Outline of Names of God

A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word “God” (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms “god” and “God“.

Monotheistic religions refer to their god using various names, some referring to cultural ideas about their god’s identity and attributes. In ancient Egyptian Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten and proclaimed to be the one “true” Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, the names of God include Elohim, Adonai, YHWH (Hebrew: יהוה‎) and others. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, one God coexists in three “persons” called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims also use a multitude of titles for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor (first ancestor) of the universe, intrinsic to it and constantly bringing order to it. Other names for God include Baha in the Baháʼí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism, and Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism.

A Most Direct And Safest Way To God

God is LOVE

Main article: Names of God

Abrahamic religions

Further information: El (deity)

Judaism

Main article: Names of God in Judaism

There are numerous names of God in Judaism have been a source of debate among biblical scholars. YHWH is the only proper name of God in the Tanakh in the sense of a personal name. Words such as Elohim (god, or authority), El (mighty one), El Shaddai (almighty), Adonai (master), Elyon (most high), Avinu (our father), are not names but titles, highlighting different aspects of YHWH and the various roles of God.

Names of God in Judaism
  • YHWH (Tetragrammaton) used most often in the Hebrew Bible
  • Ehyeh asher ehyeh (אהיה אשר אהיה I Am that I Am)  is the first of three responses given to Moses
  • Jehovah
  • El Roi
  • El (deity) the supreme god
  • Elyon “God Most High”
  • El Shaddai “God Almighty”
  • Elohim “god” or “gods”
  • Asherah Semitic mother goddess
  • Baal “master” or “lord”
  • Yahweh – the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah
  • Eloah (אלוהּ), singular feminine form of Elohim
  • Shekhinah
  • Tzevaot a common name and Rabbi Ishmael
  • Elohai or Elohei (“My God”) is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.
  • Jah theophoric names, such as Elijah or Adonijah
  • Adonai (אֲדֹנָי, “My Lords”) is the plural form of adon (“Lord”)
  • HaShem, השם, which is Hebrew for “the Name” (this appears in Leviticus 24:11)
  • Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of “Adonai” with the last syllable of “Hashem”‘, was quite common.
  • Elah (אֵלָה), (plural “elim”) is the Aramaic word for “awesome”.
  • Shalom = Peace
  • Hashem El Olam (“the Everlasting God”)

Artwork representing God the Father and the Holy Spirit decorates the altar area as Pope Francis celebrates Mass at the beach in Huanchaco, Peru.

Christianity

Main articles: Names of God in Christianity, and God in Catholicism
See also: Names And Titles Of Jesus In The New Testament

Divine names in the Bible are integral to God’s self-revelation. They are best studied along the Bible’s storyline using appropriate interpretive principles. God’s primary names, with many additional designations, are initially revealed in the Old Testament. With the coming of the Gospels, something new is revealed about God’s identity: Jesus Christ is included in his name, along with the Holy Spirit. The Bible teaches the Church how all people, Jews and Gentiles, can be related to the God whose name and identity (Trinity) is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Names of God in Christianity
The Old Testament Names

  • YHWH 
  • Yahweh The God who is always there
  • Jehovah
  • I Am that I Am 
  • El Shaddai “The Almighty God”
  • El Roi “God of Seeing”
  • El (deity) the supreme god
  • Elyon “God Most High”
  • Elohim The Creator God
  • Baal “master” or “lord”
  • Elah (אֵלָה), (plural “elim”)  “awesome”.
  • Hashem El Olam (“the Everlasting God”)
  • Adonai: The God who is in charge
  • El Olam: The Everlasting God
  • Jah derived from “Jehovah”
The New Testament Names

Islam

Main articles: Names of God in Islam, The All-Beautiful Names of God, and God’s 99 Names in Islam
See also: Ilah, Allah and God in Islam

Some verifying scholars have divided the Divine Names into the categories such as the Names indicating the Divine Essence, the Names originating in the Affirmative Divine Attributes, and the Names indicating the  Divine Acts. They have also regarded some Names as being the leaders or foundations of all the Names, and have made another categorization under the titles of the Names of Majesty and the Names of Grace. They have considered all the Names to be the foundation or source in which the truths of things originate or even these truths themselves, as well as being the means of all things being transferred from the Realm of the Unseen to the visible or manifest world through the Divine Knowledge, Wisdom, Will, and Power. Such scholars have stressed that these all-blessed Names are veils before the All-Sacred One Who is called by them. It is He alone Who knows the exact truth of everything, and what we must do is to believe in whatever He teaches us.

