aware of (kāyānupassanā);
- contemplation on vedanās, which arise with the contact between the senses and their objects (vedanānupassanā);
- the altered states of mind to which this practice leads (cittānupassanā);
- the development from the five hindrances to the seven factors of enlightenment (dhammānupassanā).}}
Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:
The collective experience[note 16] of sages, yogis, and Zen masters offers a view of the world which is complementary to the predominantly reductionist and materialistic one currently dominating Western thought and institutions. But this view is neither particularly “Eastern” nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences.
The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church, which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833) and his Brahmo Samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.
Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR
In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill. This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine:230–1 for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. Kabat-Zinn himself was first introduced to meditation by Philip Kapleau, a Zen missionary who came to speak at MIT where Kabat-Zinn was a student. Kabat-Zinn went on to study meditation with other Zen-Buddhist teachers such as Thích Nhất Hạnh and Seungsahn. He also studied at the Insight Meditation Society and eventually taught there. One of MBSR’s techniques – the “body scan” – was derived from a meditation practice (“sweeping”) of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.[note 17][note 18]
Popularization, “mindfulness movement”
Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from Buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology. In this context mindfulness is defined as moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, characterized mainly by “acceptance” – attention to thoughts and feelings without judging whether they are right or wrong. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal rumination on the past or on the future. Mindfulness may be seen as a mode of being, and can be practiced outside a formal setting. The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness “popularization,” and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some criticisms arising.
According to Jon Kabat-Zinn the practice of mindfulness may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a mindfulness-based program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder (MDD). It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.
Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode. The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment. This mindfulness practice allows the participant to notice when automatic processes are occurring and to alter their reaction to be more of a reflection. Research supports the effects of MBCT in people who have been depressed three or more times and demonstrates reduced relapse rates by 50%.
Acceptance and commitment therapy
Acceptance and commitment therapy or (ACT) (typically pronounced as the word “act”) is a form of clinical behavior analysis (CBA) used in psychotherapy. It is a psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. It was developed in the late 1980sby Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.
Dialectical behavior therapy
Mindfulness is a “core” exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan, in the sense of “the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis.” As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:
This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditations.
Mode deactivation therapy
Mode deactivation therapy (MDT) is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques. Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.
Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.
- Morita therapy
The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as “awareness”, has been an essential part of its theory and practice.
- Adaptation Practice
The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.
- Hakomi therapy
Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.
Internal Family Systems Model (IFS), developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s “spiritual center”. The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.
- Mindfulness relaxation
Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.
In 2012 Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio published A Mindful Nation, and has received a $1 million federal grant to teach mindfulness in schools in his home district.
Mindful Kids Miami is a tax-exempt, 501 (c)(3), non-profit corporation established in 2011 dedicated to making age-appropriate mindfulness training available to school children in Miami-Dade County public and private schools. This is primarily accomplished by training educators and other child care providers to incorporate mindfulness practices in the children’s daily activities.
In 2000, The Inner Kids Program, a mindfulness-based program developed for children, was introduced into public and private school curricula in the greater Los Angeles area.
MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn’s Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.
The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school’s faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.
Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 501(c)3 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.
Mindfulness practices are becoming more common within educational institutions including Elementary and Secondary schools. This has been referred to as part of a ‘contemplative turn’ in education that has emerged since the turn of the millennium. The applications of mindfulness in schools are aimed at calming and relaxation of students as well as for students and educators to build compassion and empathy for others. An additional benefit to Mindfulness in education is for the practice to reduce anxiety and stress in students. Based on a broad meta-analytical review, scholars argued that the application of mindfulness practice enhances the goals of education in the 21st century, which include adapting to a rapidly changing world and being a caring and committed citizen. Within educational systems, the application of mindfulness practices shows an improvement of students’ attention and focus, emotional regulation, creativity, and problem solving skills. As discussed by Ergas and Todd, the development of this field since the turn of the millennium has brought diverse possibilities as well as complexities, given the origins of mindfulness within Buddhism and the processes of its secularization and measurement based on science.
Renshaw and Cook state, “As scientific interest in the utility of Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) in schools grew steadily, popular interest in mindfulness in schools seemed to grow exponentially”. Despite research on mindfulness being comparatively unexamined, especially with young students, the practice has seen a spike in use within the educational arena. “A relatively recent addition to discourse around preventing school expulsion and failure, mindfulness is gaining popularity for its potential to improve students’ social, emotional, behavioral, and learning-related cognitive control, thereby improving academic outcomes”. Researchers and educators are interested in how mindfulness can provide optimal conditions for a students’ personal development and academic success. Current research on mindfulness in education is limited but can provide insight to the potential benefits for students, and areas of improvement for future studies.
Mindfulness in the classroom is being touted as a promising new intervention tool for young students. According to Choudhury and Moses, “Although still marginal and in some cases controversial, secular programs of mindfulness have been implemented with ambitious goals of improving attentional focus of pupils, social-emotional learning in “at-risk” children and youth, not least, to intervene in problems of poverty and incarceration”. Emerging research is concerned with studying teachers and programs using mindfulness practices with students, and is discovering tension arising from the moral reframing of eastern practices in western school settings. As cited by Renshaw and Cook, “Unlike most other approaches to contemporary school-based intervention, which are squarely grounded in behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and ecological systems theories, MBIs have their origins in Eastern religious traditions”. Some school administrators are concerned about implementing such practices, and parents have been reported to take their children out of mindfulness programs because of their personal religious beliefs. Yet, MBI’s continue to be accepted by the mainstream in both primary and secondary schools because, “Mindfulness practices, particularly in relationship to children who might otherwise be considered broken or unredeemable, fill a critical niche – one that allows its advocates to imagine a world where people can change, become more compassionate, resilient, reflective, and aware; a world with a viable future”. As mindfulness in education continues to develop, ethical consequences will remain a controversial issue because the generic description for the “benefits” and “results” of MBI’s are largely concerned with individual and inward-focused achievement, rather than the original Buddhist ideal of global human connection.
