Christian Theology

Sophia (wisdom)

Sophia (wisdom) Sophia (σοφία sophía “wisdom“) is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology. Originally carrying a meaning of “cleverness, skill”, the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis (“wisdom, intelligence”), was significantly shaped by the term philosophy (“love of wisdom”) as used by Plato. In...

Neoplatonism And Christianity

Neoplatonism and Christianity Neoplatonism was a major influence on Christian theology throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West. This was due to St. Augustine of Hippo, who was influenced by the early Neoplatonists Plotinus and Porphyry, as well as the works of the Christian writer Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, who was influenced by later Neoplatonists, such as Proclus and Damascius. Main articles: Neoplatonism, Christianity...

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Ethical Dualism

What Is Ethical Dualism? Ethical dualism (ethos,”character”, “custom”, and Latin duo, “two”) refers to the practice of imputing evil entirely and exclusively to a specific group of people, while disregarding or denying one’s own capacity to commit evil. The consequence of such stance is the creation of an “Us” versus “Them”, thereby polarizing social configurations...

Theological Virtues

Theological Virtues Theological virtues are virtues associated in Christian theology and philosophy with salvation resulting from the grace of God.[1] Virtues are traits or qualities which dispose one to conduct oneself in a morally good manner. Traditionally they have been named Faith, Hope, and Love, and can trace their importance in Christian theology to Paul the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 13, who also pointed out that charity is the...

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Christian Ethics

Christian Ethics Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective. Systematic theological study of Christian ethics is called moral theology. Christian virtues are often divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues. Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor, how women are to be treated, and the morality...

Afterlife in Christianity

Afterlife in Christianity Mainstream Christianity professes belief in the Nicene Creed, and English versions of the Nicene Creed in current use include the phrase: “We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come”. Christian eschatology is concerned with death, an intermediate state, Heaven,...

Eternal Life in Christianity

Eternal Life in Christianity Eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology. The Apostles’ Creed testifies: “I believe… the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting.” In this view, eternal life commences after the second coming of Jesus and the resurrection of the dead, although in the New Testament’s Johannine literature there are references to...

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Regeneration in Theology

Regeneration in Theology Regeneration, while sometimes perceived to be a step in the Ordo salutis (‘order of salvation’), is generally understood in Christian theology to be the objective work of God in a believer’s life. Spiritually, it means that God brings Christians to new life or “born again” from a previous state of separation from God and...

Apostles

Apostles In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles (‘one who is sent away’), particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers...

Incarnation in Christianity

Incarnation in Christianity In Christian theology, the incarnation is the belief that Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos (Koine Greek for “Word”), “was made flesh”[2] by being conceived in the womb of a woman, the Virgin Mary, also known as the Theotokos (Greek...

Logos in Christianity

What Is Logos in Christianity? In Christology, the Logos (”Word”, “Discourse”, or “Reason”)[1] is a name or title of Jesus Christ, derived from the prologue to the Gospel of John (c 100) “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God”,[2] as well as in the Book of...

Theology

What Is Theology? Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries.[1] Theology is basically the study of deities or their scriptures[2] in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious...

Binitarianism

What Is Binitarianism? Binitarianism is a Christian theology of two persons, personas, or aspects in one substance/Divinity (or God). Classically, binitarianism is understood as a form of monotheism—that is, that God is absolutely one being—and yet with binitarianism there is a “twoness” in God, which means one God family. The other common forms of monotheism...

Open Theism

Open Theism Open theism, also known as openness theology and free will theism,[1] is a theological movement that has developed within evangelical and post-evangelical Protestant Christianity as a response to ideas related to the synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian theology. It is typically advanced as a biblically motivated and philosophically consistent theology of human and divine freedom (in the libertarian sense), with an emphasis on...

Son of God in Christianity

Son of God in Christianity The terms “son of God” and “son of the LORD” are found in several passages of the Old Testament. In Christianity, the title Son of God refers to the status of Jesus as the divine son of God the Father. It derives from several uses in the New Testament and early Christian theology. In mainstream Christianity,...

The Trinity

Trinity

What Is Trinity? The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, ‘triad’, from Latin: trinus “threefold”)[1] holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons[2] or hypostases[3]—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as “one God in three Divine Persons”. The three Persons are distinct, yet are one “substance, essence or nature” (homoousios).[4] In...

God the Son

God the Son God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus as the incarnation of God, united in essence (consubstantial) but distinct in person with regard to God the Father and God the Holy Spirit...

Love of Christ

Love of Christ The love of Christ is a central element of Christian belief and theology.[1] It refers to the love of Jesus Christ for humanity, the love of Christians for Christ, and the love of Christians for others.[2] These aspects are distinct in Christian teachings—the love for Christ is a reflection of his love for his followers.[3]   The...

Christian Eschatology

Christian Eschatology Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the “last things.” Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning “last” (ἔσχατος) and “study” (-λογία), is the study of ‘end things’, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of...

Resurrection of Jesus

Resurrection of Jesus The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is a central doctrine in Christianity. According to the New Testament, after being crucified by the Roman authorities and buried by Joseph of Arimathea, Jesus was raised from the dead by God and appeared to witnesses before ascending into heaven to sit at the right hand of God. Christians celebrate the resurrection...

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