Hinduism’s Sacred Texts

Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures. These include the Vedas and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term “Hindu scripture” given the diverse nature of Hinduism, many include Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as Hindu scriptures, while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and Yajnavalkya Smriti to the list of Hindu scriptures.

There are two historic classifications of Hindu textsShruti – that which is heard, and Smriti – that which is remembered. The Śruti refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts, believed to be eternal knowledge authored neither by human nor divine agent but transmitted by sages (rishis). These comprise the central canon of Hinduism. It includes the four Vedas including its four types of embedded texts – the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads. Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.

The Smriti texts are a specific body of Hindu texts attributed to an author, as a derivative work they are considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism. The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, and includes but is not limited to Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society.

Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts were composed in Sanskrit, many others in regional Indian languages. In modern times, most ancient texts have been translated into other Indian languages and some in Western languages. Prior to the start of the common era, the Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennia before they were written down into manuscripts. This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.

Gita_Govinda

Manuscripts of 18th-century Hindu texts in a regional language Odiya

Vedas

Main article: Vedas

Sanskrit manuscripts colophon

जलाद्रक्षेत्तैलाद्रक्षेद्रक्षेच्छिथिलबन्धनात् |
मूर्खहस्ते न मां दद्यादिति वदति पुस्तकम् ||

‘Save me from water,
protect me from oil,
and from loose binding,
And do not give me into the hands of fools!’
says the manuscript.

Anonymous verse frequently found
at the end of Sanskrit manuscripts

The Vedas are a large body of Hindu texts originating in ancient India, with its Samhita and Brahmanas complete before about 800 BCE. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means “not of a man, superhuman” and “impersonal, authorless”. The knowledge in the Vedas is believed in Hinduism to be eternal, uncreated, neither authored by human nor by divine source, but seen, heard and transmitted by sages.

Vedas are also called śruti (“what is heard”) literature, distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti (“what is remembered”). The Veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations, some way or other the work of the Deity. In the Hindu Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma.

There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda. Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the Brahmanas(commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (text discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna’s counsel to Arjuna on the battlefield of the Kurukshetra.

Upanishads

Main article: Upanishads

The Upanishads are a collection of Hindu texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism.

The Upanishads are commonly referred to as Vedānta, variously interpreted to mean either the “last chapters, parts of the Veda” or “the object, the highest purpose of the Veda”. The concepts of Brahman(Ultimate Reality) and Ātman (Soul, Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads, and “Know your Ātman” their thematic focus. The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions. Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads have had a lasting influence on Hindu philosophy.

More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads. The mukhya Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down verbally. The early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, some in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE), down to the Maurya period. Of the remainder, some 95 Upanishads are part of the Muktika canon, composed from about the start of common era through medieval Hinduism. New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued being composed through the early modern and modern era, though often dealing with subjects unconnected to Hinduism.

Post-Vedic texts

The texts that appeared afterwards were called smriti. Smriti literature includes various Shastras and Itihasas (epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata), Harivamsa Puranas, Agamas and Darshanas.

The Sutras and Shastras texts were compilations of technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area. The earliest are dated to later half of the 1st millennium BCE. The Dharma-shastras (law books), derivatives of the Dharma-sutras. Other examples were bhautikashastra “physics”, rasayanashastra “chemistry”, jīvashastra “biology”, vastushastra “architectural science”, shilpashastra “science of sculpture”, arthashastra “economics” and nītishastra “political science”. It also includes Tantras and Agama literature.

This genre of texts includes the Sutras and Shastras of the six schools of Hindu philosophy.

Puranas

Main article: Puranas

The Puranas are a vast genre of Hindu texts that encyclopedically cover a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages, several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva and Goddess Devi.

The Puranic literature is encyclopedic, and it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy. The content is highly inconsistent across the Puranas, and each Purana has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent. The Hindu Puranas are anonymous texts and likely the work of many authors over the centuries; in contrast, most Jaina Puranas can be dated and their authors assigned.

There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered a Smriti. These Hindu texts have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism. The Bhagavata Purana has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre.

The Tevaram Saivite hymns

The Tevaram is a body of remarkable hymns exuding Bhakti composed more than 1400–1200 years ago in the classical Tamil language by three Saivite composers. They are credited with igniting the Bhakti movement in the whole of India.