You will find below the most widely known Divine Names only with just brief definitions.

The All-Beautiful Names of God

The Names Indicating the Divine Essence
  • Allah: God, the Proper Name of the Divine Being
  • (Ar-)Rabb: The Lord (God as the Creator, Provider, Trainer, Upbringer, and Director of all creatures)
  • (Al-)Malik: The All-Sovereign, the Owner and Master of everything
  • (Al-)Quddūs: The All-Holy and All-Pure (Who is absolutely free of any defect)
  • (As-)Salam: The Supreme Author of peace and salvation
  • (Al-)Mu’min: The Supreme Author of safety and security
  • (Al-)Muhaymin: The All-Watchful Guardian
  • (Al-)‘Aziz: The All-Glorious with irresistible might
  • (Al-)Jabbar: The One Who manifests His Will and Grandeur
  • (Al-)Fard: The All-Independent, Single One (free from having any equals or likes in His Essence and Attributes)
  • (Al-)Mutakabbir: The One Who has exclusive right to all greatness and manifests it
  • (Al-)‘Aliyy: The All-Exalted
  • (Az-)Zahir: The All-Outward, Whose existence is the most manifest
  • (Al-)Batin: The All-Inward, Whose Essence cannot be comprehended
  • (Al-)Kabir: The All-Great
  • (Al-)Jalil: The All-Majestic and All-Supreme
  • (Al-)Majid: The All-Sublime, the All-Illustrious
  • (Al-)Haqq: The Ultimate Truth and Ever-Constant
  • (Al-)Matin: The All-Forceful and All-Able
  • (Al-)Wajid: The Ever-Present and All-Finding
  • (As-)Samad: The Eternally All-Besought, Himself being needy of nothing
  • (Al-)Awwal: The First Whom there is none that precedes
  • (Al-)Akhir: The Last Whom there is none that will outlive
  • (Al-)Muta‘ali: The All-Transcending
  • (Al-)Ghaniyy: The All-Wealthy and Self-Sufficient
  • (An-)Nur: The All-Light, Who is the unique source of all illumination
  • (Al-)Warith: The One Who survives all beings and inherits them
  • Dhu’l-Jalal wa’l-ikram: The One of absolute Majesty and Grace
  • (Ar-)Raqib: The All-Watchful
  • (Al-)Baqi: The Eternally All-Permanent
  • (Al-)Hamid: The All-Praiseworthy
  • (Al-)Wahid: The One of absolute Unity (Who is absolutely indivisible and having no partners and equals)
  • (Al-)Ahad: The All-Unique of Absolute Oneness (Who is beyond all kinds of human conceptions and absolutely free from having any partners, likes, parents, sons or daughters)
The Names Originating in Divine Attributes of Glory
  • (Al-)Hayy: The All-Living
  • (Ash-)Shakur: The All-Responsive (to the good and gratitude of His creatures)
  • (Al-)Qahhar: The All-Overwhelming (with absolute sway over all that exists)
  • (Al-)Qahir: The All-Overpowering, Who crushes those who deserve crushing
  • (Al-)Muqtadir: The All-Omnipotent
  • (Al-)Qawiyy: The All-Strong
  • (Al-)Murid: The All-Willing
  • (Al-)Qadir: The All-Powerful
  • (Ar-)Rahman: The All-Merciful (Who has mercy on the whole of existence and provides for all of them)
  • (Ar-)Rahim: The All-Compassionate (Who has particular compassion for each of His creatures in their maintenance, and for His believing servants especially in the other world)
  • (As-)Subhan: The All-Glorified
  • (As-)Sultan: The Absolute, Eternal Authority
  • (Al-)Karim: The All-Munificent
  • (Al-)Ghaffar: The Ever All-Forgiver
  • (Al-)Ghafur: The All-Forgiving
  • (Al-)Wadud: The All-Loving and All-Beloved
  • (Ar-)Rauf: The All-Pitying
  • (Al-)Halim: The All-Clement (showing no haste to punish the errors of His servants)
  • (Al-)Barr: The All-Benign
  • (As-)Sabur: The All-Patient (Whom no haste induces to rush into an action)
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Khabir: The All-Aware
  • (Al-)Muhsi: The All-Counting and Recording
  • (Al-)Hakim: The One Who does everything properly, the All-Wise
  • (Ash-)Shahid: The All-Witnessing
  • (As-)Sami‘: The All-Hearing
  • (Al-)Basir: The All-Seeing
  • (Al-)‘Afuww: The All-Pardoning (Who overlooks the faults of His servants and grants remission)
The Names of Majesty
  • (Al-)Kabir: The All-Great
  • (Al-)‘Aziz: The All-Glorious with irresistible might
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Jalil: The All-Majestic and All-Supreme
  • (Ad-)Dayyan: The Supreme Ruler and All-Requiting (of good and evil)
  • (Al-)Majid: The All-Sublime, the All-Illustrious
  • (Al-)Mumit: The One Who causes to die; the All-Dealing of death