Available research reveals a relationship between mindfulness and attention. Semple, Lee, Rosa, & Miller argue, “Anxiety can impair attention and promote emotionally reactive behaviors that interfere with the development of good study skills, so it seems reasonable that increased mindfulness would be associated with less anxiety”. They conducted a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) that found promise in managing anxiety for elementary school-aged children, and suggests that those who completed the program displayed fewer attention problems. In addition, Flook shows how an eight-week mindfulness awareness program was evaluated in a random and controlled school setting, and measured the effects of awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Their findings concluded, “Participation in the mindfulness awareness program was associated with improvements in behavioral regulation, metacognition, and overall executive functions”. In the study by Flook parents and teachers completed questionnaires which propose that participation in mindfulness programs is associated with improvements in child behavioral regulation. These perspectives are a valuable source of data given that caregivers and educators interact with the children daily and across a variety of settings. According to Eklund, Omalley, and Meyer, “School-based practitioners should find promise in the evidence supporting mindfulness-based practices with children, parents, and educators”. Lastly, a third study by Zenner, Herrnleben-Kurz, and Walach concluded, “Analysis suggest that mindfulness-based interventions for children and youths are able to increase cognitive capacity of attending and learning by nearly one standard deviation and yield”. Application of Mindfulness-Based Interventions continue to increase in popularity and practice.
Mindfulness-Based Interventions are rising across western culture, but its effectiveness in school programs is still being determined. Research contends, “Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people”. Although much of the available studies find a high number of mindfulness acceptability among students and teachers, more research needs to be conducted on its effects on well-being and mental-health for students. A firmly controlled experiment, Johnson, Burke, Brinkman, and Wade evaluated “the impact of an existing and widely available school-based mindfulness program, no improvements were demonstrated on any outcome measured either immediately post intervention or at three-month follow-up”. Many questions remain on which practices best implement effective and reliable mindfulness programs at schools, and further research is needed to identify the optimal methods and measurement tools for mindfulness in education.
Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment. Since high levels of mindfulness correlate with ethical decision-making and increase personal awareness and emotional regulation, mindfulness training has been suggested as way to promote ethical intentions and behavior for business students.
Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:
- Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”
- Many law firms offer mindfulness classes.
Mindfulness has been taught in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem. Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.
Many government organizations offer mindfulness training. Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.
Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention since 1970. According to a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs (that included a combined total of 8683 participants consisting of different patient categories as well as healthy adults and children), evidence supports the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders. Other reviews report similar findings.
A meta-analysis on meditation research published in JAMA in 2014, (that included a combined total of 3515 participants), found insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. The same meta-analysis also concluded that there is moderate evidence that meditation reduces anxiety, depression, and pain, but there is no evidence that meditation is more effective than active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). However, this study included a highly heterogeneous group of meditation styles (i.e., it did not focus exclusively on mindfulness meditation), which is a significant limitation of this study.
Thousands of studies on meditation have been conducted, though the overall methodological quality of some of the studies is poor. Recent reviews have pointed out many of these issues. Nonetheless, mindfulness meditation is a popular subject for research, and many claim potential benefits for a wide array of conditions and outcomes. For example, the practice of mindfulness has been used as a potential tool for weight management, to achieve optimal athletic performance, as a beneficial intervention for children with special needs and their parents, as a viable treatment option for people with insomnia an effective intervention for healthy aging, as a strategy for managing dermatological conditions and as a useful intervention during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Recent studies have also demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates physical pain through multiple, unique mechanisms. The emergence of mindfulness smartphone apps has led to research assessing the efficacy of these applications. One study found that a Mindfulness Training (MT) through a mobile application had similar effects on attentional control and cognitive flexibility as traditionally administered MT.
Research studies have also focused on the effects of mindfulness on the brain using neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation. When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity. Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures.” Further, mindfulness meditation may prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain. It has also been suggested that the default mode network of the brain can be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic benefits of meditation. Recent research also suggest that the practice of mindfulness could influence genetic expression leading to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases and favourable changes in biomarkers.
Mindfulness-based approaches have been tested for a range of health problems including anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, ADHD, insomnia, coping with medical conditions, with many populations including children, adolescents, parents, teachers, therapists, and physicians. As a major subject of increasing research interest, 52 papers were published in 2003, rising to 477 by 2012.Nearly 100 randomized controlled trials had been published by early 2014.
Grey matter concentrations in brain regions that regulate emotion, self-referential processing, learning and memory processes have shown changes in density following MBSR. Additionally, MBSR practice has been associated with improvement of the immune system which could explain the correlation between stress reduction and increased quality of life. Part of these changes are a result of the thickening of the prefrontal cortex(executive functioning) and hippocampus (learning and memorisation ability), the shrinking of the amygdala (emotion and stress response) and the strengthening of the connections between brain cells. Long-term meditators have larger amounts of gyrification (“folding” of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Further, a direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain’s neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes.
A 2013 statement from the American Heart Association said that, when it comes to lowering blood pressure, that behavioral therapies, transcendental meditation, other meditation techniques, yoga, other relaxation therapies, and biofeedback approaches generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Exercise-based regimens, such as aerobics, had relatively stronger supporting evidence.
Nevertheless, MBSR can have a beneficial effect helping with the depression and psychological distress associated with chronic illness. Meditation also may allow you to modulate pain stronger. When participants in research were exposed to pain from heating, the brainsscans of the mindfulness meditation group (by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging) showed their brains notice the pain equally, however it does not get converted to a perceived pain signal. As such they experienced up to 40–50% less pain.
Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of substance use disorders; however, further study is required. MBSR might be beneficial for people with fibromyalgia: there is no evidence of long-term benefit but low-quality evidence of a small short-term benefit.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is suggested to have positive results for the improvement of attention regulation, intelligence-related measures, creativity, learning ability, cognitive style, motor skills and perceptional abilities.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is also suggested to enact comparable neurophysiological effects related to attention and self-regulation as pharmacological treatments for ADHD.
Concerns and criticism
Many of the above cited review studies however also indicate the necessity for more high-quality research in this field such as conducting intervention studies using larger sample sizes, the use of more randomized controlled studies and the need for providing more methodological details in reported studies. There are also a few review studies that have found little difference between mindfulness interventions and control groups, though they did also indicate that their intervention group was treated too shortly for the research to be conclusive. These studies also list the need for more robust research investigations. Several issues pertaining to the assessment of mindfulness have also been identified including the current use of self-report questionnaires. Potential for bias also exists to the extent that researchers in the field are also practitioners and possibly subject to pressures to publish positive or significant results.
Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications. These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions.:62 Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities.
The popularization of mindfulness as a “commodity” has been criticized, being termed “McMindfulness” by some critics.[web 9] According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:“McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover.”
According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the “unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,” but reshaped into a “banal, therapeutic, self-help technique” that has the opposite effect of reinforcing those passions. While mindfulness is marketed as a means to reduce stress, in a Buddhist context it is part of an all-embracing ethical program to foster “wise action, social harmony, and compassion.” The privatization of mindfulness neglects the societal and organizational causes of stress and discomfort, instead propagating adaptation to these circumstances. According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, “[A]bsent a sharp social critique, Buddhist practices could easily be used to justify and stabilize the status quo, becoming a reinforcement of consumer capitalism.” The popularity of this new brand of mindfulness has resulted in the commercialization of meditation through self-help books, guided meditation classes, and mindfulness retreats.
Buddhist commentators have criticized the movement as being presented as equivalent to Buddhist practice, while in reality it is very possibly denatured with undesirable consequences, such as being ungrounded in the traditional reflective morality and therefore, astray from traditional Buddhist ethics. Criticisms suggest it to be either de-moralized or re-moralized into clinically based ethics. The conflict is often presented in concern to the teacher’s credentials and qualifications, rather than the student’s actual practice. Reformed Buddhist-influenced practices are being standardized and manualized in a clearly distinct separation from Buddhism seen as a religion based in monastic temples, as expressed as mindfulness in a new psychology ethic practiced in modern meditation centers.
In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety, panic or “meltdowns” after practicing, which they suggest could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms. However, according to published peer-reviewed academic articles, these negative effects of meditation are rare for mindfulness meditation, and appear to happen due to a poor understanding of what actually constitutes mindfulness/meditation practices.
- Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf
- Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Bantam Dell. ISBN978-0345539724.
- Creswell J.D. (2017). “Mindfulness Interventions”. Annual Review of Psychology. 68: 491–516. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139. PMID27687118.
Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction).
- Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Slagter, Heleen A. (2011). “Mental Training as a Tool in the Neuroscientific Study of Brain and Cognitive Plasticity”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 5: 17. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017. PMC3039118. PMID21347275.
- Gary Deatherage (1975). “The clinical use of “mindfulness” meditation techniques in short-term psychotherapy”(PDF). Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 7 (2): 133–43.
- Karunamuni, Nandini; Weerasekera, Rasanjala (2017). “Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom”. Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7.
- Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D; Singh, Nirbhay N.(2014). “There is Only One Mindfulness: Why Science and Buddhism Need to Work Together”. Mindfulness. 6: 49–56. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y.
- Nisbet, Matthew (2017). “The Mindfulness Movement: How a Buddhist Practice Evolved into a Scientific Approach to Life”. Skeptical Inquirer. 41(3): 24–26. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- Wilson, Jeff (2014). Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 35.
- “Sati”. The Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12.
- Dreyfus 2013, pp. 44–48.
- Polak 2011, pp. 153–56.
- Williams 2000, p. 46.
- Buddhadasa Bhikkhu 2014, pp. 79, 101, 117 note 42. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name “FOOTNOTEBuddhadasa Bhikkhu201479, 101, 117 note 42” defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Buchholz B (2015). “Exploring the promise of mindfulness as medicine”. JAMA. 314 (13): 1327–29. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.7023. PMID26441167.
- Davidson R (2005). “Meditation and Neuroplasticity: Training Your Brain Interview by Bonnie J. Horrigan”. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing. 1 (5): 380–88. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2005.06.013. PMID16781570.
- Harrington, Anne; Dunne, John D. (2015). “When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives”. American Psychologist. 70 (7): 621–31. doi:10.1037/a0039460. PMID26436312.
Mindfulness, the argument goes, was never supposed to be about weight loss, better sex, helping children perform better in school, helping employees be more productive in the workplace, or even improving the functioning of anxious, depressed people. It was never supposed to be a merchandized commodity to be bought and sold.
- Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Oliver, Annie; Pettman, Danelle (2014). “Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials”. PLoS ONE. 9 (4): e96110. Bibcode:2014PLoSO…996110S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096110. PMC3999148. PMID24763812.
This is the first meta-analysis of RCTs of MBIs where all studies included only participants who were diagnosed with a current episode of a depressive or anxiety disorder. Effects of MBIs on primary symptom severity were found for people with a current depressive disorder and it is recommended that MBIs might be considered as an intervention for this population.
- Khoury, Bassam; Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E.; Fournier, Claude (2015). “Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 78(6): 519–28. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009. PMID25818837.
We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a review of MBSR for healthy individuals. The meta-analysis included 29 studies enrolling 2668 participants… The results obtained are robust and are maintained at follow-up. When combined, mindfulness and compassion strongly correlated with clinical effects.
