Outline of God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith.The conceptions of God, as described by theologians, commonly include the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (all-powerful), omnipresence (all-present), and omnibenevolent (all-good) as well as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one’s kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial). Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence (being outside nature) and immanence (being in nature) of God, with positions of synthesis such as the “immanent transcendence“. Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation.

Some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others use terminology that is gender-specific and gender-biased. God has been conceived as either personal or impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe. In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknown or unknowable. God has also been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the “greatest conceivable existent”. Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God.

Monotheistic religions refer to their god using various names, some referring to cultural ideas about their god’s identity and attributes. In ancient Egyptian Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten and proclaimed to be the one “true” Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, the names of God include Elohim, Adonai, YHWH (Hebrew: יהוה‎) and others. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, one God coexists in three “persons” called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims also use a multitude of titles for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor (first ancestor) of the universe, intrinsic to it and constantly bringing order to it. Other names for God include Baha in the Baháʼí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism, and Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism.

Sun Dawn Nature Bright Light Sunset Illuminated

Sun shining

Existence of God

Main article: Philosophy of religion

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.

A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of God involves the disciplines of epistemology (the nature and scope of knowledge) and ontology (study of the nature of being, existence, or reality) and the theory of value (since some definitions of God include “perfection”).

FAQ about God

God’s existence in Sufism

Arguments for God’s existence

Arguments or proofs for the Existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. These arguments have an epistemological dimension (how can one know that God exists?) and an ontological dimension (what is the nature of God’s being?).

Arguments against God’s existence

Arguments against the existence of God (atheism) range from philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, and the argument from nonbelief.

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Conceptions of God

Main article: Conceptions of God
See also: Image of God

Conceptions of God in monotheistpantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction:

  • as a powerful, human-like, supernatural being, or as the deification of an esoteric, mystical or philosophical entity or category;
  • as the “Ultimate”, the summum bonum, the “Absolute Infinite”, the “Transcendent“, or Existence or Being itself;
  • as the ground of being, the monistic substrate, that which we cannot understand; and so on.

General conceptions about God

The first recordings that survive of monotheistic conceptions of God, borne out of henotheism and (mostly in Eastern religionsmonism, are from the Hellenistic period. Of the many objects and entities that religions and other belief systems across the ages have labeled as divine, the one criterion they share is their acknowledgement as divine by a group or groups of human beings.

Specific conceptions

God is absolutely other than His creation. The Creator cannot by any means be the same kind of being as that which He created. Although this is self-evident to sense and reason, some people still ask why we cannot directly see God.

The Abrahamic God in this sense is the conception of God that remains a common attribute of all three traditions. God is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence.

 

Singular God

Binitarianism

Other views

Finger Forefinger Gesture Up Pointing Point

A single raised index finger, around the world means symbolizing Tawhid.

Trinitarianism

Atheism and Non-theistic views

Non-theist views about God also vary. Some non-theists avoid the concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations.

General atheism concepts

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.

Related positions

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.

Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.

History of atheism

What type of thing is atheism?

Types of atheism

Atheism publications

Persons influential in atheism

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God’s Attributes

Main article: The Attributes of God

Different religious traditions assign differing (though often similar) attributes and characteristics to God, including expansive powers and abilities, psychological characteristics, gender characteristics, and preferred nomenclature. The assignment of these attributes often differs according to the conceptions of God in the culture from which they arise. For example, attributes of God in Christianity, attributes of God in Islam, and the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy in Judaism share certain similarities arising from their common roots.

The philosophy of religion recognizes the following as essential attributes of God:

Attributes of God in Christianity

When we speak of the attributes of God in Christianity, we are talking about those characteristics that helps us to understand who He truly is.

The most common way to classify God’s attributes divides them into:

  • Incommunicable attributes (traits that God doesn’t share or “communicate” to others)
  • Communicable attributes (traits that God shares or “communicates” with us).

