Upanishads – The Secret Wisdom

Upanishads – The Secret Wisdom A history of pantheism and scientific pantheism by Paul Harrison. Thou art the dark-blue bird and the green parrot with red eyes, Thou hast the lightning as thy child. Thou art the seasons and the seas. [Svetasvatara 4.2.4] The Upanishads are a collection of Indian...

Upanishads and Yoga

Upanishads and Yoga The wise soul is not born nor does it die. This one has not come from anywhere nor has it become anyone. Unborn, eternal, constant, primal, this one is not killed when the body is killed. If the killer thinks to kill, if the killed thinks oneself...

Bhagavad Gita Passages

Bhagavad Gita Passages The undisciplined person eats too much, or doesn’t eat enough. The undisciplined person sleeps too much, or doesn’t sleep enough… The spiritual discipline that destroys suffering goes to the person who eats the proper amount of food, does the proper amount of exercise, performs the proper amount...

Sutra

What Is Sutra? Sutra (sūtra सूत्र “string” or “thread”.[1] sutta) in Indian literary traditions refers to an aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a condensed manual or text. Sutras are a genre of ancient and medieval Indian texts found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[2][1]...

Vedanga

What Is Vedanga? The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, vedāṅga, “limbs of the Veda”) are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and have been connected with the study of the Vedas.[1][2]These are:[1] Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics, phonology, pronunciation.[1] This auxiliary discipline has focussed on the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, accent, quantity, stress, melody and rules of...

Itihasa

What Is Itihasa? Itihasa, meaning history in Sanskrit, consists of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana (sometimes the Puranas too, are included). The Mahabharata includes the story of the Kurukshetra War and also preserves the traditions of the Lunar dynasty in the form of embedded tales. The Puranas narrate the universal history as...

What Is Sanskrit Literature?

Sanskrit Literature Sanskrit literature refers to texts composed in Sanskrit language since the 2nd-millennium BCE. Many of the prominent texts are associated with Indian religions, i.e., Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and were composed in ancient India. However, others were composed central, East or Southeast Asia and the canon includes works...

Mahabharata

What Is Mahabharata? The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.[3] The title may be translated as “the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty”. The Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It...

List of Hindu Texts

List of Hindu Texts Hinduism is an ancient religion with diverse traditions such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and others.[1][2] Each tradition has a long list of Hindu texts, with subgenre based on syncretization of ideas from Samkhya, Nyaya, Yoga, Vedanta and other schools of Hindu philosophy.[3][4][5] Of these some called Sruti are broadly considered as core scriptures of Hinduism,...

Kama Sutra

What Is Kama Sutra? The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र, Kāmasūtra) is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text on sexuality, eroticism and emotional fulfillment in life.[1][2][3]Attributed to Vātsyāyana,[4] the Kama Sutra is neither exclusively nor predominantly a sex manual on sex positions,[1][5] but written as a guide to the “art-of-living” well, the nature of love, finding a life partner, maintaining one’s love life, and...

Brahman

Brahman In Hindu philosophy, Brahman (ब्रह्म) is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists and the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.[1][2][3][4][1][5] These schools of thought also consider Brahman to be the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[4][6][7] Brahman as a metaphysical concept...

Shastra

What Is Shastra? Shastra (शास्त्र) is a Sanskrit word that means “precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise” in a general sense.[1] The word is generally used as a suffix in the Indian literature context, for technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area of practice.[2] Shastra has a similar meaning to English -logy, e.g. ecology, psychology, meaning...

Indian Epic Poetry

The Ancient Indian Epic Poetry Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; काव्य, kāvyá). The Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which were originally composed in Sanskrit and later translated into many other Indian languages, and The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature and Sangam literature are some of the oldest...

Vedas

What Are The Vedas? The Vedas (वेद veda, “knowledge”) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[2][3] Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means “not of a man, superhuman”[4] and...

Upanishads

What Are The Upanishads? The Upanishads (उपनिषद् , Upaniṣad), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.[2][3] Among the most important literature in the history of Indian...

Puranas

What Are Puranas? The word Puranas (पुराण, purāṇa) literally means “ancient, old”,[1] and it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.[2] Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages,[3][4] several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu,...

Hinduism’s Sacred Texts

The Sacred Texts Of Hinduism Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures.[1][2] These include the Vedas and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term “Hindu scripture” given the diverse nature of Hinduism,[2][3] many...

Bhagavad Gita

What Is Bhagavad Gita? The Bhagavad Gita “The Song of God”[1], often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata). The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. At the start of the Dharma Yudhha (righteous war) between...

Brahmanas

What Are The Brahmanas? The Brahmanas (ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇam) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas. They are a layer or category of Vedic Sanskrit texts embedded within each Veda, and form a part of the Hindu śruti literature.[1][2] They are primarily a digest incorporating...

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