- Jain, Felipe A; Walsh, Roger N.; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Christensen, Scott; Rael Cahn, B. (2015). “Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review”. Psychosomatics. 56 (2): 140–52. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2014.10.007. PMC4383597. PMID25591492.
- Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E. (2014). “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as a Stress Management Intervention for Healthy Individuals”. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 19 (4): 271–86. doi:10.1177/2156587214543143. PMID25053754.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program… Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management.
- Hofmann, Stefan G.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Witt, Ashley A; Oh, Diana (2010). “The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (2): 169–83. doi:10.1037/a0018555. PMC2848393. PMID20350028.
- Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro (2013). “Are Mindfulness-Based Interventions Effective for Substance Use Disorders? A Systematic Review of the Evidence”. Substance Use & Misuse. 49(5): 492–512. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.770027. PMID23461667.
- Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O. (2014). “Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface”. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 4: 173. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00173. PMC3887509. PMID24454293.
- Black, David S (2014). “Mindfulness-Based Interventions: An Antidote to Suffering in the Context of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction”. Substance Use & Misuse. 49 (5): 487–91. doi:10.3109/10826084.2014.860749. PMID24611846.
- Paulus, Martin P. (2016). “Neural Basis of Mindfulness Interventions that Moderate the Impact of Stress on the Brain”. Neuropsychopharmacology. 41(1): 373. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.239. PMC4677133. PMID26657952.
- Tomlinson ER; et al. (2018). “Dispositional mindfulness and psychological health: a systematic review”. Mindfulness. 9 (1): 23–43. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0762-6. PMC5770488. PMID29387263.
- Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J.; Robins, Clive J. (2011). “Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies”. Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1041–56. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. PMC3679190. PMID21802619.
- Goldberg S.B.; et al. (2017). “Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Clinical Psychology Review. 59: 52–60. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.011. PMC5741505. PMID29126747.
- Boyd J.E.; et al. (2018). “Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the treatment literature and neurobiological evidence”. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 43 (1): 7–25. doi:10.1503/jpn.170021.
- Rodrigues M.F.; et al. (2017). “Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature”. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 39 (3): 207–15. doi:10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0051. PMID28767927.
- Aust, J.; Bradshaw, T. (2017). “Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: A systematic review of the literature”. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 24 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1111/jpm.12357. PMID27928859.
- Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav (2017). “Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 5 (1): 30–43. doi:10.7453/gahmj.2015.083. PMC4756771. PMID26937312.
- Louise S.; et al. (2018). “Mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions for psychosis: our current understanding and a meta-analysis”. Schizophrenia Research. 192: 57–63. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.023. PMID28545945.
- Deanna Kaplan; et al. (2017). “Maladaptive repetitive thought as a transdiagnostic phenomenon and treatment target: An integrative review”. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 74 (7): 1126–36. doi:10.1002/jclp.22585. PMID29342312.
- Ed Watkins (2015). “Psychological treatment of depressive rumination”. Current Opinion in Psychology. 4: 32–36.
- Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark (2013). “Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: A systematic review”. Clinical Psychology Review. 33 (8): 996–1009. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004. PMID24036088.
- Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate (2015). “How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies”. Clinical Psychology Review. 37: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. PMID25689576.
- Perestelo-Perez L.; et al. (2017). “Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of depressive rumination: Systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 17 (3): 282–95. doi:10.1016/j.ijchp.2017.07.004.
- Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D. (2015). “A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy”. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 6 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1007/s13142-015-0360-x. PMC4807201. PMID27012254.
- Cheng FK (2016). “Is meditation conducive to mental well-being for adolescents? An integrative review for mental health nursing”. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 4: 7–19. doi:10.1016/j.ijans.2016.01.001.
- Gunaratana, Bhante (2011). Mindfulness in plain English(PDF). Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 21. ISBN978-0861719068. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Kabat-Zinn himself, in Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition) (2013), p. lxiv
- Wilson 2014.
- “The Mindfulness Body Scan”.
- “Body Scan Meditation — Mindful”. mindful.stanford.edu.
- “Body Scan Meditation (Greater Good in Action)”. ggia.berkeley.edu.
- “History of MBSR”. University of Massachusetts Medical School. November 17, 2016.
- Ihnen & Flynn 2008, p. 148.
- Teasdale & Segal 2007, pp. 55–56.
- Pickert, K (2014). “The art of being mindful. Finding peace in a stressed-out, digitally dependent culture may just be a matter of thinking differently”. Time. 183 (4): 40–46. PMID24640415.
- Wilson 2014, pp. 54–55.
- Mahāsi Sayādaw, Manual of Insight, Chapter 5
- Mahasi Sayadaw, Practical Vipassana Instructions, pp. 22–27
- “The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation”. Dhamma.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Karunamuni, N.D. (2015). “The Five-Aggregate Model of the Mind”. SAGE Open. 5 (2): 215824401558386. doi:10.1177/2158244015583860.
- Brown, Kirk Warren; Ryan, Richard M; Creswell, J. David (2007). “Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects”. Psychological Inquiry. 18 (4): 211–37. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298.
- Sharf 2014, p. 942.
- Bryan Levman (2017), p. 122.
- Sharf 2014, pp. 942–43.
- Sharf 2014, p. 943.
- “Is Mindfulness Present-Centered and Nonjudgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness”by Georges Dreyfus
- “Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection” by Jay Garfield
- Davids, T.W. Rhys (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 107. OCLC13247398.
- Gogerly, D.J. (1845). “On Buddhism”. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1: 7–28.
- Davids, T.W. Rhys (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 145. OCLC13247398.
- “Lecture, Stanford University Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education”. The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-11-20.
- “Translator for the Buddha: An Interview with Bhikkhu Bodhi”. www.inquiringmind.com. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- James H. Austin (2014), Zen-Brain Horizons: Toward a Living Zen, MIT Press, p. 83
- Hayes, A.M (2004). “Clarifying the Construct of Mindfulness in the Context of Emotion Regulation and the Process of Change in Therapy”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 255–62. CiteSeerX10.1.1.168.5070. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph080.