God’s incommunicable attributes

  • Aseity (God is so independent that he does not need us)
  • Eternal nature (God is infinite, but we are finite)
  • Holiness (He is separate from sin and incorruptible)
  • Immanence (divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world)
  • Impassibility  (God does not experience pain or pleasure from the actions of another being)
  • Immutability (he never changes, but we do)
  • Infinity (God includes both his Eternity and his immensity)
  • Impeccability (God cannot sin)
  • Incomprehensibility (Acatalepsy; God is not able to be fully known)
  • Incorporeality (Not composed of matter; having no material existence)
  • Mystery (God only reveals certain knowledge to the human race. “God is ultimate mystery.”)
  • Omnibenevolence (“unlimited or infinite benevolence”
  • Omnipotence (All powerful, Almighty)
  • Omnipresence (God is everywhere at once, but we can only be in one place at a time)
  • Omniscience (God has the capacity to know everything including the future)
  • Oneness (The oneness, or unity of God refers to his being one and only)
  • Simplicity (God is not partly this and partly that, but that whatever he is, he is so entirely.)
  • Transcendence (Wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws)

God’s communicable attributes

  • Goodness (“God is the final standard of good, and all that God is and does is worthy of approval.”)
  • Graciousness (“the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it”)
  • Jealousy (God “zeal to protect a love relationship or to avenge it when broken”)
  • Justice (God is just, and we’re capable of justice)
  • Love (God is love, and we’re capable of love)
  • Knowledge (God has knowledge, and we can have it, too)
  • Mercy (God is merciful, and we’re also capable of mercy)
  • Mission (Christian Mission is not primarily an activity of the church, but an attribute of God)
  • Righteousness  (God’s holiness, to his justice, or to his saving activity)
  • Providence (God‘s intervention in the Universe. God’s care for the universe)
  • Sovereignty  (God being in complete control as he directs all things)
  • Trinity (The relationship of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit described in the Bible)
  • Veracity (“God, who does not lie.”)
  • Wrat (“God’s wrath is his love in action against sin.”)

Attributes of God Judaism

The single attributes are contained in the verses as follows:

  1. יְהוָה YHVH: compassion before a person sins;
  2. יְהוָה YHVH: compassion after a person has sinned;
  3. אֵל El: mighty in compassion to give all creatures according to their need;
  4. רַחוּם Raḥum: merciful, that humankind may not be distressed;
  5. וְחַנּוּן VeḤanun: and gracious if humankind is already in distress;
  6. אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם Erekh appayim: slow to anger;
  7. וְרַב-חֶסֶד VeRav ḥesed: and plenteous in kindness;
  8. וֶאֱמֶת VeEmet: and truth;
  9. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים Notzer ḥesed laalafim: keeping kindness unto thousands;
  10. נֹשֵׂא עָוֹן Noseh avon: forgiving iniquity;
  11. וָפֶשַׁע VaFeshah: and transgression;
  12. וְחַטָּאָה VeḤata’ah: and sin;
  13. וְנַקֵּה VeNakeh: and pardoning.

Attributes of God Islam

According to the religious methodology or the basic principles of religion, the Attributes of God in Islam consist of certain transcending and blessed concepts—whose transcendence and blessedness come from the Being Whom they describe; these describe God Almighty and are, in one sense, regarded as the veils of the Divine Essence. These blessed concepts, mentioned as the Attributes of the Divine Being, are either in the form of nouns, infinitives, adverbs, or of adjectives.

Attributes of God in Islam divided into 5 categories;

The Attributes of Exemption

God Almighty is absolutely free or exempt from any:

  • need
  • defect
  • fault
  • shortcoming
  • impotence
  • poverty
  • neediness
  • the need to eat or drink
  • to beget or be begotten

The Essential Attributes

  • (The All-Holy, Self-) Existence (Wujud)
  • Oneness (Wahdaniyya)
  • Having No Beginning (Qidam)
  • Eternal Permanence (Baqa’)
  • Being Unlike the Created (Muhalafatun lil-hawadith)
  • Self-Subsistence (Qiyam bi-nafsihi)

 

 

Affirmative Attributes

  • Life (Hayah)
  • Knowledge (‘Ilm)
  • Hearing (Sam‘a)
  • Sight (Basar)
  • Will (Irada)
  • Power (Qudra)
  • Speech (Kalam)
  • Making Exist (Takwin)

The  Attributes of Action

  • Creation (Khalq)
  • Originating Uniquely (Ibda’)
  • Producing (Insha’)
  • Giving Life and Reviving, and Causing to Die (Ihya’ and Imata)
  • Providing (Tarziq)

 

