science

Trade routes inherited by the Muslim civilization were ruined by invading Mongols, which according to Ibn Khaldun ruined economies

Islamic Golden Age

Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th to the 14th century. This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration...

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Tadabbur

Tadabbur Tadabbur (contemplation) is an Arabic word which means -To ponder, reflect and think. Linguistic meaning Literally (Tadabbur), it means to look into the consequence or the end result of the matters, e. g. if we did that what would happen to us. Islamic meaning Tadabbur, means pondering over the...

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Outline of Science

Outline of Science Science is both the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge through observation, experimentation and reasoning, and the body of knowledge thus acquired. The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia” meaning knowledge. A practitioner of science is called a “scientist“. Modern science respects objective logical reasoning, and follows a set of...

Evolution and Religion

Theology of Creationism and Evolution

Theology of Creationism and Evolution The theology of creation and evolution is theology that deals with issues concerning the universe, the life, and especially man, in terms of creation or evolution. Creationism Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated “from specific acts of divine creation“, as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes such as evolution. Churches address the theological implications...

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Applications of Evolution

Applications of Evolution Applications of evolution can be seen in different fields of science ranging from regular science to social science such as genetics, ecology, ethics, and physiology. Evolutionary biology, in particular the understanding of how organisms evolve through natural selection, is an area of science with many practical applications....

science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.

Einstein’s Science and Religion

Einstein’s Science and Religion Section I During the last century, and part of the one before, it was widely held that there was an unreconcilable conflict between knowledge and belief. The opinion prevailed among advanced minds that it was time that belief should be replaced increasingly by knowledge; belief that...

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Outline of The Existence of God

The Existence of God The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture. A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of...

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God

Transcendental Argument For The Existence of God The Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (TAG) is the argument that attempts to prove the existence of God by arguing that logic, morals, and science ultimately presuppose a supreme being and that God must therefore be the source of logic and morals. A version was formulated by Immanuel Kant in his...

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Arguments for the Existence of God

Arguments for the Existence of God Arguments or proofs for the Existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. These arguments have an epistemological dimension (how can one know that God exists?) and an ontological dimension (what is the nature of God’s being?). If God is conceived as the Supreme Being,...

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Dogma

Dogma Dogma is an official system of principles or doctrines of a religion, such as Roman Catholicism, or the positions of a philosopher or of a philosophical school such as Stoicism. In the pejorative sense, dogma refers to enforced decisions, such as those of aggressive political interests or authorities. More generally,...

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Objections to Evolution

Objections to Evolution Objections to evolution have been raised since evolutionary ideas came to prominence in the 19th century. When Charles Darwin published his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, his theory of evolution (the idea that species arose through descent with modification from a single common ancestor in a process driven by natural selection) initially met opposition from scientists with different theories,...

genesis

Allegorical Interpretations of Genesis

Allegorical Interpretations of Genesis Allegorical interpretations of Genesis are readings of the biblical Book of Genesis that treat elements of the narrative as symbols or types, rather than viewing them literally as recording historical events. Either way, Judaism and most sects of Christianity treat Genesis as canonical scripture, and believers generally regard it as having spiritual significance....

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Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District

Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 (M.D. Pa. 2005)[1] was the first direct challenge brought in the United States federal courts testing a public school district policy that required the teaching of intelligent design.[2] In October 2004, the Dover Area School District of York County,...

Discovery Institute Intelligent Design Campaigns

Discovery Institute Intelligent Design Campaigns The Discovery Institute has conducted a series of related public relations campaigns which seek to promote intelligent design while attempting to discredit evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms “Darwinism.“[1] The Discovery Institute promotes the pseudoscientific intelligent design movement and is represented by Creative Response Concepts, a public relations firm.[2] Prominent Institute campaigns have been to ‘Teach...

Biblical Literalist Chronology

Biblical Literalist Chronology Biblical literalist chronology is the attempt to correlate the theological dates used in the Bible with the real chronology of actual events. The Bible measures time from the date of Creation (years are measured as anno mundi, or AM, meaning Year of the World), but there is no agreement on when this...

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Adaptation

Adaptation In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a phenotypic trait or adaptive trait, with a functional role in each individual organism, that is maintained and has...

Teach The Controversy

Teach The Controversy “Teach the Controversy” is a campaign, conducted by the Discovery Institute, to promote the pseudoscientific principle of intelligent design, a variant of traditional creationism, while attempting to discredit the teaching of evolution in United States public high school science courses.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The campaign claims that fairness and equal time require educating students with a ‘critical analysis...

Origin Myth

Origin Myth An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the cosmogonic myth, which describes the creation of the world. However, many cultures have stories set after the cosmogonic myth, which describe...

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Dating Creation

Dating Creation Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious traditions. Various traditional beliefs held that Planet Earth, or the entire Universe, was brought into being in a grand creation event by one or more gods. Once these cultures developed calendars, many began to ponder...

v. T. T. Martin, Dayton, Tenn., circa July 14, 1925, during the Scopes Monkey Trial. (Herald & Examiner photo) (Chicago Tribune historical photo)

Creation and Evolution in Public Education

Creation and Evolution in Public Education The status of creation and evolution in public education has been the subject of substantial debate and conflict in legal, political, and religious circles. Globally, there is a wide variety of views on the topic. Most western countries have legislation that mandates only evolutionary biology is to be taught in the appropriate scientific syllabuses.[1]...

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