Zarathushtra, Mani, And The Cathars

Zarathushtra, Mani, And The Cathars The word that wounds is this: When a man speaks a word for the sake of the killing of a man or the killing of beasts or the killing of trees and the “Cross of Light,” the lying word, and that of anger and that...

Zarathushtra

Who Is Zarathushtra (Zoroaster)? Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra (, Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, زرتشت‎) was an ancient Iranian spiritual leader who founded what is now known as Zoroastrianism. His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He...

Buddhist Modernism

What Is Buddhist Modernism? Buddhist modernism (also referred to as modern Buddhism,[1] modernist Buddhism[2] and Neo-Buddhism[3]) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.[4][5][6] David McMahan states that modernism in Buddhism is similar to those found in other religions. The sources of influences have variously been an engagement of Buddhist communities and teachers with the...

Early Islamic Philosophy

What Is Early Islamic Philosophy? Main article: Islamic philosophy Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE). The period is known as the Islamic Golden Age, and...

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Idealism

What Is Idealism? In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to materialism, idealism asserts...

Kapila

Who Is Kapila? Kapila (कपिल) is a given name of different individuals in ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most well-known is the founder of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.[1][2] Kapila of Samkhya fame is considered a Vedic sage,[2][3] estimated to have lived in the 6th-century BCE,[4] or the 7th-century BCE.[5] Rishi Kapila is...

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Positivism and Rationalism

Positivism and Rationalism What should be Our Attitude against Positivism and Rationalism? How much Truth in them? Main articles: Positivism, Rationalism Much has been said on the issue of information sources. Some of the people who have commented on this issue have sometimes been restricted by their knowledge and/or faith,...

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Kalam

What Is Kalam? Ilm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام‎, literally “science of discourse”),[1] usually foreshortened to Kalām and sometimes called “Islamic scholastic theology”,[2] is the study of Islamic doctrine (‘aqa’id).[2] It was born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors.[3] A scholar of Kalām is referred to as a mutakallim (plural: mutakallimūn), and it’s a role...

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Just War Theory

Just War Theory Just war theory (jus bellum justum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers. The purpose of the doctrine is to ensure war is morally justifiable through a series of criteria, all of which must...

Christianity And Science

Christianity And Science Most sources of knowledge available to early Christians were connected to pagan world-views. There were various opinions on how Christianity should regard pagan learning, which included its ideas about nature. For instance, among early Christian teachers, Tertullian (c. 160–220) held a generally negative opinion of Greek philosophy, while Origen (c. 185–254) regarded...

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Problem Of Religious Language

Problem Of Religious Language The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted. Because these traditional conceptions of God make it difficult to describe God, religious language has the potential to be meaningless. Theories...

Philosophy of Religion

What Is Philosophy of Religion? Philosophy of religion is “the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions.” These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy. The field is related to many other branches of philosophy,...

Science In The Medieval Islamic World

Science In The Medieval Islamic World Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period roughly between...

Religious And Philosophical Views Of Albert Einstein

Religious And Philosophical Views Of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein‘s religious views have been widely studied and often misunderstood.[1] Einstein stated that he believed in the pantheistic God of Baruch Spinoza.[2] He did not believe in a personal God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings, a view which he described as naïve.[3] He clarified however...

Hermeticism

What Is Hermeticism? Hermeticism, also called Hermetism,[1][2] is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus (“thrice-greatest Hermes”).[3] These writings have greatly influenced the Western esoteric tradition and were considered to be of great importance during both the Renaissance[4] and the Reformation.[5] The tradition traces its origin to a prisca theologia, a doctrine that affirms the existence of...

Epikoros

Who is Epikoros? Epikoros (or Apikoros or Apikores or Epicurus; אפיקורוס, lit. “Heretic”, pl. Epicorsim ) is a Jewish term cited in the Mishnah, referring to one who does not have a share in the world to come: “All Israel have a share in the world to come as states:...

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Criticism Of Buddhism

Criticism Of Buddhism Criticism of Buddhism has taken numerous different forms, including that its practitioners act in ways contrary to Buddhist principles or that those principles systemically marginalize women. There are many sources of criticism, both ancient and modern, stemming from other religions, the non-religious, and other Buddhists. Criticism of...

Jain Vegetarianism

Jain Vegetarianism Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy. It is one of the most rigorous forms of spiritually motivated diet on the Indian subcontinent and beyond. The Jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and also excludes underground vegetables such as potato, garlic, onion etc, to prevent injuring small insects and...

Kshanti

Kshanti Kshanti or khanti is patience, forbearance and forgiveness.[1] It is one of the pāramitās in both Theravāda and Mahāyāna Buddhism. Canonical sources Examples in the Pāli canon identify using forbearance in response to others’ anger, cuckolding, torture and even fatal assaults. Dhammapada verses Khanti is the first word of the Ovada-Patimokkha Gatha (Pāli for “Patimokkha Exhortation Verse”), also found in the Dhammapada, verse 184: Patient endurance: the foremost austerity....

What Is Sabr?

Sabr (Patience) Sabr (صَبْرٌ‎, ṣabr) (literally ‘endurance’ or more accurately ‘perseverance’ and ‘persistence’[1]) is one of the two parts of faith (the other being shukr).[2] It teaches to remain spiritually steadfast and to keep doing good actions in the personal and collective domain, specifically when facing opposition or encountering problems, setbacks, or unexpected and unwanted...

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