God’s Figurative Attributes

  • Coming” in And Your Lord comes (89:22);
  • Self-Establishment” in The All-Merciful, Who has established Himself on the Supreme Throne (20:5), which means God’s subjugating the creation to His command, manifesting His Sovereignty, Grandeur, and Power;
  • Avoidance” in God avoids but completing His light (9:32);
  • Self” in He has bound Himself to mercy (6:12), And I have attached you to Myself (20:41), and in the Prophetic saying, “You are as You have praised Yourself;” and the Prophetic quotation from God, “Surely I have made wrongdoing unlawful for Myself.”
  • Wrath” in God has become wrathful with them (4:93), which means punishment and condemnation;
  • Hand” in verses such as God’s hand is over their hands (48:10), and All grace is in God’s hand (57:29), which means power, ownership, control and disposal, and help;
  • Face” in verses such as Everything is perishable except His Face (28:88), But there remains forever the Face of Your Lord (55:27), and We feed you only for the sake of God’s Face” (76:9), which means the Divine Being Himself or God’s approval and good pleasure.
  • Saying” in verses like: When your Lord said to the angels (2:30);
  • Speaking” in His Lord spoke to him (7:143);
  • All-Hearing, All-Seeing” in the Divine declaration, Surely God is All-Hearing, All-Seeing (22:75);
  • Companionship” which is understood from God is with You (47:35); and
  • Footing” in They have a sure footing with their Lord (10:2),
  • “Asking” in “He asks the angels;”
  • Ordering” and “Prohibiting” in the Prophetic sayings where we see the phrases “He orders” and “He prohibits;”
  • Witnessing” in the sayings where the phrase “He witnesses” is mentioned;
  • Moving Speedily” in the sayings such as “He moves speedily to respond with favor;”
  • Approaching” in such sayings as “He immediately approaches with favor;”
  • Descending” in the sayings such as “He descends to the heaven of the world,” and several other concepts such as:
  • Loving, Becoming Wrathful, the Best Form, Exhilaration, Smiling, Grasping, Contracting, Expanding, Struggling, Feeling Wonder, Showing Care, Heed and Sensitivity, Being with or Companionship” in the Prophetic say­ings where we see the phrases, “He loves; He becomes wrathful; He is seen in the Best Form; He exhilarates; He smiles; He grasps; He expands; He struggles; He feels wonder; There is none more careful and sensitive than God,” and “I am with him when he mentions Me,” respectively.

dividerGender of God

The gender of God may be viewed as either a literal or an allegorical aspect of a deity who, in classical western philosophy, transcends bodily form. Polytheistic religions commonly attribute to each of the gods a gender, allowing each to interact with any of the others, and perhaps with humans, sexually. In most monotheistic religions, God has no counterpart with which to relate sexually. Thus, in classical western philosophy the gender of this one-and-only deity is most likely to be an analogical statement of how humans and God address, and relate to, each other. Namely, God is seen as begetter of the world and revelation which corresponds to the active (as opposed to the receptive) role in sexual intercourse.

dividerNames of God

A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word “God” (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms “god” and “God“.

Names of God in Judaism

  • Shekhinah
  • Tzevaot a common name and Rabbi Ishmael
  • Elohai or Elohei (“My God”) is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.
  • Jah theophoric names, such as Elijah or Adonijah
  • Adonai (אֲדֹנָי, “My Lords”) is the plural form of adon (“Lord”)
  • HaShem, השם, which is Hebrew for “the Name” (this appears in Leviticus 24:11)
  • Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of “Adonai” with the last syllable of “Hashem”‘, was quite common.
  • Elah (אֵלָה), (plural “elim”) is the Aramaic word for “awesome”.
  • Shalom = Peace
  • Hashem El Olam (“the Everlasting God”)

Names of God in Christianity

The Old Testament Names

  • YHWH 
  • Yahweh The God who is always there
  • Jehovah
  • I Am that I Am 
  • El Shaddai “The Almighty God”
  • El Roi “God of Seeing”
  • El (deity) the supreme god
  • Elyon “God Most High”
  • Elohim The Creator God
  • Baal “master” or “lord”
  • Elah (אֵלָה), (plural “elim”)  “awesome”.
  • Hashem El Olam (“the Everlasting God”)
  • Adonai: The God who is in charge
  • El Olam: The Everlasting God
  • Jah derived from “Jehovah”
The New Testament Names