  • (Ad-)Darr: The Creator of evil and harm
  • (Al-)Muntaqim: The All-Requiting
The Names Indicating Divine Acts
  • (Al-)Mubdi: The All-Initiating
  • (Al-)Wakil: The One to rely on and to Whom affairs should be entrusted
  • (Al-)Baith: The One Who restores life to the dead
  • (Al-)Mujib: The All-Answering (of prayers) and Meeting (of needs)
  • (Al-)Wasi‘: The All-Embracing (in His Knowledge and Mercy)
  • (Al-)Hasib: The All-Sufficing as One Who reckons and settles the accounts (of His servants)
  • (Al-)Mughis: The One Who gives extra help
  • (Al-)Hafiz: The All-Preserving and Keeper of records, the All-Protecting
  • (Al-)Khaliq: The Creator (Who determines measure for everything and makes things and beings exist out of nothing)
  • (as-)Sani‘: The Maker
  • (Al-)Bari: The All-Holy Creator (Who is absolutely free from having any partners and Who creates without imitating anything)
  • (Al-)Musawwir: The All-Fashioning
  • (Ar-)Razzaq: The All-Providing
  • (Al-)Wahhab: The All-Bestowing
  • (As-)Sattar: The All-Veiling (of His servants’ shortcomings and sins)
  • (Al-)Fatir: The AllOriginating (with a unique individuality)
  • (Al-)Fattah: The One Who opens the door of good
  • (An-)Nasir: The All-Helping and Giver of victory
  • (Al-)Kafi: The All-Sufficing
  • (Al-)Qabid: The All-Constricting; the One Who takes the souls of living beings
  • (Al-)Basit: The All-Expanding
  • (Al-)Hafid: The One Who lowers and humiliates whom He wills
  • (Ar-)Rafi‘: The All-Elevating
  • (Al-)Mu‘izz: The All-Exalting and Honoring
  • (Al-)Mudhill: The All-Abasing
  • (Al-)Hakam: The All-Judging (Who settles the matters between people)
  • (Al-)‘Adl: The All-Just
  • (Al-)Latif: The All-Subtle (penetrating into the minutest dimensions of all things and providing for all)
  • (Al-)Mu‘id: The All-Returning and Restoring (the One Who causes to die after life and returns the dead to life)
  • (Al-)Muhyi: The Giver of life and All-Reviving
  • (Al-)Mumit: The One Who causes to die; the All-Dealing of death
  • (Al-)Waliyy: The Guardian, the Protecting Friend (to rely on)
  • (At-)Tawwab: The One Who guides to repentance, accepts repentance, and returns it with liberal forgiveness and additional reward
  • (Al-)Muntaqim: The Ever-Able to requite
  • (Al-)Muqsit: The All-Dealing of justice
  • (Al-)Jami‘: The One having all excellences to the infinite degree; the All-Gathering
  • (Al-)Mughni: The All-Enriching
  • (Al-)Mani‘: The All-Preventing and Withdrawing; the One Who does not give whatever He does not will to give
  • (Ad-)Darr: The Creator of evil and harm
  • (An-)Nafi‘: The All-Favoring and Giver of benefits
  • (Al-)Hadi: The All-Guiding
  • (Al-)Badi‘: The One Who originates in unique fashion and with nothing preceding Him to imitate
  • (Ar-)Rashid: The All-Guide to what is correct
  • (Al-)Qayyūm: The Self-Subsisting (by Whom all subsist)
  • Maliku’l-mulk: The absolute Master of all dominion
  • (Al-)Mu‘akhkhir: The One Who leaves behind
  • (Al-)Muqaddim: The One Who causes to advance, Who moves things forward
  • (Al-)Muqit: The All-Aiding and Sustaining
  • (al-)Wali: The All-Governing
The Foundational Names
  • (Al-)Hayy: The All-Living
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Murid: The All-Willing
  • (Al-)Mutakallim: The All-Speaking
  • (Al-)Qadir: The All-Powerful
  • (Al-)Jawad: The All-Generous
  • (Al-)Muqsit: The All-Dealing of justice
The Names of Grace
  • (Ar-)Rahim: The All-Compassionate (Who has particular compassion for each of His creatures in their maintenance, and for His believing servants especially in the other world)
  • (Al-)Jamil: The All-Gracious and All-Beautiful
  • (As-)Salam: The Supreme Author of peace and salvation
  • (Al-)Muhyi: The Giver of life and All-Reviving
  • (Al-)Mu’min: The Supreme Author of safety and security
  • (Al-)Latif: The All-Subtle (penetrating into the minutest dimensions of all things and providing for all)
  • (Ar-)Razzaq: The All-Providing
  • (Al-)Khallaq: The Supreme Creator
  • (Al-)Awwal: The First (Whom there is none that precedes)
  • (Al-)Akhir: The Last (Whom there is none that will outlive)
  • (Az-)Zahir: The All-Outward, Whose existence is the most manifest
  • (Al-)Batin: The All-Inward, Whose Essence cannot be comprehended
  • (Al-)Qarib: The All-Near