Divya Prabandha Vaishnavite hymns

The Nalayira Divya Prabandha (or Nalayira (4000) Divya Prabhamdham) is a divine collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means ‘four thousand’) composed before 8th century AD [1], by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The Alvars sung these songs at various sacred shrines. These shrines are known as the Divya Desams.

In South India, especially in Tamil Nadu, the Divya Prabhandha is considered as equal to the Vedas, hence the epithet Dravida Veda. In many temples, Srirangam, for example, the chanting of the Divya Prabhandham forms a major part of the daily service. Prominent among the 4,000 verses are the 1,100+ verses known as the Thiru Vaaymozhi, composed by Nammalvar (Kaaril Maaran Sadagopan) of Thiruk Kurugoor.

Other Hindu texts

Hindu texts for specific fields, in Sanskrit and other regional languages, have been reviewed as follows,

Field Reviewer
Agriculture and food Gyula Wojtilla
Architecture P Acharya,
B Dagens
Devotionalism Karen Pechelis
Drama, dance and performance arts AB Keith,
Rachel Baumer and James Brandon,
Mohan Khokar
Education, school system Hartmut Scharfe
Epics John Brockington
Gnomic and didactic literature Ludwik Sternbach
Grammar Hartmut Scharfe
Law and jurisprudence J Duncan M Derrett
Lexicography Claus Vogel
Mathematics and exact sciences Kim Plofker
David Pingree
Medicine MS Valiathan,
Kenneth Zysk
Music Emmie te Nijenhuis,
Lewis Rowell
Mythology Ludo Rocher
Philosophy Karl Potter
Poetics Edwin Gerow, Siegfried Lienhard
Gender and Sex Johann Jakob Meyer
State craft, politics Patrick Olivelle
Tantrism, Agamas Teun Goudriaan
Temples, Sculpture Stella Kramrisch
Scriptures (Vedas and Upanishads) Jan Gonda

Origin of arts and sciences in India

The Hindu scriptures provide the early documented history and origin of arts and sciences forms in India such as music, dance, sculptures, architecture, astronomy, science, mathematics, medicine and wellness. Valmiki’s Ramayana (500 BCE to 100 BCE) mentions music and singing by Gandharvas, dance by Apsaras such as Urvashi, Rambha, Menaka, Tilottama Panchāpsaras, and by Ravana’s wives who excelling in nrityageeta or “singing and dancing” and nritavaditra or “playing musical instruments”). The evidence of earliest dance related texts are in Natasutras, which are mentioned in the text of Panini, the sage who wrote the classic on Sanskrit grammar, and who is dated to about 500 BCE. This performance arts related Sutra text is mentioned in other late Vedic texts, as are two scholars names Shilalin (IAST: Śilālin) and Krishashva (Kṛśaśva), credited to be pioneers in the studies of ancient drama, singing, dance and Sanskrit compositions for these arts. Richmond et al estimate the Natasutras to have been composed around 600 BCE, whose complete manuscript has not survived into the modern age.

See also

Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Reading Materials

The Vedas

There are four Vedas, the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism. They also had a vast influence on Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Traditionally the text of the Vedas was coeval with the universe. Scholars have determined that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the four Vedas, was composed about 1500 B.C., and codified about 600 B.C. It is unknown when it was finally committed to writing, but this probably was at some point after 300 B.C.

The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. Along with the Book of the Dead, the Enuma Elish, the I Ching, and the Avesta, they are among the most ancient religious texts still in existence. Besides their spiritual value, they also give a unique view of everyday life in India four thousand years ago. The Vedas are also the most ancient extensive texts in an Indo-European language, and as such are invaluable in the study of comparative linguistics.

The Rig-Veda
translated by Ralph Griffith [1896]
A complete English translation of the Rig Veda.

Rig-Veda (Sanskrit)
The complete Rig Veda in Sanskrit, in Unicode Devanagari script and standard romanization.

Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE 32)
Hymns to the Maruts, Rudra, Vâyu and Vâta, tr. by F. Max Müller [1891]
A masterpiece of linguistics and comparative mythology: translations and deep analysis of the Vedic Hymns to the Storm Gods.

Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE 46)
Hymns to Agni, tr. by Hermann Oldenberg [1897]
The Vedic Hymns to Agni.

A Vedic Reader for Students (excerpts)
by A.A. Macdonell [1917]
An introduction to the Dramatis Personæ of the Rig Veda.