- Gehart 2012, pp. 7–8.
- Black 2011, p. 1.
- Black 2011, p. 2.
- Gehart 2012, p. 7.
- Zgierska 2009.
- Didonna 2008, p. 27.
- Kristeller 2007, p. 393.
- Germer 2005, p. 15.
- Hick 2010, p. 10.
- Bishop, Scott R.; Lau, Mark; Shapiro, Shauna; Carlson, Linda; Anderson, Nicole D.; Carmody, James; Segal, Zindel V.; Abbey, Susan; Speca, Michael; Velting, Drew; Devins, Gerald (2006). “Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 230–41. CiteSeerX10.1.1.168.6212. doi:10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
- Tanay, Galia; Bernstein, Amit (2013). “State Mindfulness Scale (SMS): Development and initial validation”. Psychological Assessment. 25 (4): 1286–99. doi:10.1037/a0034044. PMID24059475.
- Marlatt & Kristeller, 1999, p. 68
- Hick 2010, p. 6.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi. “The Noble Eightfold Path”. Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- From ‘See, Hear, Feel: An Introduction’, draft 1.8., https://www.shinzen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/SeeHearFeelIntroduction_ver1.8.pdf
- p. 30, The Mind Illuminated, Culadasa with Immergut and Graves, Hay House, 2015.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2002
- Kabat-Zinn 2011, pp. 22–23.
- Kabat-Zinn 2013, p. 65.
- McMahan 2008.
- Sharf & 1995-B.
- “The 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting”. Archived from the originalon 22 March 2014. Retrieved 7 January2018.
- Vetter 1988.
- Rhys Davids, T.W. (1959) . Dialogues of the Buddha, Part II. Oxford, Great Britain: Pali Text Society. pp. 322–346. ISBN0 86013 034 7.
- Warner, Brad (2003). Hardcore Zen: Punk Rock, Monster Movies, & the Truth about Reality. Wisdom Publications. pp. 189–190. ISBN086171380X.
- Suzuki, Shunryū (2011). Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind. Shambhala Publications. pp. 15–16. ISBN978-159030849-3.
- Anālayo, Bhikku (2003). Satipaṭṭhāna, the direct path to realization. Windhorse Publications.
- Sister Ayya Khema. “All of Us”. Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
- Defined by Reginald A. Ray. ““Vipashyana,” by Reginald A. Ray. ”Buddhadharma: The Practitioner’s Quarterly”, Summer 2004″. Archive.thebuddhadharma.com. Archived from the original on 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- “What is Theravada Buddhism?”. Access to Insight. Access to Insight. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Satyadarshin. “Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO): Buddhism and Mindfulness”. madhyamavani.fwbo.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- ““The Nature of Mindfulness and Its Role in Buddhist Meditation” A Correspondence between B.A. wallace and the Venerable Bikkhu Bodhi, Winter 2006, p.4″(PDF). Retrieved 7 January2018.
- Polak 2011.
- Kabat-Zinn n.d.
- Harris 2009, p. 268.
- Kipf 1979, p. 3-8.
- King 2001.
- Wilson 2014, p. 22.
- Wilson 2014, p. 17.
- “The Stress Reduction Program, founded by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979…” – http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/stress/index.aspx
- “Much of the interest in the clinical applications of mindfulness has been sparked by the introduction of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a manualized treatment program originally developed for the management of chronic pain (Kabat-Zinn, 1982; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, & Burney, 1985; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, Burney, & Sellers, 1987).” – Bishop et al, 2004, “Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition”
- “What Is Mindfulness?”. The Greater Good Science Center. The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- Israel, Ira (30 May 2013). “What’s the Difference Between Mindfulness, Mindfulness Meditation and Basic Meditation?”. The Huffington Post.
- Bernhard, Toni (6 Jun 2011). “6 Benefits of Practicing Mindfulness Outside of Meditation”. Psychology Today.
- Valerio, Adam (2016). “Owning Mindfulness: A Bibliometric Analysis of Mindfulness Literature Trends Within and Outside of Buddhist Contexts”. Contemporary Buddhism. 17: 157–83. doi:10.1080/14639947.2016.1162425.
- Kabat-Zinn 2000.
- Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer
- Ergas, Oren (2013). “Mindfulness in education at the intersection of science, religion, and healing”. Critical Studies in Education. 55: 58–72. doi:10.1080/17508487.2014.858643.
- “What is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction?”. Mindful Living Programs. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben (2011). “The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1032–40. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.002. PMID21802618.
- Manicavasgar, Vijaya; Parker, Gordon; Perich, Tania (2011). “Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behaviour therapy as a treatment for non-melancholic depression”. Journal of Affective Disorders. 130 (1–2): 138–44. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.027. PMID21093925.
- Hofmann, Stefan G; Sawyer, Alice T; Fang, Angela (2010). “The Empirical Status of the “New Wave” of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy”. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 33 (3): 701–10. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.006. PMC2898899. PMID20599141.
- Felder, Jennifer N; Dimidjian, Sona; Segal, Zindel (2012). “Collaboration in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy”. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 68 (2): 179–86. doi:10.1002/jclp.21832. PMID23616298.
- Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D (2004). “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Replication and Exploration of Differential Relapse Prevention Effects”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 72 (1): 31–40. CiteSeerX10.1.1.476.9744. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.72.1.31. PMID14756612.
- Plumb, J. C; Stewart, I; Dahl, J; Lundgren, T (2009). “In search of meaning: Values in modern clinical behavior analysis”. The Behavior Analyst. 32 (1): 85–103. doi:10.1007/bf03392177. PMC2686995. PMID22478515.
- Hayes, Steven. “Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT)”. ContextualPsychology.org.