Sufism

In Tasawwuf, the inner, mystical dimension of Islam, Hu, Huwa (depends on placement in sentence), or Parvardigar in Persian are used as names of God. The sound Hu derives from the last letter of the word Allah, which is read as Allahu when in the middle of a sentence. Hu means Just He or Revealed. The word explicitly appears in many verses of the Quran:

“La ilaha illa Hu”

— Family of Imran:18

Mandaeism

Mandaeans believe in one God called Hayyi Rabbi (The Great Life or The Great Living God). Other names for God used include Mare d’Rabuta (Lord of Greatness), Mana Rabba (The Great Mind), Melka d’Nhura (King of Light) and Hayyi Qadmaiyi (The First Life).

Chinese religions

In East Asia, Heaven (Tian) is the term most commonly used for God. The concept of Heaven as a power that was believed to judge both the world and its rulers came into currency in China during the Zhou dynasty (1122-255 B.C.E.). Heaven was conceived sometimes as a personal agent, sometimes as an impersonal force, or both. Evidence suggests that under the Zhou, Heaven was an all-powerful entity that guaranteed peace and justice within the kingdom so long as rulers maintained order and justice. If order and justice were not maintained, Heaven meted out punishment through natural and social disasters. The way in which the ruler was obligated to rule his empire in order to please Heaven was known as the Mandate of Heaven (Tian-Ming). Dealing with Heaven was principally the responsibility of the ruler. To maintain the mandate, the ruler (who came to be known as Tian-zi, the “Son of Heaven“) called upon Heaven with ritual and sacrifice.