Sama Veda

The Sama-Veda
translated by Ralph Griffith [1895]
A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda. This is a complete translation.

Yajur Veda

The Yajur Veda (Taittiriya Sanhita)
translated by Arthur Berriedale Keith [1914]
A complete translation of the Black Yajur Veda. The Yajur Veda is a detailed manual of the Vedic sacrificial rites.

The Texts of the White Yajurveda
translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith [1899]
A complete translation of the White Yajur Veda.

Atharva Veda

The Atharva Veda also contains material from the Rig Veda, but of interest are the numerous incantations and metaphysical texts, which this anthology (part of the Sacred Books of the East series) collects and categorizes. The Atharva Veda was written down much later than the rest of the Vedas, about 200 B.C.; it may have been composed about 1000 B.C.

The Hymns of the Atharvaveda
translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith [1895-6]
The unabridged Atharva Veda translation by Ralph Griffith.

The Atharva-Veda
translated by Maurice Bloomfield [1897]
(Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 42)
The Sacred Books of the East translation of the Atharva-veda. Selected hymns from the Atharva-veda.

Upanishads

The Upanishads are a continuation of the Vedic philosophy, and were written between 800 and 400 B.C. They elaborate on how the soul (Atman) can be united with the ultimate truth (Brahman) through contemplation and mediation, as well as the doctrine of Karma— the cumulative effects of a persons’ actions.

The Upanishads (Sacred Books of the East, vols. 1 and 15):

The Upanishads, Part I (SBE 1)
Max Müller, translator [1879]
The Chandogya, Talavakara, Aitreya-Aranyaka, the Kaushitaki-Brahmana, and the Vajasaneyi Samhita Upanishads
The Upanishads, Part II (SBE 15)
Max Müller, translator [1884]
Katha, Mundaka, Taittirîyaka, Brihadâranyaka, Svetâsvatara, Prasña, and Maitrâyana Brâhmana Upanishads.

Thirty Minor Upanishads
by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar [1914]
Thirty shorter Upanishads, principally dealing with Yogic thought and practice.

From the Upanishads
Charles Johnston, translator [1889]
Translations from the Katha, Prasna and Chhandogya Upanishads.

Puranas

The Puranas are post-Vedic texts which typically contain a complete narrative of the history of the Universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of the kings, heroes and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology and geography. There are 17 or 18 canonical Puranas, divided into three categories, each named after a deity: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. There are also many other works termed Purana, known as ‘Upapuranas.’

The Vishnu Purana
by H.H. Wilson [1840]
A primary text of the Vaishnava branch of Hinduism, and one of the canonical Puranas of the Vishnu category. Among the portions of interest are a cycle of legends of the boyhood deeds of Krishna and Rama. H.H. Wilson was one of the first Europeans to translate a Hindu sacred text from the original Sanskrit. His style and annotations are exceptional and very readable.

The Garuda Purana
translated by Ernest Wood and S.V. Subrahmanyam [1911]
A Vishnu Purana with Dantesque descriptions of the afterlife, and details of Hindu funeral rites.

The S’rimad Devî Bhâgawatam
translated by Swami Vijnanananda (Hari Prasanna Chatterji) [1921]
One of the Upapuranas, devoted to the Devi (Goddess).

The Devî Gita
translated by Swami Vijnanananda (Hari Prasanna Chatterji) [1921]
The Song of the Goddess. An excerpt from the S’rimad Devî Bhâgawatam (above)

The Prem Sagur
(Prem Sagar) by Lallu Lal, translated by W. Hollings [1848]
English translation of a popular Hindi retelling of the Krishna cycle, based on the tenth book of the Bhagavata Purana.

The Transmigration of the Seven Brahmans
translated by Henry David Thoreau [1931]
An excerpt from the Harivamsa, a Puranic text, translated by the American transcendentalist philosopher.

Kundalini: The Mother of the Universe
by Rishi Singh Gherwal [1930]
Includes an English translation of the Lalita Sahasranama, the ‘Thousand Names of the Goddess,’ from the Brahmanda Purana.

Other Primary Texts

The Laws of Manu
George Bühler, translator [1886]
(Sacred Books of the East, vol. 25)
Manu was the legendary first man, the Adam of the Hindus. This is a collection of laws attributed to Manu.

The Sacred Laws of the Âryas, Part I (SBE 2)
George Bühler translator [1879]
(Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 2)
Hindu law books written by the sages Âpastamba and Gautama, in the first millenium B.C.

