Protestantism

Protestantism – one of the major groupings within Christianity, and has been defined as “any Western Christian who is not an adherent of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church,” though some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant as well.

 

Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with a total of 800 million to 1 billion adherents worldwide or about 37% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals sola scriptura). The “five solae” summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.

strengthen your faith

Sola Fide

Sola Fide Justificatio sola fide (or simply sola fide), meaning justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish many Protestant denominations from the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches. The doctrine asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the law of God rather than on the basis...

Holiness Movement

Holiness Movement The Holiness movement involves a set of Christian beliefs and practices that emerged chiefly within 19th-century Methodism, and to a lesser extent other traditions such as Quakerism and Anabaptism. The movement is Wesleyan-Arminian in theology, and is defined by its emphasis on the doctrine of a second work of grace leading to Christian perfection. A number of evangelical Christian denominations, parachurch...

Hutterite women at work

Hutterites

Hutterites Hutterites (Hutterer), also called Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder), are a communal ethnoreligious branch of Anabaptists, who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the early 16th century. The founder of the Hutterites, Jacob Hutter, “established the Hutterite colonies on the basis of the...

Sola Scriptura

Sola Scriptura

Sola Scriptura Sola scriptura (by scripture alone in English) is a theological doctrine held by some Protestant Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible source of authority for Christian faith and practice. While the scriptures’ meaning is mediated through many kinds of subordinate authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church,...

The compass rose flag of the Anglican Communion

Anglican Communion

Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the fourth largest Christian denomination. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571)....

St Peter And St Paul Church Medieval Anglican

Anglican Sacraments

Anglican Sacraments In keeping with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or “middle path” of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the catholic tradition and a church of the Reformation. With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic tradition is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance of...

Lutheran Sacraments

Lutheran Sacraments

Lutheran Sacraments The Lutheran sacraments are “sacred acts of divine institution”. Lutherans believe that, whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God along with the divine words of institution, God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component. They teach...

Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899

Protestant Culture

Protestant Culture Although the Reformation was a religious movement, Protestant culture also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts. Protestant culture is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the...

Germantown Mennonite Meetinghouse, built 1770

Mennonites

Mennonites The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland. Through his writings, Simons articulated and formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders. The early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the...

A map of the worldwide scope of the Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren (“Schwarzenau New Baptists”) that was organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany, as a melding of the Radical Pietist and Anabaptist movements. The denomination holds the New Testament as its only creed. Historically, the church has taken a strong stance for nonresistance or pacifism—it is one of the...

Peace Graffiti Street Art Art Children War

Peace Churches

Peace Churches Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers specifically only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); and Mennonites, including the Amish, Old Order Mennonite, and Conservative Mennonites—and has been used since the first conference of the peace churches in...

Hannah Cohoon, Tree of Life or Blazing Tree, 1845

Shakers

Shakers: Who are They? The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, are a millenarian nontrinitarian restorationist Christian sect founded circa 1747 in England and then organized in the United States in the 1780s. They were initially known as “Shaking Quakers” because of their ecstatic behavior during worship services. Espousing...

Amish Persons Man Women People Amish Gathering

Amish

Amish The Amish (Amisch or Amische) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of modern conveniences such as cars, zippers and electricity. The Amish separate themselves from mainstream society for religious reasons. They do not join the military, apply for Social Security...

Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620)

Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and largely ended with the conclusion of the European wars of religion in 1648. Initiated to address the effects...

Edward VI and the Pope: An Allegory of the Reformation. This Elizabethan work of propaganda depicts the handing over of power from Henry VIII, who lies dying in bed, to Edward VI, seated beneath a cloth of state with a slumping pope at his feet. In the top right of the picture is an image of men pulling down and smashing idols. At Edward's side are his uncle the Lord Protector Edward Seymour and members of the Privy Council.[176]

English Reformation

English Reformation The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central...

Rorate Mass in Prague Cathedral, Czech Republic

Advent

Advent Advent is a season of the liturgical year observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas and the return of Jesus at the Second Coming. Advent is the beginning of the Western liturgical year. The term “Advent” is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy for the 40-day Nativity...

The adventist church of Karjasilta, Oulu, Finland

Adventism

Adventism Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity that believes in the imminent Second Coming (or “Second Advent“) of Jesus Christ. It originated in the 1830s in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming would occur at some...

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

Calvinism

Calvinism Calvinism (the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of...

Billy Graham was a notable harbinger of the Fourth Great Awakening.

Fourth Great Awakening

Fourth Great Awakening The Fourth Great Awakening was a Christian awakening that some scholars — most notably economic historian Robert Fogel — say took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s, while others look at the era following World War II. The terminology is controversial,...

Christian revival

Second Great Awakening

Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to...

Scroll Up