Gnosticism, a prominent heretical movement of the 2nd-century Christian Church, partly of pre-Christian origin. Gnostic doctrine taught that the world was created and ruled by a lesser divinity, the demiurge, and that Christ was an emissary of the remote supreme divine being, esoteric knowledge (gnosis) of whom enabled the redemption of the human spirit.

Sophia in Gnosticism

Sophia in Gnosticism Sophia (“Wisdom”, “the Sophia”[1]) is a major theme, along with Knowledge (gnosis, Coptic sooun), among many of the early Christian knowledge-theologies grouped by the heresiologist Irenaeus as gnostikos, “learned”. Gnosticism is a 17th-century term expanding the definition of Irenaeus’ groups to include other syncretic and mystery religions.[2] In gnosticism, Sophia is a feminine...

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Idealism

What Is Idealism? In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to materialism, idealism asserts...

Augustine of Hippo was once a Manichaean.

Prince of Darkness (Manichaeism)

Prince of Darkness in Manichaeism Manichaean cosmology, the world of darkness, which invaded the world of light in a lustful desire to mingle with the light, is ruled by five evil Archons(demon, dragon, eagle, fish and lion), who together make up the Prince of Darkness.[1] The Father of greatness parries the assault by evoking a number of entities, who sacrifice themselves and are...

Transcendental Idealism

Transcendental Idealism Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. Kant’s doctrine maintains that human experience of things is similar to the way they appear to us—implying a fundamentally subject-based component, rather than being an activity that directly (and therefore without any obvious causal link) comprehends the things...

Subjective Idealism

Subjective Idealism Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist. It entails and is generally identified or associated with immaterialism, the doctrine that material things do not exist. Subjective idealism rejects dualism, neutral monism, and materialism; indeed, it is the contrary of eliminative materialism, the doctrine that...

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Soul Dualism

What Is Soul Dualism? Soul dualism or multiple souls is a range of beliefs that a person has two or more kinds of souls. In many cases, one of the souls is associated with body functions (“body soul”) and the other one can leave the body (“free soul” or “wandering soul”). Sometimes the...

Objective Idealism

Objective Idealism Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived. One important advocate of such a metaphysics, Josiah Royce (the founder of American idealism),[1] wrote that he was indifferent “whether anybody calls all this Theism or Pantheism”. It is distinct...

Neutral Monism

Neutral Monism In the philosophy of mind, neutral monism is the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves “neutral”, that is, neither physical nor mental.[1] This view denies that the mental and the physical are two fundamentally different things. Rather,...

Dualistic Cosmology

What Is Dualistic Cosmology? Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other. It is an umbrella term that covers a diversity of views from various religions, including both traditional religions and scriptural religions. Moral dualism is the belief of the...

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Dualism

What Is Dualism? Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning “two”) denotes a state of two parts. The term ‘dualism‘ was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition, a meaning that is preserved in metaphysical and philosophical duality discourse but has been diluted in general or common usages. Dualism can...

Absolute Idealism

Absolute Idealism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy “chiefly associated with Friedrich Schelling and G. W. F. Hegel, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel”.[1][2] It is Hegel’s account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole (das Absolute)....

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