The Sacred Laws of the Âryas, Part II (SBE 14)
George Bühler translator [1879]
(Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 14)
Hindu law books written by the sages Vasishtha and Baudhâyana, in the first millenium B.C.

The Institutes of Vishnu (SBE 7)
Julius Jolly, translator [1880]
(Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 7)
This Hindu law book contains descriptions of yogic practises, and a moving hymn to the Goddess Prajapati.

The Minor Law Books (SBE 33)
Julius Jolly, translator [1880]
(Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 33)
Later Hindu law books written by Narada and Brihaspati about 600 CE.

The Satapatha Brahmana
A primary source for Vedic-era mythology, philosophy and magical practices. The complete five part Sacred Books of the East Satapatha Brahmana translation is now online:
Satapatha Brahmana, Part I (SBE12)
Satapatha Brahmana, Part II (SBE26)
Satapatha Brahmana, Part III (SBE41)
Satapatha Brahmana, Part IV (SBE43)
Satapatha Brahmana, Part V (SBE44)

The Grihya Sutras, Part 1 (SBE 29)
Hermann Oldenberg, tr. [1886]
The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE 30)
Hermann Oldenberg, tr. [1892]
Ancient Hindu household rites, including fertility, marriage, purity, initiations, and funerals.

The Epics

The Mahabharata and Ramayana are the national epics of India. They are probably the longest poems in any language. The Mahabharata, attributed to the sage Vyasa, was written down from 540 to 300 B.C. The Mahabharata tells the legends of the Bharatas, a Vedic Aryan group. The Ramayana, attributed to the poet Valmiki, was written down during the first century A.D., although it is based on oral traditions that go back six or seven centuries earlier. The Ramayana is a moving love story with moral and spiritual themes that has deep appeal in India to this day.

In addition, a key Hindu sacred text, the Bhagavad Gita, is embedded in Book Six of the Mahabharata.

Mahabharata

The Mahabharata
translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896]
Digitizing this unabridged translation of the Mahabharata was a joint venture between sacred-texts and Project Gutenberg.

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit
The text of the Mahabharata with parallel Devanagari and Romanization Unicode.

The Ramayana

Rámáyan Of Válmíki
translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith [1870-1874]
The first complete public domain translation of the Ramayana to be placed online.

The Ramayana in Sanskrit
The text of the Ramayana with parallel Unicode Devanagari and Romanization.

Abridged Versions

The Ramayana and Mahabharata
R. Dutt translator [1899]
A very readable abridged version of these epics.

Indian Idylls
Sir Edwin Arnold, translator [1883]
More stories from the Mahabharata, rendered in poetry.

Love and Death
by Sri Arobindo [1921]
The popular story of Ruru and Priyumvada from the Mahabharata.

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita, usually considered part of the sixth book of the Mahabharata (dating from about 400 or 300 B.C.), is a central text of Hinduism, a philosphical dialog between the god Krishna and the warrior Arjuna. This is one of the most popular and accessible of all Hindu scriptures, required reading for anyone interested in Hinduism. The Gita discusses selflessness, duty, devotion, and meditation, integrating many different threads of Hindu philosophy.

The Bhagavadgîtâ (SBE 8)
with the Sanatsugâtîya and the Anugîtâ translated by Kâshinâth Trimbak Telang, (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 8) [1882]
A scholarly prose translation of the Bhagavad Gita with two other similar, less well known, works from the Mahabharata.

The Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit
A Unicode presentation of the Gita in Romanized Sanskrit.

Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita
by Swami Swarupananda [1909]
A modern English prose translation of the Gita with commentary.

The Bhagavad Gita
A modern prose translation of the Gita, sanctioned by the International Gita Society.

The Bhagavad Gita
Sir Edwin Arnold, translator [1885]
A classic poetic version of the Gita.

Vedanta

The Vedântâ-Sûtras (SBE 48)
with commentary by Râmânuja, translated by George Thibaut; (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 48) [1904]

The Vedântâ-Sûtras Part I (SBE 34)
with commentary by Sankarâkârya, translated by George Thibaut; (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 34) [1890]

The Vedântâ-Sûtras Part II (SBE 38)
with commentary by Sankarâkârya, translated by George Thibaut; (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 38) [1896]

The Crest-Jewel of Wisdom
and other writings of Śankarâchârya; translation and commentaries by Charles Johnston [1946]

Brahma-Knowledge
by L.D. Barnett [1911]
A short exposition of the Hindu Vedanta philosophy.

