Philosopher

Arthur Schopenhauer

Who Is Arthur Schopenhauer? Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), wherein he characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Who Is Jean-Jacques Rousseau? Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic and educational thought. His Discourse...

Thinking Man

Philosopher

Who Is A Philosopher? In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors.[3] Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously...

Epicureanism

What Is Epicureanism? Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom...

Jean-Paul Sartre

Who Is Jean-Paul Sartre? Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century...

John Dewey

Who Is John Dewey? John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. He is regarded as one of the most prominent American scholars in the first half of the twentieth century.[3][4]...

Ibn Khaldun

What Is Ibn Khaldun? Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a leading Arab historiographer and historian.[7] He is widely considered as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics,...

Hippocrates

Who Is Hippocrates? Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the “Father...

Thomas Carlyle

Who Is Thomas Carlyle? Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.[1] Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of...

Zarathushtra, Mani, And The Cathars

Zarathushtra, Mani, And The Cathars The word that wounds is this: When a man speaks a word for the sake of the killing of a man or the killing of beasts or the killing of trees and the “Cross of Light,” the lying word, and that of anger and that...

Zarathushtra

Who Is Zarathushtra (Zoroaster)? Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra (, Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, زرتشت‎) was an ancient Iranian spiritual leader who founded what is now known as Zoroastrianism. His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He...

Francis Bacon

Who Is Francis Bacon? Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, PCQC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. His works are credited with developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.[6] His...

Mencius

Who Is Mencius? Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who has often been described as the “second Sage”, that is after only Confucius himself.[2][3] Living during the Warring States period, he is said to have spent much of his life travelling around China offering...

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Who Is Fakhr al-Din al-Razi? Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي‎) was an Iranian[6][7] Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher[8][9] He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan). He also wrote on medicine, physics, astronomy, literature, history and law. He left a very rich corpus of philosophical and theological works that...

peace

Peace Plans of Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant

Peace Plans of Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant Conscience is the voice of the soul. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Firmly convinced as I am that nothing on this earth is worth purchase at the price of human blood, and that there is no more liberty anywhere than in the heart of the just...

Blaise Pascal

Who Is Blaise Pascal? Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal’s earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where...

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Pragmatism

What Is Pragmatism? Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.[1] Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Peirce later described it in his pragmatic maxim: “Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects...

Renaissance Philosophy

What Is Renaissance Philosophy? The designation “Renaissance philosophy” is used by scholars of intellectual history to refer to the thought of the period running in Europe roughly between 1355 and 1650 (the dates shift forward for central and northern Europe and for areas such as Spanish America, India, Japan, and China under...

Albert Camus

Who Is Albert Camus? Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history. Camus was born in Algeria to French parents. He spent his childhood in a...

Omar Khayyam

Who Is Omar Khayyam? Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام‎, 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.[3][4][5] He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed...

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