Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.


Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and pain, and increasing peace, perception, self-concept, and well-being. Meditation is under research to define its possible health (psychological, neurological, and cardiovascular) and other effects.

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Main articles

Young children practicing meditation in a Peruvian school

Young children practicing meditation in a Peruvian school

Forms of meditation

Focused attention methods

Open monitoring methods

Practices using both methods

No thought

Automatic self-transcending

Meditation practice

Common practice timings

  • Recommends: 20 minutes twice per day.

Physical postures and techniques

  • Asana
  • Full-lotus
  • Half-lotus
  • Burmese
  • Seiza
  • kneeling positions
  • sitting
  • supine (lying)
  • standing
  • walking (kinhin)
  • while doing a simple task mindfully (samu)

Use of prayer beads

Secular applications

Alternative Medicine

  • Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle Relaxation
  • Autogenic training
  • The method of Dr. Ainslie Meares
  • Shambhala Training

Sound-based meditation

Clinical Studies

Meditation, religion and drugs

Quotes on Meditation

  • Meditation Quotes
  • Contemplation Quotes
  • Introspection Quotes
  • Observation Quotes
  • Reflection Quotes
Jain nuns meditating

Religious and spiritual meditation

Indian religions





East Asian religions


Modern spirituality

New Age

New Age meditations


Meditation Music

Abrahamic religions




See also

Meditation Music

Aura Chakra Meditation Contemplation Enlightenment


What is Chakra? Chakra (meaning circle or wheel) is a widely used concept in Indian religion and politics that underpins many spiritual practices and philosophical systems. Within some forms of yoga, the chakras refer to energy centers found in the body located at major branchings of the human nervous system, beginning at the base of the spinal column and moving...

Quran Read Islam Muslim Arabic Book Allah Prayer


Tadabbur Tadabbur (contemplation) is an Arabic word which means -To ponder, reflect and think. Linguistic meaning Literally (Tadabbur), it means to look into the consequence or the end result of the matters, e. g. if we did that what would happen to us. Islamic meaning Tadabbur, means pondering over the...

Meditation Music

Meditation Music

Meditation Music Meditation music is music performed to aid in the practice of meditation. It can have a specific religious content, but also more recently has been associated with modern composers who use meditation techniques in their process of composition, or who compose such music with no particular religious group as a...

Buddha Buddhism Statue Religion Asia Spiritual


Vipassanā Vipassanā or vipaśyanā (विपश्यना), “insight,” in the Buddhist tradition is insight into the true nature of reality, defined as dukkha (suffering or unsatisfactoriness), anatta (non-self), and anicca (impermanence), the three marks of existence in the Theravada tradition, and as sunyata and Buddha-nature in the Mahayana traditions. Meditation practice in the Theravada tradition ended in the 10th century, but was re-introduced...

Meditation Reflection Universe Person Middle


Sati (Mindfulness in Buddhism) Sati (from सति; स्मृति smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist practice. It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. “Correct” or “right” mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path. Definition The Buddhist term translated...

Sunset Rocks View Nature Landscape Dusk Outdoors


Contemplation Whilst in the life of the intellect ‘contemplation‘ refers to thinking profoundly about something, in the religious life contemplation is a kind of inner vision or seeing, transcendent of the intellect, facilitated by means of practices such as prayer or meditation. Definition The word contemplation basically means ‘to think about an action before you...

Awareness Mindfulness Meditation Watch Yoga Feel

Psychological Mindedness

Psychological Mindedness Psychological mindedness refers to a person’s capacity for self-examination, self-reflection, introspection and personal insight. It includes an ability to recognize meanings that underlie overt words and actions, to appreciate emotional nuance and complexity, to recognize the links between past and present, and insight into one’s own and others’ motives and intentions. Psychologically...

Muslim, mosque Quran

Islamic Meditation

Islamic Meditation Meditation and mindfulness are often associated with several eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Yoga, yet few know the essential position of meditative spiritual practice within Islam. In Islam, meditation serves as the core element of various mystical traditions (in particular Sufism), though it is also thought to promote healing...

Prayer meditation

What is Meditation?

What is Meditation? Meditation (from the Latin meditatio: “discourse on a subject”) describes a large body of psychophysical techniques whose primary aim is the achievement of non-ordinary states of consciousness, typically through the concentration of attention on some object of thought or awareness. Though virtually all religious traditions contain a contemplative element,...

Transcendental Meditation

What Is Transcendental Meditation? Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement.[1][2] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi created and introduced the TM technique and TM movement in India in the mid-1950s. The Maharishi taught thousands of people during a series of world tours...


Aspects of Christian Meditation

What Are The Aspects of Christian Meditation? Aspects of Christian meditation was the topic of a 15 October 1989 document of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The document is titled “Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of Christian meditation” and is formally known by...

Taoist Meditation

Taoist Meditation

Taoist Meditation Taoist meditation also spelled “Daoist” refers to the traditional meditative practices associated with the Chinese philosophy and religion of Taoism, including concentration, mindfulness, contemplation, and visualization. The earliest Chinese references to meditation date from the Warring States period (475–221 BCE). Techniques of Daoist meditation are historically interrelated with Buddhist meditation, for instance,...

What is Naam Japo?

Naam Japo

Naam Japo In Sikhism, Nām Japō or Naam Japo (ਨਾਮ ਜਪੋ), Naam Japna, or Naam Simran refers to the meditation, vocal singing of hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or contemplating the various Names of God (or qualities of God), especially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means “Wonderful Lord” representing...


What Is Asana? An asana is a body posture, originally a sitting pose for meditation,[1] and later in hatha yoga and modern yoga, adding reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses to the meditation seats. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali define “asana” as “[a position that] is steady and comfortable”.[2] Patanjali mentions the ability to sit for extended...


What Is Hesychasm? Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Based on Jesus‘s injunction in the Gospel of Matthew that “when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray”, hesychasm in tradition has been the process of retiring inward by ceasing to register the senses, in order...

Mechanisms of Mindfulness Meditation

Mechanisms of Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness has been defined in modern psychological terms as “paying attention to relevant aspects of experience in a nonjudgmental manner”,[1] and maintaining attention on present moment experience with an attitude of openness and acceptance.[2] Meditation is a platform used to achieve mindfulness. Both practices, mindfulness and meditation, have...

Mental health


What Is Mindfulness? Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,[1][2][3] which one can develop through the practice of meditation and through other training.[2][4][5] Mindfulness is derived from sati, a significant element of Buddhist traditions,[6][7] and based on Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan meditation techniques.[8][9] Individuals who have contributed to the popularity of...

Brain Activity And Meditation

Brain Activity And Meditation Meditation and its effect on brain activity and the central nervous system became a focus of collaborative research in neuroscience, psychology and neurobiology during the latter half of the 20th century. Research on meditation sought to define and characterize various practices. Meditation’s effect on the brain can be broken up into two categories:...

The Stones Stone On A White Background Zen

Jewish Renewal

Jewish Renewal Jewish Renewal (התחדשות יהודית‎, hitḥadeshut yehudit) is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and musical practices. Specifically, it seeks to reintroduce the “ancient Judaic traditions of mysticism and meditation, gender equality and ecstatic prayer” to synagogue services. It is distinct from the baal teshuva...

Statue of Mahavira in meditation, Ahinsa Sthal, Mehrauli, New Delhi

Jain Meditation

What is Jain Meditation? Jain meditation (dhyāna) has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism along with the Three Jewels. Jainism holds that emancipation can only be achieved through meditation or Shukla Dhyana. According to Sagarmal Jain, it aims to reach and remain in a state of “pure-self awareness or knowership.” Meditation is...

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