Philosophy looks at the meaning of life, considering topics and questions surrounding human existence and experience, society, knowledge, and the universe.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation

Principle of Sufficient Reason

Principle of Sufficient Reason The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause. The modern[1] formulation of the principle is usually attributed to Gottfried Leibniz,[2] although the idea was conceived of and utilized by various philosophers who preceded him, including Anaximander,[3] Parmenides, Archimedes,[4] Plato and Aristotle,[5] Cicero,[5] Avicenna,[6] Thomas Aquinas, and Spinoza.[7] Some philosophers have associated the principle of sufficient reason with “ex...

Compatibilism

What Is Compatibilism? This article is about the philosophical view on free will.  Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.[1] Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics.[2] They...

Voluntarism In Philosophy

What Is Voluntarism In Philosophy? Voluntarism is “any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect”,[1] or, equivalently, “the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct”.[2] This description has been applied to various points of view,...

Disciples of Confucius

Disciples of Confucius According to Sima Qian, Confucius said: “The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of extraordinary ability.” It was traditionally believed that Confucius had three thousand students, but that only 72 mastered what he taught. The following is a list...

Confucius

Who Is Confucius? Confucius  孔子 The teaching Confucius. Portrait by Wu Daozi, 685–758, Tang dynasty. Born 551 BC Zou, Lu, Zhou Kingdom (present-day Nanxinzhen, Qufu, Shandong, China) Died 479 BC (aged 71–72) Lu, Zhou Kingdom Nationality Zhou   Era Ancient philosophy Region Chinese philosophy School Confucianism Main interests Moral philosophy, social philosophy, ethics Notable ideas Confucianism, Golden Rule Confucius was a Chinese...

Philosophy

What Is Philosophy? Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally “love of wisdom”[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.[7][8] Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it?[9][10][11] What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and...

The Discipline of Philosophy

The Discipline of Philosophy Philosophy looks at the meaning of life, considering topics and questions surrounding human existence and experience, society, knowledge, and the universe. There are many branches of philosophy, the main ones being logic, or the structure of argument and rational thought; metaphysics, the study of all that...

Individualism and Solitude

Many of the fundamental doctrines and attributes of Western civilization are a mixture of Greek-Roman values and a distorted Christianity. They are ultimately derived from ancient, pagan myths, one of the best harms of which is the legend of Prometheus who ‘stole’ fire from the gods at the risk of...

Epicurus’ Principal Doctrines

Epicurus’ Principal Doctrines, Edited by Glyn Hughes © 2005 “No pleasure is a bad thing in itself”   INTRODUCTION to Epicurus’s Sovran Maxims Epicurus was born in 341BC on the island of Samos. He studied philosophy under the successors of Democritus and Plato, and eventually founded his own school and...

Epicurus

Epicurus by Wikipedia Epicurus (Ancient Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epikouros, “ally, comrade”; 341 BCE – 270 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus’s 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean...

Language and Thought

Language is one of the fundamental dynamics in the compo­sition of a culture. The power of a nation is directly pro­portional to the power and richness of its language and thought. A perfect command of language and the ability to engage easily in dialogue with others protect a person from...

Speech and Power of Expression

Divine Knowledge has designed the scheme of existence, while His Speech has drawn its architecture.1 After emerg­ing as twins in the most intimate sanctuary of the un­changing essence (ayan al-thabitah), creation and Speech took on physical forms. In creating humankind, the Most Merciful gave us the ability to speak of the...

Bediüzzaman Said Nursi’s short biography

>Said Nursi, also widely known as Bediuzzaman (the Wonder of the Age) was born in 1877 in eastern Turkey. Bediuzzaman displayed an extraordinary intelligence and ability to learn from an early age, completing the normal course of religious school education at the early age of fourteen, when he obtained his...

Bediüzzaman’s accomplishments

>Bediuzzaman had immersed himself in the Holy Book, searching for a way torelate its truths to modern man. In Barla in his isolation he began to write treatises explaining and proving these truths, for now the Holy Book itself and its truths were under direct attack. The first of these...

Who Is Confucius?

Confucius Confucius was born around the year 551 BC in China, in a very humble environment. It is said that he was orphaned as a small boy, since there is no records of his parents. While he was growing up China was in despair with warfare and corruption running rampant....

M. Fethullah Gülen

A BRIEF HISTORY A man for all seasons, M. Fethullah Gülen was born in tiny village of Korucuk, in Erzurum Province, Eastern Turkey, in November 1938. His family tree is traced to a noble lineage. He comes from a long line of learned scholars. Born with an insatiable appetite for...

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