Philosophy looks at the meaning of life, considering topics and questions surrounding human existence and experience, society, knowledge, and the universe.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation

Magical Thinking

What Is Magical Thinking? Magical thinking is a term used in anthropology, philosophy and psychology, denoting the causal relationships between actions and events. There are subtle differences in meaning between individual theorists as well as amongst fields of study. In anthropology, it denotes the attribution of causality between entities grouped with one another (coincidence) or similar to one another....

Rumi

Rumi Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی‎), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ – Mawlānā (مولانا, “our master”), Mevlevî – Mawlawī (مولوی, “my master”), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century Persian[8][1][9] poet, jurist, Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan.[9][10] Rumi’s influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians,...

whirling dervish

Sufi Philosophy

Sufi Philosophy Sufi philosophy includes the schools of thought unique to Sufism, a mystical branch within Islam, also termed as Tasawwuf or Faqr according to its adherents. Sufism and its philosophical traditions may be associated with both Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. It has been suggested that Sufi thought emerged from the Middle East in the eighth century, but adherents are now found around...

Divine Illumination

What Is Divine Illumination? According to divine illumination, the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace. It is the oldest and most influential alternative to naturalism in the theory of mind and epistemology.[1] It was an important feature of ancient Greek philosophy, Neoplatonism, medieval philosophy, and the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy....

Hasidic Philosophy

Hasidic Philosophy Hasidic philosophy or Hasidism (חסידות), alternatively transliterated as Hasidut or Chassidus, consists of the teachings of the Hasidic movement, which are the teachings of the Hasidic rebbes, often in the form of commentary on the Torah (the Five books of Moses) and Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). Hasidism deals with a range of...

Theology

What Is Theology? Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries.[1] Theology is basically the study of deities or their scriptures[2] in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology...

Brahman

Brahman In Hindu philosophy, Brahman (ब्रह्म) is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists and the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.[1][2][3][4][1][5] These schools of thought also consider Brahman to be the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[4][6][7] Brahman as a metaphysical concept...

Aristotelian Theology

Aristotelian Theology Aristotelian theology and the scholastic view of God have been influential in Western intellectual history. Metaphysics In his first philosophy, later called the Metaphysics, (or “after the Physics”), Aristotle discusses the meaning of being as being. He refers to the unmoved movers (hyperagents), and assigns one to each movement in the heavens and tasks future astronomers with correlating the estimated 47 to...

What Is Theism?

What Is Theism? Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.[1][2] In common parlance, or when contrasted with deism, the term often describes the classical conception of God that is found in monotheism (also referred to as classical theism) – or gods found in polytheistic religions—a belief in God or in gods without the rejection of revelation as is...

What Is “Ex Nihilo”?

What Is “Ex Nihilo”? Ex nihilo is a Latin phrase meaning “out of nothing”. It often appears in conjunction with the concept of creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning “creation out of nothing”, chiefly in philosophical or theological contexts, but it also occurs in other fields. In theology, the common phrase creatio ex nihilo (lit. ”creation out of nothing”), contrasts...

Intelligent Designer

Intelligent Designer An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the hypothetical willed and self-aware entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life. The term “intelligent cause” is also used, implying their teleological supposition of direction and purpose in features of the universe and of living things. History The popularly...

The All

The All The All (also called The One, The Absolute, The Great One, The Creator, The Supreme Mind, The Supreme Good, The Father, and The All Mother) is the Hermetic, pantheistic, pandeistic or panentheistic view of God, which is that everything that is, or at least that can be experienced, collectively makes up The All. One Hermetic maxim states, “While...

Open Theism

Open Theism Open theism, also known as openness theology and free will theism,[1] is a theological movement that has developed within evangelical and post-evangelical Protestant Christianity as a response to ideas related to the synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian theology. It is typically advanced as a biblically motivated and philosophically consistent theology of human and divine freedom (in the libertarian sense), with an emphasis on...

who created god?

Given That God Created Everything, Who Created God?

Given That God Created Everything, Who Created God? At best, the question is based on perceived “cause and effect” relationships. Everything can be thought of as an effect and attributed to a prior cause that, in turn, is attributed to a prior cause, and so on. However, we must remember...

Classical Theism

Classical Theism Classical theism is a form of theism in which God is characterized as the absolutely metaphysically ultimate being, in contrast to other conceptions such as pantheism, panentheism, polytheism, deism and process theism. Classical theism is a form of monotheism. Whereas most monotheists agree that God is, at minimum, all-knowing, all-powerful, and completely...

God in Judaism

God in Judaism In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.[1] Traditionally, Judaism holds that YHWH, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as...

Ontological Argument for The Existence of God

Ontological Argument

Ontological Argument for The Existence of God An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology. Many arguments fall under the category of the ontological, and they tend to involve arguments about the state of being or existing. More specifically, ontological arguments tend to start with a priori theory about...

Five Ways (Aquinas’ The Quinque Viae)

Five Ways (Aquinas’ The Quinque Viae) The quinque viae (Latin “Five Ways“) (sometimes called “five proofs”) are five logical arguments regarding the existence of God summarized by the 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian St. Thomas Aquinas in his book Summa Theologica. They are: the argument from metaphysical motion; the argument from efficient causation; the argument from contingency; the argument from degrees of being; the argument from...

Existence of God

Existence of God The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.[1] A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of God involves the disciplines of epistemology (the nature and scope of knowledge) and ontology (study of the...

Panentheism

What Is Panentheism? Panentheism (meaning “all-in-God”)[1] is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond space and time. The term was coined by the German philosopher Karl Krause in 1828 to distinguish the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) about the relation of God and the universe from the...

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