Names of God in Islam

The All-Beautiful Names of God

The Names Indicating the Divine Essence

  • Allah: God, the Proper Name of the Divine Being
  • (Ar-)Rabb: The Lord (God as the Creator, Provider, Trainer, Upbringer, and Director of all creatures)
  • (Al-)Malik: The All-Sovereign, the Owner and Master of everything
  • (Al-)Quddūs: The All-Holy and All-Pure (Who is absolutely free of any defect)
  • (As-)Salam: The Supreme Author of peace and salvation
  • (Al-)Mu’min: The Supreme Author of safety and security
  • (Al-)Muhaymin: The All-Watchful Guardian
  • (Al-)‘Aziz: The All-Glorious with irresistible might
  • (Al-)Jabbar: The One Who manifests His Will and Grandeur
  • (Al-)Fard: The All-Independent, Single One (free from having any equals or likes in His Essence and Attributes)
  • (Al-)Mutakabbir: The One Who has exclusive right to all greatness and manifests it
  • (Al-)‘Aliyy: The All-Exalted
  • (Az-)Zahir: The All-Outward, Whose existence is the most manifest
  • (Al-)Batin: The All-Inward, Whose Essence cannot be comprehended
  • (Al-)Kabir: The All-Great
  • (Al-)Jalil: The All-Majestic and All-Supreme
  • (Al-)Majid: The All-Sublime, the All-Illustrious
  • (Al-)Haqq: The Ultimate Truth and Ever-Constant
  • (Al-)Matin: The All-Forceful and All-Able
  • (Al-)Wajid: The Ever-Present and All-Finding
  • (As-)Samad: The Eternally All-Besought, Himself being needy of nothing
  • (Al-)Awwal: The First Whom there is none that precedes
  • (Al-)Akhir: The Last Whom there is none that will outlive
  • (Al-)Muta‘ali: The All-Transcending
  • (Al-)Ghaniyy: The All-Wealthy and Self-Sufficient
  • (An-)Nur: The All-Light, Who is the unique source of all illumination
  • (Al-)Warith: The One Who survives all beings and inherits them
  • Dhu’l-Jalal wa’l-ikram: The One of absolute Majesty and Grace
  • (Ar-)Raqib: The All-Watchful
  • (Al-)Baqi: The Eternally All-Permanent
  • (Al-)Hamid: The All-Praiseworthy
  • (Al-)Wahid: The One of absolute Unity (Who is absolutely indivisible and having no partners and equals)
  • (Al-)Ahad: The All-Unique of Absolute Oneness (Who is beyond all kinds of human conceptions and absolutely free from having any partners, likes, parents, sons or daughters)

The Names Originating in Divine Attributes of Glory

  • (Al-)Hayy: The All-Living
  • (Ash-)Shakur: The All-Responsive (to the good and gratitude of His creatures)
  • (Al-)Qahhar: The All-Overwhelming (with absolute sway over all that exists)
  • (Al-)Qahir: The All-Overpowering, Who crushes those who deserve crushing
  • (Al-)Muqtadir: The All-Omnipotent
  • (Al-)Qawiyy: The All-Strong
  • (Al-)Murid: The All-Willing
  • (Al-)Qadir: The All-Powerful
  • (Ar-)Rahman: The All-Merciful (Who has mercy on the whole of existence and provides for all of them)
  • (Ar-)Rahim: The All-Compassionate (Who has particular compassion for each of His creatures in their maintenance, and for His believing servants especially in the other world)
  • (As-)Subhan: The All-Glorified
  • (As-)Sultan: The Absolute, Eternal Authority
  • (Al-)Karim: The All-Munificent
  • (Al-)Ghaffar: The Ever All-Forgiver
  • (Al-)Ghafur: The All-Forgiving
  • (Al-)Wadud: The All-Loving and All-Beloved
  • (Ar-)Rauf: The All-Pitying
  • (Al-)Halim: The All-Clement (showing no haste to punish the errors of His servants)
  • (Al-)Barr: The All-Benign
  • (As-)Sabur: The All-Patient (Whom no haste induces to rush into an action)
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Khabir: The All-Aware
  • (Al-)Muhsi: The All-Counting and Recording
  • (Al-)Hakim: The One Who does everything properly, the All-Wise
  • (Ash-)Shahid: The All-Witnessing
  • (As-)Sami‘: The All-Hearing
  • (Al-)Basir: The All-Seeing
  • (Al-)‘Afuww: The All-Pardoning (Who overlooks the faults of His servants and grants remission)