The Hindu Trimurti — Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma (from left to right)

The Hindu Trimurti — Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma (from left to right)

Indian religions

See also: Om, and Japa

Hinduism

Main article: God in Hinduism

The Sanatana Dharma focuses only on formless God, as is described in the most authoritative texts such as the Mundakopanishad and Mandukuopanishad. In all vedic texts, God has been revered by the name Param Brahma, Brahmana (not to confuse with the caste), Parmatma (Supreme Soul), Parampita (Supreme Father), Parmaeshwara ( The Ultimate Governor). Besides, There are multiple names for God’s Various Forms worshiped as Deities (Devata and Devi) in Hinduism. Some of the popular names for these Deities in Hinduism are:

Deities in Hinduism
  • Krishna, कृष्ण Krishna is recognised as the complete and or as the Supreme God in his own right. Krishna is one of the most widely revered and popular of all Hindu deities.
  • Prabhu, प्रभु
  • Bhagavan, भगवान the most frequently used name for God in Hinduism.
  • Brahman, ब्रह्मन् the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world, which cannot be exactly defined.
  • Ishvara ईश्वर is a theological concept in Hinduism translating to “lord,” applied to the “Supreme Being” or God in the monotheistic sense, or as an Ishta-deva in monistic thought.
  • Brahma, ब्रह्मा is the Hindu god of creation and one of the Trimurti.
  • Vishnu विष्णु is the Supreme God of Vaishnavism, one of the three main sects of Hinduism.
  • Shiva शिव is the Supreme God of Shaivism, one of the three main sects of Hinduism
  • Shakti शक्ति represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism. And is the supreme God(dess) in Shaktism
  • Ganesha गणेश also known as Vighnaharta, son of Shiva and Shakti.
  • Lakshmi (लक्ष्मी, lakṣhmī) is the Goddess who leads to one’s goal (lakshya in Sanskrit), hence her name Lakshmi.
  • Rama or Ram (राम, Rāma) also known as Ramachandra (रामचन्द्र, Rāmacandra), is a major deity of Hinduism.
  • Dashavatara (दशावतारdaśāvatāra) refers to the ten primary (i.e. full or complete) incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation
  • Hanuman (हनुमान्, Hanumān) is a Hindu god and divine vanara companion of the god Rama.
  • Kaliकाली, Kālī), also known as Kālikā (कालिका) or Shyāmā (श्यामा), is a Hindu goddess.
  • Kalki also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga
  • Mahavidya Great Wisdoms) are a group of ten aspects of Adi Parashakti in Hinduism. After the decline of Buddhism in India, Sakta and Buddhist goddesses were combined to form this list of ten.
  • Trimurti or Trimūrti ( त्रिमूर्ति, trimūrti, “three forms”) is the Triple deity of supreme divinity in Hinduism

Arya Samaj

Main article: Satyarth Prakash

Maharishi Dayan and in his book Satyarth Prakash has listed 100 names of God each representing some property or attribute thereof mentioning “Om or Aum” as God’s personal and natural name.

Jainism

Main article: God in Jainism
See also: Rishabha and Tirthankara

Jainism rejects the idea of a creator deity responsible for the manifestation, creation, or maintenance of this universe. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents (soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion) have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws and an immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Jainism offers an elaborate cosmology, including heavenly beings (devas), but these beings are not viewed as creators; they are subject to suffering and change like all other living beings, and must eventually die.

Sikhism

There are multiple names for God in Sikhism. Some of the popular names for God in Sikhism are:

  • Akal Purakh, meaning timeless being.
  • Ik OnkarOne Creator
  • Nirankar, meaning formless
  • Satnam meaning True Name,
  • Waheguru, meaning Wonderful Teacher bringing light to remove darkness
  • Dātā or Dātār, meaning the Giver
  • Kartā or Kartār, meaning the Doer
  • Diāl, meaning compassionate
  • Kirpāl, meaning benevolent
  • Allah, meaning “The God”

Yazidism

Yazidism knows only one eternal God often named Xwedê. According to some Yazidi hymns (known as Qewls), God has 1001 names.

Zoroastrianism

Main article: 101 Names of God

In Zoroastrianism, 101 names of God (Pazand Sad-o-yak nam-i-khoda) is a list of names of God (Ahura Mazda). The list is preserved in Persian, Pazand and Gujarati. Parsi tradition expanded this to a list of “101 names of God”.

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