- Zettle, Robert D (2005). “The evolution of a contextual approach to therapy: From comprehensive distancing to ACT”. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 1 (2): 77–89. doi:10.1037/h0100736.
- Murdock, N. L. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill/Pearson
- “Getting in on the Act – The Irish Times – Tue, Jun 07, 2011”. The Irish Times. 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Linehan 1993, p.19
- Linehan 1993, p.20-21
- Apsche JA, DiMeo L (2010). Mode Deactivation Therapy for aggression and oppositional behavior in adolescents: An integrative methodology using ACT, DBT, and CBT. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. ISBN978-1608821075.
- Swart, Joan; Apsche, Jack (2014). “Family mode deactivation therapy (FMDT) mediation analysis”. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 9: 1–13. doi:10.1037/h0101009.
- “Gestalt theory concepts”. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Kurtz, Ron (1990). Body-Centered Psychotherapy, The Hakomi Method. LifeRhythm.
- Schwartz, Richard C. (2013). Internal Family Systems Therapy. Guilford Publications. ISBN978-1462513956.
- Robinson, Lawrence; Segal, Robert; Segal, Jeanne; Smith, Melinda (December 2017). “Relaxation Techniques”. Helpguide.org.
- “Mindful Kids Miami, Inc | Mindful Miami”. Mindful Kids Miami.
- “MindUP™”. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
- Ergas, Oren; Todd, Sharon, eds. (2016). Philosophy East/West: Exploring intersections between educational and contemplative practices (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN978-1-119-14733-6.
- j. Davidson, Richard; Dunne, John; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Engle, Adam; Greenberg, Mark; Jennings, Patricia; Jha, Amishi; Jinpa, Thupten; Lantieri, Linda; Meyer, David; Roeser, Robert W; Vago, David (2012). “Contemplative Practices and Mental Training: Prospects for American Education”. Child Development Perspectives. 6 (2): 146–53. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00240.x. PMC3420012. PMID22905038.
- Hobby, Kristen; Jenkins, Elizabeth (2014). “Mindfulness in schools”. EarthSong Journal. 2 (7): 26. ISSN1449-8367.
- Zenner, Charlotte; Herrnleben-Kurz, Solveig; Walach, Harald (2014). “Mindfulness-based interventions in schools—a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 603. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00603. PMC4075476. PMID25071620.
- Renshaw, Tyler L; Cook, Clayton R (2017). “Introduction to the Special Issue: Mindfulness in the Schools-Historical Roots, Current Status, and Future Directions”. Psychology in the Schools. 54: 5–12. doi:10.1002/pits.21978.
- Eklund, Katie; O’Malley, Meagan; Meyer, Lauren (2017). “Gauging Mindfulness in Children and Youth: School-Based Applications”. Psychology in the Schools. 54: 101–14. doi:10.1002/pits.21983.
- Choudhury, Suparna; Moses, Joshua M (2016). “Mindful interventions: Youth, poverty, and the developing brain”. Theory & Psychology. 26 (5): 591–606. doi:10.1177/0959354316669025.
- Semple, Randye J; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F (2009). “A Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children: Promoting Mindful Attention to Enhance Social-Emotional Resiliency in Children”. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 19(2): 218–29. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9301-y.
- Flook, Lisa; Smalley, Susan L; Kitil, M. Jennifer; Galla, Brian M; Kaiser-Greenland, Susan; Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric; Kasari, Connie (2010). “Effects of Mindful Awareness Practices on Executive Functions in Elementary School Children”. Journal of Applied School Psychology. 26 (1): 70–95. doi:10.1080/15377900903379125.
- Kuyken, W; Weare, K; Ukoumunne, O. C; Vicary, R; Motton, N; Burnett, R; Cullen, C; Hennelly, S; Huppert, F (2013). “Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: Non-randomised controlled feasibility study”. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 203 (2): 126–31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.126649. PMID23787061.
- Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey (2016). “Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents”. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 81: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2016.03.002. PMID27054828.
- Good, Darren J; Lyddy, Christopher J; Glomb, Theresa M; Bono, Joyce E; Brown, Kirk Warren; Duffy, Michelle K; Baer, Ruth A; Brewer, Judson A; Lazar, Sara W (2015). “Contemplating Mindfulness at Work”. Journal of Management. 42 (1): 114–42. doi:10.1177/0149206315617003.
- Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
- Carroll, Michael (2007). The Mindful Leader: Ten Principles for Bringing Out the Best in Ourselves and Others. Shambhala Publications. ISBN9781590303474.
- Schultz, Patricia P; Ryan, Richard M; Niemiec, Christopher P; Legate, Nicole; Williams, Geoffrey C (2014). “Mindfulness, Work Climate, and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Employee Well-being”. Mindfulness. 6 (5): 971. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0338-7.
- Janssen M; et al. (2018). “Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on employees’ mental health: A systematic review”. PLoS One. 13 (1): e0191332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191332. PMC5783379. PMID29364935.
- Lampe M (2012). “Mindfulness-based business ethics education”. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. 16 (3).
- Meditation classes raise attorneys mindfulness (2009). New Orleans CityBusiness.
- Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (2008). Program on Negotiation Webcasts.
- Samuelson, Marlene; Carmody, James; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Bratt, Michael A (2016). “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Massachusetts Correctional Facilities”. The Prison Journal. 87 (2): 254–68. doi:10.1177/0032885507303753.
- Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Slade, Karen; Griffiths, Mark D (2013). “Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: A systematic review”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 18 (3): 365–72. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2013.01.002.
- Dafoe, Terra; Stermac, Lana (2013). “Mindfulness Meditation as an Adjunct Approach to Treatment Within the Correctional System”. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 52 (3): 198–216. doi:10.1080/10509674.2012.752774.
- Rochman, B. (2009, September 6, 2009). Samurai Mind Training for Modern American Warriors. Time.
