Confucianism

New Confucianism

What Is New Confucianism? New Confucianism (新儒家; xīn rú jiā) is an intellectual movement of Confucianism that began in the early 20th century in Republican China, and further developed in post-Mao era contemporary China. It is deeply influenced by, but not identical with, the neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties. It...

Mencius

Who Is Mencius? Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who has often been described as the “second Sage”, that is after only Confucius himself.[2][3] Living during the Warring States period, he is said to have spent much of his life travelling around China offering...

Machu Picchu Ruins Mountains Peru Inca

Relationship Between Religion And Science

Relationship Between Religion And Science Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been cited by modern historians of science and religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures. Even though the ancient and medieval worlds did not have conceptions resembling the modern understandings of “science”...

Japanese Philosophy

What Is Japanese Philosophy? Japanese philosophy has historically been a fusion of both indigenous Shinto and continental religions, such as Buddhism and Confucianism. Formerly heavily influenced by both Chinese philosophy and Indian philosophy, as with Mitogaku and Zen, much modern Japanese philosophy is now also influenced by Western philosophy. Ancient and medieval thought Main article: Buddhism in Japan Before feudalism was...

Chinese Philosophy

What Is Chinese Philosophy? Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the “Hundred Schools of Thought”,[1] which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.[1] Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, elements of Chinese philosophy have existed for several thousand...

The Analects

The Analects The Analects (論語; Lúnyǔ; literally “Selected Sayings”[1], also known as the Analects of Confucius, is an ancient Chinese book composed of a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius’s followers. It is believed to have been written...

Sacred Texts

Religious Texts

Religious Texts Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning “writing”) are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience,...

Neo-Confucianism

What Is Neo-Confucianism? Neo-Confucianism (宋明理學; Sòng-Míng lǐxué, often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties. Neo-Confucianism could have been an attempt to create...

Li (Confucianism)

Li in Confucianism Li (礼, 禮, lǐ) is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism. Li does not encompass a definitive object but rather a somewhat abstract idea and, as such, is translated in a number of different ways. Wing-tsit Chan explains that li originally meant...

Ren (Confucianism)

Ren (Confucianism) Ren (仁) is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic. Ren is exemplified by a normal adult’s protective feelings for children. It is considered the outward expression of Confucian ideals. Yan Hui, one of the Four Sages, once asked his master to describe the rules of ren. Confucius replied,...

Confucianism

What Is Confucianism? Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.[1]Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a...

Disciples of Confucius

Disciples of Confucius According to Sima Qian, Confucius said: “The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of extraordinary ability.” It was traditionally believed that Confucius had three thousand students, but that only 72 mastered what he taught. The following is a list...

Confucius

Who Is Confucius? Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred...

Doctrine of The Mean

Doctrine of The Mean or Zhongyong  The Doctrine of the Mean or Zhongyong is both a doctrine of Confucianism and also the title of one of the Four Books of Confucian philosophy. The text is attributed to Zisi or Kong Ji, the only grandson of Confucius. It was published as a chapter in the Classic of Rites. The phrase “doctrine of the mean” first occurs in...

Sacred Texts Timeline

Sacred Texts Timeline This is a timeline which gives the history of sacred texts, as well as a few other relevant events. Of course, not all of the dates in this timeline are accurate; some are entirely conjectural. I have included a few dates, events and documents which are or...

Who Is Confucius?

Confucius Confucius was born around the year 551 BC in China, in a very humble environment. It is said that he was orphaned as a small boy, since there is no records of his parents. While he was growing up China was in despair with warfare and corruption running rampant....

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