Select Works of Sri Sankaracharya
tr. by S. Venkataramanan [1921]
A selection of works by the non-dualist Vedanta philosopher.

Later Texts

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Charles Johnston [1912]
This concise work describes an early stage in the philosophy and practise of Yoga. Dating from about 150 B.C., the work shows dualist and Buddhist influences. Required reading if you are interested in Yoga or meditation.

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Another translation of this classic text of Yoga.

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika
translated by Pancham Sinh [1914]
The oldest extant work about Hatha Yoga, including the full Sanskrit text.

Dakshinamurti Stotra
translated by Alladi Mahadeva Sastri [1920]
Comparing Hindu schools of thought on the nature of reality.

The Sánkhya Aphorisms of Kapila
translated by James R. Ballantyne [1885]

Kalidasa: Translations of Shakuntala and Other Works
by Kalidasa, (fifth century C.E.), tr. by Arthur W. Ryder [1914]
The master dramas of the ‘Shakespeare of India,’ including Shakuntala.

The Little Clay Cart
by Shudraka tr. by Arthur W. Ryder [1905]
The earliest Indian drama, a screwball comedy of manners, with a cast of courtesans, kings and scoundrels.

Verses of Vemana
by Vemana (17th century), tr. from the Telugu by C.P. Brown [1829Verses of devotion by a Dravidian South Indian poet.

Black Marigolds
(Caurapañcāśikā) by Bilhana, tr. by Edward Powys Mathers [1919]
A free verse translation of Bilhana, an 11th century Kashmiri poet.

Vikram and the Vampire
tr. by Sir Richard Burton. [1870]
Tales of a Vampire Scheherazade.

Hymns of the Tamil Saivite Saints
tr. by F. Kingsbury and G.P. Phillips [1829]
Popular Tamil Hindu devotional poetry by worshippers of the god Shiva.

Songs of Kabîr
Kabir, tr. by Rabindranath Tagore, Introduction by Evelyn Underhill; New York, The Macmillan Company; [1915]
Kabir’s mystical and devotional poetry has been found inspirational by people of many different faiths. Kabir tried to find common ground between Hindus and Muslims.
Yoga Vashisht or Heaven Found
by Rishi Singh Gherwal [1930]
Excerpts from the shorter Yoga Vasishta

Modern Books

Relax with Yoga
by Arthur Liebers [1960]
An introduction to modern Raja Yoga, with photos of asanas.

Great Systems of Yoga
by Ernest Wood [1954]
A review of the Yogic systems.

Old Deccan Days
by Mary Frere [1868]

Ramakrishna, His Life and Sayings
by F. Max Müller [1898]
The collected words of the Hindu sage from a humble background who transcended arbitrary religious boundaries.

The Gospel of Ramakrishna
by Mahendra Nath Gupta, ed. by Swami Abhedananda [1907]
First-hand accounts of the Bengali holy man who preached the unity of religions.

Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic
by W.J. Wilkins [1900]
A detailed walkthrough of the Hindu Gods and Goddesses.

How To Be A Yogi
by Swâmi Abhedânanda [1902A road-map of the Yogic schools.

Twenty-two Goblins
by Arthur W. Ryder [1912]

Indian Fairy Tales
by Joseph Jacobs [1912]

Indian Myth and Legend
by Donald A. Mackenzie [1913]
Hindu mythology from the earliest times through the Mahabharata and Rayamaya.

Karma-Yoga
by Swami Vivekananda [1921]
Can work be holy?

Hindu Mysticism
by S.N. Dasgupta [1927]

Writings of Sister Nivedita (Margaret E. Noble)

Kali the Mother
by Sister Nivedita (Margaret E. Noble) [1900]
Sister Nivedita’s devotional writings to the Mother goddess Kali.
The Web of Indian Life
by Sister Nivedita (Margaret E. Noble) [1904]
Studies from an Eastern Home
by Sister Nivedita (Margaret E. Noble) [1913]
Writings of Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali [1913]
Saddhana, The Realisation of Life [1915]
The Crescent Moon [1916]
Fruit-Gathering [1916]
Stray Birds [1916]
The Home and the World [1915]
Thought Relics [1921]
Songs of Kabîr [1915]
The Indian Stories of F.W. Bain

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