- Cite error: The named reference
Gotinkwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Sequeira, Sonia (2014). “Foreword to Advances in Meditation Research: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1307 (1): v–vi. Bibcode:2014NYASA1307D…5S. doi:10.1111/nyas.12305. PMID24571183.
- Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EMS, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, et al.Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):357–68. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018PMID24395196
- Tang YY; et al. (2015). “The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 16 (4): 213–25. doi:10.1038/nrn3916. PMID25783612.
- Rogers, Jeffrey M; Ferrari, Madeleine; Mosely, Kylie; Lang, Cathryne P; Brennan, Leah (2017). “Mindfulness-based interventions for adults who are overweight or obese: A meta-analysis of physical and psychological health outcomes”. Obesity Reviews. 18 (1): 51–67. doi:10.1111/obr.12461. PMID27862826.
- Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J (2016). “Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans”. Frontiers in Nutrition. 3: 30. doi:10.3389/fnut.2016.00030. PMC4983552. PMID27574603.
- Colzato, Lorenza S; Kibele, Armin (2017). “How Different Types of Meditation Can Enhance Athletic Performance Depending on the Specific Sport Skills”. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 1 (2): 122–26. doi:10.1007/s41465-017-0018-3.
- Petcharat, Manika; Liehr, Patricia (2017). “Mindfulness training for parents of children with special needs: Guidance for nurses in mental health practice”. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 30 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1111/jcap.12169. PMID28449389.
- Fuchs, Wendy W; Mundschenk, Nancy J; Groark, Brian (2017). “A Promising Practice: School-Based Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Children with Disabilities”. Journal of International Special Needs Education. 20 (2): 56–66. doi:10.9782/2159-4341-20.2.56.
- Cachia, Renee L; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W (2016). “Mindfulness in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Narrative Analysis”. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 3(2): 165–78. doi:10.1007/s40489-016-0074-0.
- Garland, Sheila N; Zhou, Eric S; Gonzalez, Brian D; Rodriguez, Nicole (2016). “The Quest for Mindful Sleep: A Critical Synthesis of the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Insomnia”. Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 2 (3): 142–151. doi:10.1007/s40675-016-0050-3. PMC5300077. PMID28191449.
- Ong, Jason C; Smith, Christine E (2017). “Using Mindfulness for the Treatment of Insomnia”. Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 3 (2): 57–65. doi:10.1007/s40675-017-0068-1.
- Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen (2017). “Aging Mindfully to Minimize Cognitive Decline”. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 1 (2): 108–14. doi:10.1007/s41465-017-0027-2.
- Xu, Jianbin (2017). “A Tripartite Function of Mindfulness in Adjustment to Aging: Acceptance, Integration, and Transcendence”. The Gerontologist. doi:10.1093/geront/gnx100.
- Acevedo, Bianca P; Pospos, Sarah; Lavretsky, Helen (2016). “The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging”. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 3 (4): 328–39. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x. PMC5110576. PMID27909646.
- Hutton, Jane (Sep 2016). “How can mindfulness help patients with skin conditions”. Dermatological Nursing. 15(3): 32–35. OCLC6841989774.
- Isgut, Monica; Smith, Alicia K; Reimann, Eduardo Schuch; Kucuk, Omer; Ryan, Joanne (2017). “The impact of psychological distress during pregnancy on the developing fetus: Biological mechanisms and the potential benefits of mindfulness interventions”. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 45 (9): 999–1011. doi:10.1515/jpm-2016-0189. PMID28141546.
- Dhillon, Anjulie; Sparkes, Elizabeth; Duarte, Rui V (2017). “Mindfulness-Based Interventions During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. Mindfulness. 8 (6): 1421–37. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0726-x. PMC5693962. PMID29201244.
- Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Lee, Laura; Murphy, Gillian; Murphy, Lisa (2016). “The effects of mindfulness interventions on prenatal well-being: A systematic review”. Psychology & Health. 31 (12): 1415–34. doi:10.1080/08870446.2016.1220557. PMID27539908.
- Zeidan, Fadel; Vago, David R (2016). “Mindfulness meditation-based pain relief: A mechanistic account”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1373(1): 114–27. Bibcode:2016NYASA1373..114Z. doi:10.1111/nyas.13153. PMC4941786. PMID27398643.
- Farb, Norman AS; Saab, Bechara J.; Walsh, Kathleen Marie (2019). “Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation App on Subjective Well-Being: Active Randomized Controlled Trial and Experience Sampling Study”. JMIR Mental Health. 6 (1): e10844. doi:10.2196/10844.
- Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I (2013). “Special issue on mindfulness neuroscience”. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 8 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1093/scan/nss104. PMC3541496. PMID22956677.
- Hölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W; Gard, Tim; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Vago, David R; Ott, Ulrich (2011). “How Does Mindfulness Meditation Work? Proposing Mechanisms of Action from a Conceptual and Neural Perspective”. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6 (6): 537–59. doi:10.1177/1745691611419671. PMID26168376.
- Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana (2015). “Mindfulness meditation and explicit and implicit indicators of personality and self-concept changes”. Frontiers in Psychology. 6: 44. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00044. PMC4310269. PMID25688222.
- Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco (2015). “Improving Personality/Character Traits in Individuals with Alcohol Dependence: The Influence of Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation”. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 34 (1): 75–87. doi:10.1080/10550887.2014.991657. PMID25585050.
- Gotink, Rinske A; Meijboom, Rozanna; Vernooij, Meike W; Smits, Marion; Hunink, M.G. Myriam (2016). “8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction induces brain changes similar to traditional long-term meditation practice – A systematic review”. Brain and Cognition. 108: 32–41. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.001. PMID27429096.
- Larouche, Eddy; Hudon, Carol; Goulet, Sonia (2015). “Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: An interdisciplinary perspective”. Behavioural Brain Research. 276: 199–212. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.058. PMID24893317.
- Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E (2017). “The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review”. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 56 (1): 275–86. doi:10.3233/JAD-160899. PMID27983555.
- Simon, Rozalyn; Engström, Maria (2015). “The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation”. Frontiers in Psychology. 06: 776. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00776. PMC4460295. PMID26106351.
- Buric, Ivana; Farias, Miguel; Jong, Jonathan; Mee, Christopher; Brazil, Inti A (2017). “What is the Molecular Signature of Mind–Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices”. Frontiers in Immunology. 8: 670. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00670. PMC5472657. PMID28670311.
- Sanada, Kenji; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Demarzo, Marcelo M. P; Montero-Marín, Jesús; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier (2017). “Effects of mindfulness-based interventions on biomarkers in healthy and cancer populations: A systematic review”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 17 (1): 125. doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1638-y. PMC5324275. PMID28231775.
- Hurley, Dan (January 14, 2014). “Breathing In vs. Spacing Out”. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 9,2014.
- Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Mayer, Emeran A; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Gaser, Christian (2012). “The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 6: 34. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00034. PMC3289949. PMID22393318. Lay summary – UCLA Newsroom (March 14, 2012).
- “Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials”. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. 15 May 2013.
- “Intervention Summary: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)”. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- Brook, R.D.; Appel, L.J.; Rubenfire, M.; Ogedegbe, G.; Bisognano, J.D.; Elliott, W.J.; Fuchs, F.D.; Hughes, J.W.; Lackland, D.T.; Staffileno, B.A.; Townsend, R.R.; Rajagopalan, S. (2013). “Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association”. Hypertension. 61 (6): 1360–83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID23608661.
- Bohlmeijer, Ernst; Prenger, Rilana; Taal, Erik; Cuijpers, Pim (2010). “The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 68 (6): 539–44. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005. PMID20488270.
- Zeidan, F.; Martucci, K.T.; Kraft, R.A.; Gordon, N.S.; McHaffie, J.G.; Coghill, R.C. (2011). “Brain Mechanisms Supporting the Modulation of Pain by Mindfulness Meditation”. Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (14): 5540–48. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5791-10.2011. PMC3090218. PMID21471390.
- Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Alan (2009). “Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review”. Substance Abuse. 30 (4): 266–94. doi:10.1080/08897070903250019. PMC2800788. PMID19904664.
- Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost; Schmidt, Stefan (2013). “A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness-based stress reduction for the fibromyalgia syndrome”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 75(6): 500–10. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.10.010. PMID24290038.
- Cranson, Robert W; Orme-Johnson, David W; Gackenbach, Jayne; Dillbeck, Michael C; Jones, Christopher H; Alexander, Charles N (1991). “Transcendental meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study”. Personality and Individual Differences. 12(10): 1105–16. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90040-I.
- Aron A.; et al. (1981). “‘The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum’ A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning”. College Student Journal. 15: 140–46.
- Dillbeck, Michael C (1982). “Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving”. Memory & Cognition. 10 (3): 207–15. doi:10.3758/bf03197631. PMID6750312.
- Dillbeck, Michael C; Assimakis, Panayotis D; Raimondi, Dennis; Orme-Johnson, David W; Rowe, Robin (2016). “Longitudinal Effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program on Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Style”. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 62 (3): 731–38. doi:10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.111.
- Fergusson, Lee C; Bonshek, Anna J; Masson, Gildas Le (2006). “Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia”. Higher Education Research & Development. 15: 73–82. doi:10.1080/0729436960150106.
- Jedrczak, Andrew; Toomey, Michael; Clements, Geoffrey (1986). “The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief tests of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence”. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 42 (1): 161–64. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198601)42:1<161::aid-jclp2270420127>3.0.co;2-w. PMID3512605.
- Schoenberg, Poppy L.A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E.M (2014). “Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. Clinical Neurophysiology. 125 (7): 1407–16. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.11.031. PMID24374088.
- McLean, G; Lawrence, M; Simpson, R; Mercer, S. W (2017). “Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review”. BMC Neurology. 17(1): 92. doi:10.1186/s12883-017-0876-4. PMC5433018. PMID28506263.
- Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara (2016). “The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. PLOS ONE. 11(5): e0155720. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1155720L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155720. PMC4868288. PMID27182732.
- Grossman, Paul (2008). “On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 64 (4): 405–08. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.02.001. PMID18374739.
- Wallace, B. Alan (2006). The attention revolution: Unlocking the power of the focused mind. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN978-0861712762.
- Chiesa, Alberto (2012). “The Difficulty of Defining Mindfulness: Current Thought and Critical Issues”. Mindfulness. 4 (3): 255–68. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0123-4.
- Safran 2014.
- Bazzano 2014.
- Giesler, Markus; Veresiu, Ela (2014). “Creating the Responsible Consumer: Moralistic Governance Regimes and Consumer Subjectivity”. Journal of Consumer Research. 41 (October): 849–67. doi:10.1086/677842.
- Safran, Jeremy D., PhD. “McMindfulness.” Psychology Today. n.p., 13 June 2014. Web. 2 April 2015. <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/straight-talk/201406/mcmindfulness>.
- Shonin, Edo (August 27, 2015). Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness (Mindfulness in Behavioral Health) (1st ed.). Springer. pp. 90–94.
- Foster, Dawn (2016-01-23). “Is mindfulness making us ill?”. theguardian. Guardian News. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- Shonin, Edo; Gordon, William Van; Griffiths, Mark D (2014). “Are there risks associated with using mindfulness in the treatment of psychopathology?”. Clinical Practice. 11 (4): 389–92. doi:10.2217/cpr.14.23.
- Wong SY; et al. (2018). “The Safety of Mindfulness-Based Interventions: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Mindfulness: 1–14.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia