Middle Eastern religions

Black Hebrew Israelites praying

Black Hebrew Israelites

Black Hebrew Israelites Black Hebrew Israelites (also called Hebrew Israelites, Black Hebrews, Black Israelites, and African Hebrew Israelites) are groups of African Americans who believe that they are the descendants of the ancient Israelites. To varying degrees, Black Hebrew Israelites incorporate certain aspects of the religious beliefs and practices of both Christianity and Judaism, though...

Shabak people

Shabakism

Shabakism Shabakism is the name given to the beliefs and practices of the Shabaks in the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. Most Shabaks regard themselves as Shia, but some identify as Sunnis. Despite this, their actual faith and rituals differ from Islam, and have characteristics that make them distinct from neighboring Muslim populations. Nevertheless, the Shabak people also go on pilgrimages...

The spread of Manichaeism (300–500). World History Atlas, Dorling Kindersly.

Manichaeism

Manichaeism Manichaeism is an extinct dualistic religion of Iranian origin, founded in the third century C.E. by the Prophet Mani (c. 216-274 C.E.). Originating in Babylon (a province of Persia at the time), Manichaeism once flourished in the ancient world. At its height, the religion claimed followers from North Africa to China. Theologically, Manichaeism is a dualistic religion that postulated an ongoing struggle between the...

Ahura Mazda relief

Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda (Avestan: Mazdā Ahura also known as Oromasdes, Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz) is the creator and highest deity of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura is “lord”, and that of Mazda is “wisdom“. Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under Darius...

Fortress of Maku, Iran (2008)

Babism

Babism Bábism (بابیه‎, Babiyye) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (ظهور الله). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in...

Pilgrims celebrating the Yazidi new year festival at the ancient holy temple of Lalish, Iraq

Yazidism

Yazidism Yazidism, Sharfadin (شه‌رفه‌دین ,Şerfedîn‎), or Dasni (داسنى ,Dasînî, Dasnî‎) is a monotheistic faith followed by the mostly Kurmanji-speaking Yazidis and based on belief in one God who created the world and entrusted it into the care of seven Holy Beings, known as Angels. Preeminent among these Angels is Tawûsê Melek (also written as “Melek...

Yazidi new year at Lalish temple, Iraqi Kurdistan

Yazdânism

Yazdânism Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a proposed pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds. The term was introduced by Kurdish scholar Mehrdad Izady to represent what he considers the “original” religion of the Kurds. According to Izady, Yazdânism is now continued in the denominations of Yazidism, Yarsanism, and Ishik Alevism. The three traditions subsumed under the...

The Ziarat temple in Aknalich, Armenia

Yazidis

Yazidis Yazidis (also written as Yezidis (Kurdish: ئێزیدی/Êzîdî‎) are an endogamous and mostly Kurmanji-speaking group of contested ethnic origin, indigenous to Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. The majority of Yazidis remaining in the Middle East today live in Iraq, primarily in the Nineveh and Dohuk governorates. The Yazidi religion is monotheistic and can be...

Matryoshka Russian Doll Russian Toy Doll Souvenir

European Folklore

European Folklore European folklore or Western folklore refers to the folklore of the western world, especially when discussed comparatively. There is no single European culture, but the common history of Christendom during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period has resulted in a number of traditions that are shared in many...

Map of Religion in the Middle East

Middle Eastern Religions

Middle Eastern Religions Middle Eastern religions originated in the Middle East; namely Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and Iranic religions. Smaller minority religions, such as the Bahá’í Faith, Druze, Nusairism, Manichaeism, Sabianism,  Bábism, Yazidism, Mandaeism, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Samaritanism, Shabakism, Ishikism, Ali-Illahism, Alevism, Yazdânism and Zoroastrianism are also present in the Middle East....

Conquest of the Orthodox city of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204 (BNF Arsenal MS 5090, 15th century)

The Crusades

The Crusades The Crusades were a series of military campaigns first inaugurated and sanctioned by the papacy that were undertaken between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Originally, the Crusades were Christian Holy Wars to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims, then to defend Christian-held Jerusalem, but some were directed against other targets, such...

Sabians

Sabians

Sabians The Sabians (الصابئة‎ , al-Ṣābiʼah or الصابئون‎ al-Ṣābiʼūn) of Middle Eastern tradition were a religious group mentioned three times in the Quran as a People of the Book, along with the Jews and the Christians. In the hadith, they were described simply as converts to Islam. Their identity has been called an “unsolved Quranic problem”. Interest in the identity and history of the...

Islamic–Jewish Relations

Islamic–Jewish Relations Islamic–Jewish relations started in the 7th century AD with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula. The two religions share similar values, guidelines, and principles. Islam also incorporates Jewish history as a part of its own. Muslims regard the Children of Israel as an important religious concept in Islam. Moses, the most important prophet...

Sunset Sea Man Sand Beach Footprints Lighting

List of Messiah Claimants

List of Messiah Claimants This is a list of notable people who have been said to be a messiah, either by themselves or by their followers. The list is divided into categories, which are sorted according to date of birth (where known). Main articles: Messiah, Messianism and Messianic Age Jewish messiah...

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, an 1887 painting by Victor Vasnetsov. The Lamb of God is visible at the top.

Messianic Age

Messianic Age In Abrahamic religions, the Messianic Age is the future period of time on Earth in which the messiah will reign and bring universal peace and brotherhood, without any evil. Many believe that there will be such an age; some refer to it as the consummate “kingdom of God” or the...

Iran Mountains Architecture Landscape Settlement

Iranian Religions

Iranian Religions Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran. Background The beliefs, activities, and cultural events of the ancient Iranians in ancient Iran are complex matters. The ancient Iranians made references to a combination of several Aryans and non-Aryan tribes. Aryans, or ancient Iranians, worshiped natural elements such as the sun, sunlight and thunder, but they eventually shifted...

Jesus Of Nazareth Christ Belief Holy Bible

Western Religions

Western Religions The Western religions refers to religions that originated within Western culture, and are thus historically, culturally, and theologically distinct from the Eastern religions. The term Abrahamic religions (Islam, Christianity and Judaism) is often used instead of using the East and West terminology. Western culture itself was significantly influenced by the emergence of Christianity and its adoption as the state church...

Zarathushtra, Mani, and The Cathars

Zarathushtra, Mani, and The Cathars The word that wounds is this: When a man speaks a word for the sake of the killing of a man or the killing of beasts or the killing of trees and the “Cross of Light,” the lying word, and that of anger and that...

Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin, Israel.

Druze

Druze The Druze (درزي‎, darzī, durzī, דְּרוּזִי, drūzī, druzim) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as Al-Muwaḥḥidūn (lit., “The People of Monotheism”). Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of all people from the Mountain of Druze region, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-‘Ali ibn-Ahmad and the...

Seat of the Universal House of Justice,

The Bahá’í Faith

The Bahá’í Faith, Bahaism The Bahá’í Faith (بهائی‎ Bahā’i) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá’u’lláh in 1863, it initially grew in Persia and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception. It is estimated to have between...

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