Sutra

What Is Sutra? Sutra (sūtra सूत्र “string” or “thread”.[1] sutta) in Indian literary traditions refers to an aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a condensed manual or text. Sutras are a genre of ancient and medieval Indian texts found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[2][1]...

Vedanga

What Is Vedanga? The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, vedāṅga, “limbs of the Veda”) are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and have been connected with the study of the Vedas.[1][2]These are:[1] Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics, phonology, pronunciation.[1] This auxiliary discipline has focussed on the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, accent, quantity, stress, melody and rules of...

Itihasa

What Is Itihasa? Itihasa, meaning history in Sanskrit, consists of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana (sometimes the Puranas too, are included). The Mahabharata includes the story of the Kurukshetra War and also preserves the traditions of the Lunar dynasty in the form of embedded tales. The Puranas narrate the universal history as...

What Is Sanskrit Literature?

Sanskrit Literature Sanskrit literature refers to texts composed in Sanskrit language since the 2nd-millennium BCE. Many of the prominent texts are associated with Indian religions, i.e., Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and were composed in ancient India. However, others were composed central, East or Southeast Asia and the canon includes works...

Mahabharata

What Is Mahabharata? The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.[3] The title may be translated as “the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty”. The Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It...

List of Hindu Texts

List of Hindu Texts Hinduism is an ancient religion with diverse traditions such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and others.[1][2] Each tradition has a long list of Hindu texts, with subgenre based on syncretization of ideas from Samkhya, Nyaya, Yoga, Vedanta and other schools of Hindu philosophy.[3][4][5] Of these some called Sruti are broadly considered as core scriptures of Hinduism,...

Kama Sutra

What Is Kama Sutra? The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र, Kāmasūtra) is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text on sexuality, eroticism and emotional fulfillment in life.[1][2][3]Attributed to Vātsyāyana,[4] the Kama Sutra is neither exclusively nor predominantly a sex manual on sex positions,[1][5] but written as a guide to the “art-of-living” well, the nature of love, finding a life partner, maintaining one’s love life, and...

Sacred Texts

Religious Texts

Religious Texts Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning “writing”) are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal...

grain food

Vegetarianism and Religion

Vegetarianism and Religion Vegetarianism is strongly linked with a number of religions that originated in ancient India (Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism). In Jainism, vegetarianism is mandatory for everyone; in Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism, it is advocated by some influential scriptures and religious authorities.[1][2] Comparatively, in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam),...

Celibacy

What is Celibacy? Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.[1][2][3][4] It is often in association with the role of a religious official or devotee.[1] In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow,...

Avatar

What Is Avatar? An avatar (अवतार, avatāra), a concept in Hinduism that means “descent”, refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.[1][2] The relative verb to “alight, to make one’s appearance” is sometimes used to refer to any guru or revered human being.[3][4] The word avatar does not appear in the Vedic literature,[5] but appears in verb forms...

Divine Grace

Divine Grace Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions. It has been defined as the divine influence which operates in humans to regenerate and sanctify, to inspire virtuous impulses, and to impart strength to endure trial and resist temptation;[1] and as an individual virtue or excellence of divine origin.[2] Christianity Grace in Christianity is...

Brahman

Brahman In Hindu philosophy, Brahman (ब्रह्म) is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists and the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.[1][2][3][4][1][5] These schools of thought also consider Brahman to be the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[4][6][7] Brahman as a metaphysical concept...

Ishvara

What Is Ishvara? Ishvara (ईश्वर) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.[1][2] In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, Ishvara can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband.[1] In medieval era Hindu texts, depending on the...

Devi

Devi Devī (देवी) is the Sanskrit word for “goddess“; the masculine form is Deva. Devi – the feminine form, and Deva – the masculine form, mean “heavenly, divine, anything of excellence”, and are also gender specific terms for a deity in Hinduism. The concept and reverence for goddesses appears in the Vedas, which were...

Bhagavan

Bhagavan Bhagavān (भगवान्, Bhagavān) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,[1][2] and is used by Jains to refer to the Tirthankaras, more particularly Mahavira and is used by Buddhists to refer to...

Hindu Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple Load Muruga Deity

God in Hinduism

God in Hinduism The concept of God in Hinduism varies in its diverse traditions.[1][2][3] Hinduism spans a wide range of beliefs such as henotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, atheism and nontheism.[1][4][5]   Forms of theism find mention in the Bhagavad Gita. Emotional or loving devotion (bhakti) to a primary god...

Hindu

God and Gender in Hinduism

God and Gender in Hinduism The gender of God in Hinduism is sometimes visualized as a male god such as Krishna, or female goddess such as Lakshmi, androgynous such as Ardhanarishvara (a composite of Siva or Shiva – male – and Parvati – female), or as formless and genderless Brahman...

Solar Deity

Solar Deity A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and Sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms. The Sun is sometimes referred to by...

Brahma

Brahma Brahma (ब्रह्मा, Brahmā) is the creator god in Hinduism.[1] He is also known as Svayambhu (self-born) or the creative aspect of Vishnu,[2] Vāgīśa (Lord of Speech), and the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths. Brahma is consort of Saraswati and he is the father of Four Kumaras, Narada, Daksha, Marichi...

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