Natural Philosophy

Natural Philosophy Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common...

History of Scientific Method

History of Scientific Method The history of scientific method considers changes in the methodology of scientific inquiry, as distinct from the history of science itself. The development of rules for scientific reasoning has not been straightforward; scientific method has been the subject of intense and recurring debate throughout the history of science, and eminent natural philosophers...

Aristotle Quotes

Aristotle Quotes Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotelēs; 384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a scientist. He was the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy”. His writings cover many subjects...

Aristotelianism

What Is Aristotelianism? Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. This school of thought, in the modern sense of philosophy, covers existence, ethics, mind and related subjects. In Aristotle’s time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science...

Ancient Greek Philosophy

What Is Ancient Greek Philosophy? Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Greece and most Greek-inhabited lands were part of the Roman Empire. Philosophy was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way....

The Socratic Problem

The Socratic Problem In studying Socrates as an educator, we must first come to grips with the sources of our information about Socrates and their methodological complexities, which are known as the “Socratic problem.” Because we have no writing whatsoever by Socrates himself, we must rely on the extant literature...

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Ontology

What Is Ontology? Ontology is the philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, existence, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.[1] Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may...

Aristotle

Who Is Aristotle? Aristotle (Aristotélēs, 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy”. His writings cover many...

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Aristotelian Ethics

Aristotelian Ethics Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato. Philosophical ethics is the attempt to offer a rational response to the question of how humans should best live. Aristotle regarded ethics and politics as two related but separate...

The Spirit and What Follows

The Spirit and What Follows Based on al-Milal wa’n-Nihal (“The True and False Ways of Belief and Thought”) by ash-Shahristani,[1]Tahafut al-Falasifa (“The Incoherence of the Philosophers”) by Imam al-Ghazzali,[2] Mawqif al-‘Aql wa’l-‘Ilm wa’l-‘Alam (“The Place of Reason, Science, and the Created World”) by Mustafa Sabri Efendi,[3] Falsafa-i ‘Ula (“The Ancient Philosophy”) by Şemseddin Günaltay,[4] and al-Ba’th wa’l-Khulud...

Aristotelian Theology

Aristotelian Theology Aristotelian theology and the scholastic view of God have been influential in Western intellectual history. Metaphysics In his first philosophy, later called the Metaphysics, (or “after the Physics”), Aristotle discusses the meaning of being as being. He refers to the unmoved movers (hyperagents), and assigns one to each movement in the heavens and tasks future...

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Classical Theism

Classical Theism Classical theism is a form of theism in which God is characterized as the absolutely metaphysically ultimate being, in contrast to other conceptions such as pantheism, panentheism, polytheism, deism and process theism. Classical theism is a form of monotheism. Whereas most monotheists agree that God is, at minimum,...

Greek Philosophers Belief in the Resurrection

Greek Philosophers Belief in the Resurrection Ancient Greek poet, Homers, writes about the shelters of souls. He believed that the souls, which manifest themselves here in bodies, have shelters in another place. Pythagoras, a Greek mathematician, believed in the Resurrection and argued that purified souls would join the exalted dwellers...

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