The Names of Majesty

  • (Al-)Kabir: The All-Great
  • (Al-)‘Aziz: The All-Glorious with irresistible might
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Jalil: The All-Majestic and All-Supreme
  • (Ad-)Dayyan: The Supreme Ruler and All-Requiting (of good and evil)
  • (Al-)Majid: The All-Sublime, the All-Illustrious
  • (Al-)Mumit: The One Who causes to die; the All-Dealing of death
  • (Ad-)Darr: The Creator of evil and harm
  • (Al-)Muntaqim: The All-Requiting

The Names Indicating Divine Acts

  • (Al-)Mubdi: The All-Initiating
  • (Al-)Wakil: The One to rely on and to Whom affairs should be entrusted
  • (Al-)Baith: The One Who restores life to the dead
  • (Al-)Mujib: The All-Answering (of prayers) and Meeting (of needs)
  • (Al-)Wasi‘: The All-Embracing (in His Knowledge and Mercy)
  • (Al-)Hasib: The All-Sufficing as One Who reckons and settles the accounts (of His servants)
  • (Al-)Mughis: The One Who gives extra help
  • (Al-)Hafiz: The All-Preserving and Keeper of records, the All-Protecting
  • (Al-)Khaliq: The Creator (Who determines measure for everything and makes things and beings exist out of nothing)
  • (as-)Sani‘: The Maker
  • (Al-)Bari: The All-Holy Creator (Who is absolutely free from having any partners and Who creates without imitating anything)
  • (Al-)Musawwir: The All-Fashioning
  • (Ar-)Razzaq: The All-Providing
  • (Al-)Wahhab: The All-Bestowing
  • (As-)Sattar: The All-Veiling (of His servants’ shortcomings and sins)
  • (Al-)Fatir: The AllOriginating (with a unique individuality)
  • (Al-)Fattah: The One Who opens the door of good
  • (An-)Nasir: The All-Helping and Giver of victory
  • (Al-)Kafi: The All-Sufficing
  • (Al-)Qabid: The All-Constricting; the One Who takes the souls of living beings
  • (Al-)Basit: The All-Expanding
  • (Al-)Hafid: The One Who lowers and humiliates whom He wills
  • (Ar-)Rafi‘: The All-Elevating
  • (Al-)Mu‘izz: The All-Exalting and Honoring
  • (Al-)Mudhill: The All-Abasing
  • (Al-)Hakam: The All-Judging (Who settles the matters between people)
  • (Al-)‘Adl: The All-Just
  • (Al-)Latif: The All-Subtle (penetrating into the minutest dimensions of all things and providing for all)
  • (Al-)Mu‘id: The All-Returning and Restoring (the One Who causes to die after life and returns the dead to life)
  • (Al-)Muhyi: The Giver of life and All-Reviving
  • (Al-)Mumit: The One Who causes to die; the All-Dealing of death
  • (Al-)Waliyy: The Guardian, the Protecting Friend (to rely on)
  • (At-)Tawwab: The One Who guides to repentance, accepts repentance, and returns it with liberal forgiveness and additional reward
  • (Al-)Muntaqim: The Ever-Able to requite
  • (Al-)Muqsit: The All-Dealing of justice
  • (Al-)Jami‘: The One having all excellences to the infinite degree; the All-Gathering
  • (Al-)Mughni: The All-Enriching
  • (Al-)Mani‘: The All-Preventing and Withdrawing; the One Who does not give whatever He does not will to give
  • (Ad-)Darr: The Creator of evil and harm
  • (An-)Nafi‘: The All-Favoring and Giver of benefits
  • (Al-)Hadi: The All-Guiding
  • (Al-)Badi‘: The One Who originates in unique fashion and with nothing preceding Him to imitate
  • (Ar-)Rashid: The All-Guide to what is correct
  • (Al-)Qayyūm: The Self-Subsisting (by Whom all subsist)
  • Maliku’l-mulk: The absolute Master of all dominion
  • (Al-)Mu‘akhkhir: The One Who leaves behind
  • (Al-)Muqaddim: The One Who causes to advance, Who moves things forward
  • (Al-)Muqit: The All-Aiding and Sustaining
  • (al-)Wali: The All-Governing

