Shri Mahavirji temple

Timeline of Jainism

Timeline of Jainism Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the greatest possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow...

Lord Mahavira's Jal Mandir (water temple) in Pawapuri, Bihar, India

Mahavira

Mahavira Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana was the 24th tirthankara of Jainism. He was the spiritual successor of 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in present-day Bihar, India. His mother’s name was Trishala. He abandoned all worldly possessions at the age...

Stella depicting Śhrut Jnāna or complete scriptural knowledge (Jain Agamas)

Jain Literature

Jain Literature Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain ascetics. Jain literature is primarily divided between Digambara literature and Svetambara literature. Jain literature exists mainly in Magadhi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and more recently in English. See: Jain Philosophy, Jainism...

An aarti plate.

Jain Rituals

Jain Rituals Jain rituals play an everyday part in Jainism. Rituals take place daily or more often. Rituals include obligations followed by Jains and various forms of idol worships. Jains rituals can be separated broadly in two parts: Karya (Obligations which are followed) and Kriya (Worships which are performed). See: Jain Philosophy Six essential duties In Jainism,...

Jain Schools and Branches

Jain Schools and Branches

Jain Schools and Branches Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism is divided into two major schools of thought, Digambara and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core...

Acharya Kalaka, clothed in white at top

Jain Monasticism

Jain Monasticism Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community. The term nirgrantha (“bondless”) was used for Jain monks in the past. The monastic practices of two major sects (Digambara and Śvētāmbara) vary greatly, but the major principles of both are identical. Terminology Digambaras use the word muṇi for male monastics and aryika for female monastics. Digambara monks are also...

Seven blind men and an elephant parable

Anekantavada

Anekantavada Anekāntavāda (अनेकान्तवाद, “many-sidedness”) refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India. It states that the ultimate truth and reality is complex and has multiple aspects. Anekantavada has also been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, “intellectual Ahimsa”, religious pluralism, as well as a rejection of fanaticism...

Non-Violence Non Violence Hand Religious Religion

Dharma in Jainism

Dharma in Jainism Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit dharma or Prakrit dhamma. It is often translated as “religion” and as such, Jainism is called Jain Dharma by its adherents. In Jainism, the word Dharma is used to refer the following: Religion Dharmastikaay as a dravya (substance or a...

Classification of the six eternal substances

Dravya

Dravya Dravya (द्रव्य) means substance or entity. According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls (jīva), non-sentient substance or matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), the principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla). The latter five are united as...

Chart showing the classification of dravya and astikaya

Ajiva

Ajiva Ajiva is anything that has no soul or life, the polar opposite of “jīva” (soul). Because ajiva has no life, it does not accumulate karma and cannot die. Examples of ajiva include chairs, computers, paper, plastic, etc. According to Jain philosophy, Ajiva can be divided into two kinds, with form and without form. Five categories...

Torture in Hells: Panka prabha, Dhuma prabha, Tamaha prabha and Mahatamaha prabha

Causes of Karma in Jainism

Causes of Karma in Jainism The karmic process in Jainism is based on seven truths or fundamental principles (tattva) of Jainism which explain the human predicament. Out of those, four—influx (āsrava), bondage (bandha), stoppage (saṃvara) and release (nirjarā)—pertain to the karmic process. Karma gets bound to the soul on account of two processes:...

Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

Moksha in Jainism

Moksha in Jainism Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of...

Sansar Darshan

Samsara in Jainism

Samsara in Jainism Samsara (transmigration) in Jain philosophy, refers to the worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and reincarnations in various realms of existence. Saṃsāra is described as mundane existence, full of suffering and misery and hence is considered undesirable and worth renunciation. The Saṃsāra is without any beginning and the soul finds itself in bondage...

Seven tattvas

Tattva in Jainism

Tattva in Jainism Jain philosophy explains that seven tattva (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality. These are: jīva– the soul which is characterized by consciousness ajīva– the non-soul āsrava (influx)- inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. bandha (bondage)- mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. samvara (stoppage)- obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter...

Ancient Philosophy

Ancient Philosophy This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of medieval philosophy, whereas in Eastern philosophy, the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy. Overview Genuine philosophical thought,...

Eastern Philosophy

Eastern Philosophy Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam,[1] and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet and Mongolia.[2][3] Indian...

A vegetarian thali from Rajasthan, India. Since many Indian religions promote vegetarianism, Indian cuisine offers a wide variety of vegetarian delicacies

Jain Vegetarianism

Jain Vegetarianism Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy. It is one of the most rigorous forms of spiritually motivated diet on the Indian subcontinent and beyond. The Jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and also excludes underground vegetables such as potato, garlic, onion etc, to prevent injuring small insects...

Image of Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and last Tirthankara (Photo:Samanar Hills)

God in Jainism

God in Jainism In Jainism, godliness is said to be the inherent quality of every soul. This quality, however, is subdued by the soul’s association with karmic matter. All souls who have achieved the natural state of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge (kevala jnana), infinite power and infinite perception are regarded as God...

Das Lakshana (Paryusana) celebrations, Jain Center of America, New York City.

Jain Festivals

Jain Festivals Jain festivals occur on designated days of the year. Jain festivals are either related to life events of Tirthankara or they are performed with intention of purification of soul. See also: Jainism, Jain Philosophy Festivals There are many religious festivals in Jainism. Some of them are associated with five auspicious...

Chacra

Fasting in Jainism

Fasting in Jainism Fasting is very common among Jains and as a part of Jain festivals. Most Jains fast at special times, during festivals, and on holy days. Paryushan is the most prominent festival, lasting eight days in Svetambara Jain tradition and ten days in Digambara Jain tradition during the monsoon....

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