Jainism

Jain Literature

Jain Literature Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain ascetics. Jain literature is primarily divided between Digambara literature and Svetambara literature. Jain literature exists mainly in Magadhi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and more recently in English. See: Jain Philosophy, Jainism Canonical Jain Agamas...

Jain Rituals

Jain Rituals Jain rituals play an everyday part in Jainism. Rituals take place daily or more often. Rituals include obligations followed by Jains and various forms of idol worships. Jains rituals can be separated broadly in two parts: Karya (Obligations which are followed) and Kriya (Worships which are performed). See: Jain Philosophy, Jainism Six essential duties In...

Jain Schools And Branches

Jain Schools And Branches Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism is divided into two major schools of thought, Digambara and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core...

Jain Monasticism

Jain Monasticism Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community. The term nirgrantha (“bondless”) was used for Jain monks in the past. The monastic practices of two major sects (Digambara and Śvētāmbara) vary greatly, but the major principles of both are identical. Terminology Digambaras use the word muṇi for male monastics and aryika for female monastics. Digambara monks are also...

Anekantavada

Anekantavada Anekāntavāda (अनेकान्तवाद, “many-sidedness”) refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.[1] It states that the ultimate truth and reality is complex and has multiple aspects.[2] Anekantavada has also been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, “intellectual Ahimsa”,[3] religious pluralism,[4] as well as a rejection of fanaticism that leads to terror...

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Dharma in Jainism

Dharma in Jainism Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit dharma or Prakrit dhamma. It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called Jain Dharma by its adherents. In Jainism, the word Dharma is used to refer the following: Religion Dharmastikaay as a dravya (substance or a...

Dravya

Dravya Dravya (द्रव्य) means substance or entity. According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls (jīva), non-sentient substance or matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), the principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla). The latter five are united as...

Aparigraha

Aparigraha In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness. Aparigrah is the opposite of parigrah, and refers to keeping the desire for possessions to what is necessary or important, depending on one’s life stage and context. The precept of aparigraha is a self-restraint (temperance) from the type of greed and avarice where one’s own...

Ajiva

Ajiva Ajiva is anything that has no soul or life, the polar opposite of “jīva” (soul). Because ajiva has no life, it does not accumulate karma and cannot die. Examples of ajiva include chairs, computers, paper, plastic, etc. According to Jain philosophy, Ajiva can be divided into two kinds, with form and without form. Five categories...

Causes of Karma in Jainism

Causes of Karma in Jainism The karmic process in Jainism is based on seven truths or fundamental principles (tattva) of Jainism which explain the human predicament. Out of those, four—influx (āsrava), bondage (bandha), stoppage (saṃvara) and release (nirjarā)—pertain to the karmic process. Karma gets bound to the soul on account of two processes:...

Moksha in Jainism

Moksha in Jainism Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of...

Samsara in Jainism

Samsara in Jainism Saṃsāra (transmigration) in Jain philosophy, refers to the worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and reincarnations in various realms of existence. Saṃsāra is described as mundane existence, full of suffering and misery and hence is considered undesirable and worth renunciation. The Saṃsāra is without any beginning and the soul finds itself in bondage with...

Tattva in Jainism

Tattva in Jainism Jain philosophy explains that seven tattva (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality. These are: jīva– the soul which is characterized by consciousness ajīva– the non-soul āsrava (influx)- inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. bandha (bondage)- mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. samvara (stoppage)- obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter...

Jainism and Hinduism

Jainism and Hinduism Jainism and Hinduism are two ancient Indian religions. There are some similarities and differences between the two religions. Temples, gods, rituals, fasts and other religious components of Jainism are different from those of Hinduism. “Jain” is derived from the word Jina, referring to a human being who has conquered...

Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism and Jainism Buddhism and Jainism are two ancient Indian religions that developed in Magadha (Bihar) and continue to thrive in the modern age. Mahavira and Gautama Buddha are generally accepted as contemporaries. Jainism and Buddhism share many features, terminology and ethical principles, but emphasize them differently.Both are śramaṇa ascetic traditions that believe it is possible to attain liberation from the cycle of rebirths and...

Jain Epistemology

Jain Epistemology Jainism made its own unique contribution to this mainstream development of philosophy by occupying itself with the basic epistemological issues. According to Jains, knowledge is the essence of the soul.[1] This knowledge is masked by the karmic particles. As the soul obtains knowledge through various means, it does not...

Jain Vegetarianism

Jain Vegetarianism Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy. It is one of the most rigorous forms of spiritually motivated diet on the Indian subcontinent and beyond. The Jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and also excludes underground vegetables such as potato, garlic, onion etc, to prevent injuring small insects and...

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Ethics Of Jainism

Ethics Of Jainism Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct. One for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the śrāvaka (householders). Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries. These vows are observed by śrāvakas (householders) partially and are termed as anuvratas (small vows). Ascetics observe these fives vows more strictly and...

Ahimsa In Jainism

Ahimsa In Jainism Ahinsā (Ahinsā, ‘ahinsa’, अहिंसा, ahinsā, avihinsā) in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine. The term ahinsa means nonviolence, non-injury and absence of desire to harm any life forms. Vegetarianism and other nonviolent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of ahimsa. The Jain...

Jain Cosmology

What Is Jain Cosmology? Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end.[1] Jain texts describe the shape of...

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