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Cuban River Baptism

Baptists

Baptists Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer’s baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or aspersion). Baptist churches also generally subscribe to the doctrines of soul competency (the responsibility and accountability of every person before God), sola fide (salvation by faith alone), sola scriptura (scripture alone as the rule...

Panorama of the Meteora valley

Christian Monasticism

Christian Monasticism Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, including those in the Old Testament, but not mandated...

revival meeting on a Southern plantation Revival meeting on a Southern plantation, illustration from Harper's Weekly, 1872.

Christian Revivalism

Christian Revivalism Christian Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect. This should be distinguished from the use of the term “revival” to refer to an evangelistic meeting or series of meetings (see Revival meeting). Revivals...

An auto-da-fé in Seville, illustration from 1870

Christianity and Violence

Christianity and Violence Christians have held diverse views towards violence and non-violence through time. Currently and historically there have been four views and practices within Christianity toward violence and war: non-resistance, Christian pacifism, Just war theory, and the Crusade (Holy or preventive war). The early church in the Roman empire adopted a...

The papal throne (cathedra), in the apse of Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, symbolises the Holy See.

Holy See

Holy See The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes; Italian: Santa Sede), also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the first century by...

Book Bible Text Literature Christianity Old Study

Christianity and Politics

Christianity and Politics The relationship between Christianity and politics is a historically complex subject and a frequent source of disagreement throughout the history of Christianity, as well as in modern politics between the Christian right and Christian left. There have been a wide variety of ways in which thinkers have conceived of the relationship between Christianity and politics, with...

Church Snow Winter Building White Cold

Christian Reconstructionism

Christian Reconstructionism Christian reconstructionism is a fundamentalist Reformed theonomic movement that developed under the iideas of Rousas Rushdoony, Greg Bahnsen and Gary North; it has had an important influence on the Christian Right in the United States. In keeping with the cultural mandate, reconstructionists advocate theonomy and the restoration of certain biblical laws said to have continuing applicability. The...

The Delivery of the Keys painted by Pietro Perugino (1492)

Pope

Pope The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas, “father”), also known as the supreme pontiff (Pontifex Maximus), or the Roman pontiff (Romanus Pontifex), is the bishop of Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State. Since 1929, the pope has official residence in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. he current pope is Francis, who was elected on...

Ahura Mazda relief

Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda (Avestan: Mazdā Ahura also known as Oromasdes, Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz) is the creator and highest deity of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura is “lord”, and that of Mazda is “wisdom“. Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under Darius...

Jowai Presbyterian Church, India

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Great Britain, particularly Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized,...

Novena rites are common in Filipino churches.

Novena

Novena A novena (from Latin: novem, “nine”) is an ancient tradition of devotional praying in Christianity, consisting of private or public prayers repeated for nine successive days or weeks. The nine days between the Feast of the Ascension and Pentecost, when the disciples gathered in the upper room and devote themselves to prayer, is often considered...

Shahadah in space

Shahada

Shahada The Shahada (الشهادة‎ aš-šahādah,”the testimony”) is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God (tawhid) and the acceptance of Muhammad as God’s prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads (right to left in Arabic): لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh...

Basmala

Basmala

Basmala The Basmala (بَسْمَلَة‎ basmalah), also known by its incipit Bi-smi llāhi ( بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ‎, “In the name of God”), is the Islamic phrase bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ) “In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.” This is the phrase recited before each surah (chapter) of the Qur’an – except for the ninth. It is used by...

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The Significance of Reading

The Significance of Reading One of the most important subjects in educating your child is “books and reading”. Children should have a target of learning how to read and write, they should not want to be led, but rather promote themselves to the level of a guide. To know why...

Deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's temple

Jewish History

Jewish History Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their nation, religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period (323 BCE – 31 BCE) and the earliest mention...

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants in 1572

History of Christian Thought on Persecution and Tolerance

History of Christian Thought on Persecution and Tolerance This article gives a historical overview of Christian positions on Persecution of Christians, persecutions by Christians, religious persecution and toleration. Christian theologians like Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas legitimized religious persecution to various extents, and during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Christians considered heresy and dissent...

Fortress of Maku, Iran (2008)

Babism

Babism Bábism (بابیه‎, Babiyye) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (ظهور الله). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in...

Pilgrims celebrating the Yazidi new year festival at the ancient holy temple of Lalish, Iraq

Yazidism

Yazidism Yazidism, Sharfadin (شه‌رفه‌دین ,Şerfedîn‎), or Dasni (داسنى ,Dasînî, Dasnî‎) is a monotheistic faith followed by the mostly Kurmanji-speaking Yazidis and based on belief in one God who created the world and entrusted it into the care of seven Holy Beings, known as Angels. Preeminent among these Angels is Tawûsê Melek (also written as “Melek...

Yazidi new year at Lalish temple, Iraqi Kurdistan

Yazdânism

Yazdânism Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a proposed pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds. The term was introduced by Kurdish scholar Mehrdad Izady to represent what he considers the “original” religion of the Kurds. According to Izady, Yazdânism is now continued in the denominations of Yazidism, Yarsanism, and Ishik Alevism. The three traditions subsumed under the...

The Ziarat temple in Aknalich, Armenia

Yazidis

Yazidis Yazidis (also written as Yezidis (Kurdish: ئێزیدی/Êzîdî‎) are an endogamous and mostly Kurmanji-speaking group of contested ethnic origin, indigenous to Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. The majority of Yazidis remaining in the Middle East today live in Iraq, primarily in the Nineveh and Dohuk governorates. The Yazidi religion is monotheistic and can be...

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