The Foundational Names

  • (Al-)Hayy: The All-Living
  • (Al-)‘Alim: The All-Knowing
  • (Al-)Murid: The All-Willing
  • (Al-)Mutakallim: The All-Speaking
  • (Al-)Qadir: The All-Powerful
  • (Al-)Jawad: The All-Generous
  • (Al-)Muqsit: The All-Dealing of justice

The Names of Grace

  • (Ar-)Rahim: The All-Compassionate (Who has particular compassion for each of His creatures in their maintenance, and for His believing servants especially in the other world)
  • (Al-)Jamil: The All-Gracious and All-Beautiful
  • (As-)Salam: The Supreme Author of peace and salvation
  • (Al-)Muhyi: The Giver of life and All-Reviving
  • (Al-)Mu’min: The Supreme Author of safety and security
  • (Al-)Latif: The All-Subtle (penetrating into the minutest dimensions of all things and providing for all)
  • (Ar-)Razzaq: The All-Providing
  • (Al-)Khallaq: The Supreme Creator
  • (Al-)Awwal: The First (Whom there is none that precedes)
  • (Al-)Akhir: The Last (Whom there is none that will outlive)
  • (Az-)Zahir: The All-Outward, Whose existence is the most manifest
  • (Al-)Batin: The All-Inward, Whose Essence cannot be comprehended
  • (Al-)Qarib: The All-Near

Zoroastrianism

Indian religions

Hinduism

  • Devata
  • Devi
  • Krishna, कृष्ण Krishna is recognised as the complete and or as the Supreme God in his own right. Krishna is one of the most widely revered and popular of all Hindu deities.
  • Prabhu, प्रभु
  • Bhagavan, भगवान the most frequently used name for God in Hinduism.
  • Brahman, ब्रह्मन् the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world, which cannot be exactly defined.
  • Ishvara ईश्वर is a theological concept in Hinduism translating to “lord,” applied to the “Supreme Being” or God in the monotheistic sense, or as an Ishta-deva in monistic thought.
  • Brahma, ब्रह्मा is the Hindu god of creation and one of the Trimurti.
  • Vishnu विष्णु is the Supreme God of Vaishnavism, one of the three main sects of Hinduism.
  • Shiva शिव is the Supreme God of Shaivism, one of the three main sects of Hinduism
  • Shakti शक्ति represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism. And is the supreme God(dess) in Shaktism
  • Ganesha गणेश also known as Vighnaharta, son of Shiva and Shakti.
  • Lakshmi (लक्ष्मी, lakṣhmī) is the Goddess who leads to one’s goal (lakshya in Sanskrit), hence her name Lakshmi.
  • Rama or Ram (राम, Rāma) also known as Ramachandra (रामचन्द्र, Rāmacandra), is a major deity of Hinduism.
  • Dashavatara (दशावतारdaśāvatāra) refers to the ten primary (i.e. full or complete) incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation
  • Hanuman (हनुमान्, Hanumān) is a Hindu god and divine vanara companion of the god Rama.
  • Kaliकाली, Kālī), also known as Kālikā (कालिका) or Shyāmā (श्यामा), is a Hindu goddess.
  • Kalki also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga
  • Mahavidya Great Wisdoms) are a group of ten aspects of Adi Parashakti in Hinduism. After the decline of Buddhism in India, Sakta and Buddhist goddesses were combined to form this list of ten.
  • Trimurti or Trimūrti ( त्रिमूर्ति, trimūrti, “three forms”) is the Triple deity of supreme divinity in Hinduism

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dividerGod in Religions

Throughout history, the vast majority of people in the world have believed in a God. Yet, although notions of an absolute divine power are found in virtually all of the world’s religions, the precise definition of what God is (and “is for us”) varies greatly among the religions, within specific sects, and even from person to person. Typically, monotheistic theology describes God as omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent (and in most theologies, immutable), as well as both the creator and sustainer of the universe. God may be understood as male, as female, as both male and female, or as beyond gender (such as an impersonal abstract power or energy).

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